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* 


J^^^ 


"  L.  ^ 


THE 


PHARSALIA 


L    U     C     A    N 

L 


LITERALLY  TRANSLATED  INTO  ENGLISH  PROSF, 
WITH  COPIOUS  NOTES. 


H.  T.  RILEY,  B.A., 

LATE   SCHOLAR  OF   CLARE   HALL,    CAMBRIDGE. 


LONDON: 
HENRY  G.  BOHN,  YORK  STREET,  COVENT  GARDEN. 

MDCCCLIII. 


PEEFACE. 


IN  the  following  Translation,  the  text  of  Weise  has  been 
adopted,  except  ha  a  few  instances,  where  the  readings  of 
.Cortius,  Weher,  or  the  older  Commentators,  appeared  pre- 
ferable. It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that,  notwithstanding 
their  labours,  the  text  still  remains  in  a  corrupt  state. 

The  Pharsalia  has  not  been  previously  translated  into 
English  prose ;  but  there  have  been  two  poetical  versions, 
one  by  Thomas  May,  in  1627,  the  other  by  Nicholas  Kowe. 
The  latter  is  too  well  known  to  require  comment ;  the 
former,  though  replete  with  the  quaint  expressions  pe- 
culiar to  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  has  the 
merit  of  adhering  closely  to  the  original,  and  is  remark- 
able for  its  accuracy. 

The  present  translation  has  been  made  on  the  same 
principle  as  those  of  Ovid  and  Plautus  in  the  CLASSICAL 
LIBRARY  ;  it  is  strictly  literal,  and  is  intended  to  be  a  faith- 
ful reflex,  not  only  of  the  author's  meaning,  but,  as  nearly 
as  possible,  of  his  actual  modes  of  expression. 

To  enhance  the  value  of  the  work  in  an  historical  point 
of  view,  the  narrative  has  been  illustrated  by  a  compari- 
son With  parallel  passages  in  the  Commentaries  of  Csesar, 
and  the  works  of  other  ancient  historians  who  have 
treated  of  the  wars  between  Pompey  and  Csesar. 

H.  T.  R. 


CONTENTS. 


BOOK  I.  Page 

The  nature  of  the  subject,  1-7.  The  lamentable  character  of  the 
warfare,  8-32.  The  Poet  addresses  Nero,  33-66.  The  causes  of 
the  war,  67-97.  The  rivalry  between  Pompey  and  Caesar  after  the 
death  of  Crassus,  98-157.  The  luxury  of  Rome,  158-182.  Caesar 
crosses  the  Rubicon,  and  takes  possession  of  Ariminum,  183-230. 
The  complaints  of  the  inhabitants  of  those  parts  that  they  are  the 
first  to  feel  the  effects  of  every  war,  231-260.  Curio,  being  expelled 
from  Rome,  comes  to  Caesar's  camp,  and  entreats  him  to  march  against 
Rome,  261-291.  Caesar's  address  to  his  soldiers,  292-351.  The 
soldiers  wavering,  Laelius  encourages  them,  352-385.  They  consent 
to  march  against  Rome,  386-391.  Caesar  advancing  against  Rome, 
his  forces  are  enumerated,  392-465.  The  reports  at  Rome  'on  his 
approach.  The  fear  of  the  people.  The  Senators  and  citizens,  with 
Pompey,  take  to  flight,  466  522.  Prodigies  then  beheld  are  re- 
counted, 523-583.  Aruns,  the  Etrurian  prophet,  is  consulted.  The 
City  is  purified.  The  sacrifices  are  productive  of  ill  omens.  Aruns 
presages  evil  to  the  state,  584-  638.  Figulus  does  the  same,  639-672. 
A  Roman  matron  prophesies  woe  to  the  City,  673  695 1 

BOOK  II. 

Reflections  on  the  Prodigies,  1-15.  The  alarm  at  Rome  described. 
The  complaints  of  the  matrons,  16-42.  The  complaints  of  the  men, 
43-66.  A  long  speech  is  spoken  by  an  aged  man  in  reference  to  the 
Civil  Wars  carried  on  between  Sulla  and  Marius,  67-233.  Brutus 
repairs  to  Cato  at  night,  and  asks  his  advice,  234-285.  Cato  answers 
that  he  shall  follow  Pompey,  and  advises  Brutus  to  do  the  same,  286- 
325.  While  they  are  conversing,  Marcia  appears,  whom,  formerly 
his  own  wife,  Cato  had  given  to  his  friend  Hortensius,  since  whose 
death  she  has  sought  him  again  as  her  husband,  326-349.  In  the 
presence  of  Brutus  they  renew  the  nuptial  vow,  350-391.  Pompey 
has  in  the  meantime  retired  to  Campania.  The  Apennines,  with 
their  streams,  are  described,  392-433.  Caesar  takes  possession  of 
the  whole  of  Italy.  The  flight  of  Libo,  Thermus,  Sulla,  Varus, 
Lentulus,  and  Scipio,  from  the  cities  which  they  hold,  439-477. 
Domitius  Ahenobarbus,  by  breaking  down  the  bridge,  endeavours  to 
impede  the  course  of  Caesar  at  Corfinium.  Caesar  crosses  the  river, 
and  while  he  is  preparing  to  lay  siege  to  Corfinium,  the  citizens 
deliver  Domitius  to  him.  Caesar  gives  him  his  liberty  against  his 
wish,  478-525.  Pompey  addresses  his  troops,  and  promises  to  lead 

b 


vi  CONTENTS. 

Page 

them  to  battle,  526-595.  He  retreats  to  Brundisium,  596-609. 
The  situation  of  that  place  is  described,  610-627.  Pompey  sends 
his  son  to  Asia  to  request  the  assistance  of  the  eastern  Kings.  He 
himself  prepares  to  cross  over  to  Epirus,  628-649.  Caesar  follows 
Pompey,  and  endeavours  to  cut  him  off  from  the  sea,  650-679. 
Pompey  leaves  Italy,  680-703.  Caesar  enters  Brundisium,  704-736  46 

BOOK  III. 

While  Pompey  is  crossing  to  Greece,  the  ghost  of  Julia  appears  to  him 
in  a  dream,  and  predicts  the  devastating  nature  of  the  war,  1-35. 
Pompey  arrives  in  Epirus,  36-45.  Caesar  instructs  Curio  to  procure 
corn  in  Sicily,  46-70.  He  then  marches  to  Rome,  76-97.  The 
alarm  at  Rome  described.  The  hostility  of  the  Senate  to  Caesar. 
Metellus  the  Tribune  resists  the  spoilers  of  the  public  treasury,  98- 
133.  Caesar  threatens  him,  134-140.  Cotta  advises  Metellus  to 
yield,  141-152.  The  Temple  is  opened,  and  the  treasure  is  carried 
off,  153-168.  In  the  meantime  Pompey  collects  forces  in  Greece 
and  Asia,  which  are  enumerated,  169-297.  Caesar,  on  his  way  to 
Spain,  repairs  to  Massilia,  which  has  remained  faithful  to  Pompey, 
298-303.  The  people  of  Massilia  send  deputies  to  him,  deprecating 
civil  war,  304-357.  Caesar  besieges  Massilia,  358-374.  The  works 
are  described,  374-398.  Caesar  commands  a  sacred  grove  to  be  cut 
down,  and  forces  the  soldiers,  though  reluctant,  to  do  so,  399-452. 
Departing  for  Spain,  he  entrusts  the  siege  to  Trebonius,  by  whom 
it  is  continued,  453  496.  The  Massilians  sally  forth  by  night  and 
repulse  the  enemy,  497-508.  The  attack  is  now  carried  on  by  sea. 
Brutus  arrives  with  his  fleet,  509-537.  The  sea-fight  is  described, 
538-751.  The  Massilians  are  vanquished,  and  Brutus  is  victorious, 
752-762 89 

BOOK  IV. 

In  the  meantime  Caesar  arrives  in  Spain,  where  Afranius  and  Petreius 
are  in  command  of  Pompey 's  forces,  consisting  of  Romans  and 
Spaniards,  1-10.  A  battle  is  fought  at  Ilerda,  11-47.  By  reason 
of  the  rains  in  the  spring  an  inundation  ensues,  and  Caesar's  camp  is 
overflowed,  48-90.  A  famine  prevails,  91-97.  And  then  a  flood, 
98-120.  When  the  waters  subside  Petreius  departs  from  Ilerda, 
121-147.  Caesar  comes  up  with  him,  and  a  battle  is  fought,  148-156. 
Caesar  commands  the  flying  enemy  to  be  intercepted,  157-166.  Both 
sides  pitch  their  camps.  The  fellow-citizens  recognize  each  other,  and 
interchange  courtesies,  167-194.  But  Petreius  puts  an  end  to  this 
good  feeling,  and  calls  his  own  men  to  arms,  195-211.  He  then 
harangues  his  troops,  212-235.  The  warfare  is  resumed,  236-253. 
The  Pompeian  troops  fly  towards  Ilerda,  254-263.  Caesar  shuts 
them  out  from  a  supply  of  water,  264-266.  The  sufferings  of  the 
Pompeians  are  described,  267-336.  Afranius  sues  for  peace,  337-362. 
Which  Caesar  grants  to  the  enemy,  363-401.  In  the  meantime 
Antony,  the  lieutenant  of  Caesar,  is  besieged  by  the  adherents  of 


CONTENTS.  vii 

Page 

Pompey  on  the  shores  of  the  Adriatic,  and  his  troops  are  suffering 
from  famine,  402-414.  He  then  attempts  to  escape  by  sea,  415-432. 
Loose  chains  are  placed  by  the  enemy  beneath  the  waves,  which 
intercept  the  flight  of  one  of  Antony's  rafts,  433-464.  Vulteius, 
the  commander  of  the  raft,  exhorts  his  men  to  slay  each  other  rather 
than  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  465-520.  They  obey  his 
commands,  521-581.  Curio  sails  for  Africa,  and  landing  at  the  river 
Bagrada,  near  Utica,  is  informed  by  one  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
contest  which  took  place  near  there  between  Hercules  and  the  giant 
Antaeus,  581-660.  Vanis,  the  Pompeian  commander,  is  routed  by 
Curio,  661-714.  Curio  fights  against  Juba,  but  being  surrounded  by 
an  ambuscade,  is  destroyed  with  his  forces,  715-798.  He  is  apos- 
trophized by  the  Poet,  799-824  .  .  .' 126 

BOOK  V. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  year  the  Consuls  convene  the  Senate  in  Epirus, 
1-14.  Lentulus  addresses  the  Senators,  and  advises  them  to  appoint 
Pompey  Commander-in-chief,  which  is  accordingly  done,  15-49.  The 
Poet  praises  the  monarchs  and  nations  who  lent  their  aid,  50-64. 
Appius  goes  to  consult  the  oracle  at  Delphi,  which  has  now  long  been 
silent,  as  to  the  result  of  the  war,  65-70.  The  oracle  is  described, 
71-120.  The  Temple  is  opened,  and  Phemonoe,  the  Priestess,  tries 
to  dissuade  Appius  from  his  enquiries,  121-140.  She  is  forced,  how- 
ever, to  ascend  the  oracular  tripod,  141-162.  And  is  inspired  by 
the  prophetic  frenzy.  The  oracle  foretells,  in  ambiguous  terms,  the 
death  of  Appius  himself  before  the  battle  of  Pharsalia,  in  the  Island 
of  Euboea,  163-197.  The  oracle  is  apostrophized  by  the  Poet,  198- 
236.  The  soldiers  of  Caesar's  party  become  mutinous,  237-261. 
Their  threats  and  clamours  for  peace,  262-296.  Caesar  presents 
himself  before  them  thus  complaining,  297-318.  He  addresses  them, 
319  364.  The  tumult  is  appeased,  365-373.  Caesar  sends  his  army 
to  Brundisium,  and  orders  a  fleet  to  be  collected  there,  374  380. 
He  then  repairs  to  Rome,  where  he  is  made  Dictator  and  Consul, 
380-384.  Evil  omens  give  portentous  signs,  384-402.  He  goes 
thence  to  Brundisium ;  where  collecting  a  fleet,  he  orders  part  of  his 
troops  to  embark,  although  the  skies  betoken  an  approaching  tempest, 
403-411.  He  harangues  his  soldiers,  412  423.  The  sea  is  suddenly 
becalmed,  and  passing  over  he  lands  at  Palaeste,  in  Epirus,  424-460. 
He  encamps  at  Dyrrhachium,  461-475.  Caesar  entreats  Antony  to 
send  over  the  remaining  forces,  476-497.  Impatient  at  his  delay, 
he  determines  to  go  across,  498  503.  He  does  so  in  a  small  boat, 
504-570.  Caesar  encourages  the  mariners  in  a  tempest,  571-593. 
Which  is  described,  594-653.  He  arrives  in  Italy,  654-677.  He 
returns  to  Epirus,  and  his  soldiers  expostulate  with  him  for  leaving 
them,  678-700.  Antony  passes  over  with  the  rest  of  his  troops, 
701-721.  Pompey  determines  to  send  his  wife  Cornelia  to  Lesbos, 
722-739.  He  apprises  her  of  his  intentions,  740-759.  Cornelia's 
answer,  760-790.  She  embarks,  790-801.  And  sails  for  Lesbos, 
801-815  .  164 


viii  CONTENTS. 


BOOK  VI.  Page 

Caesar,  being  unable  to  bring  Pompey  to  a  battle,  marches  to  seize 
Dyrrhachium,  1-14.  Pompey  intercepts  him  on  his  march,  15-18. 
The  situation  of  the  city  is  described,  19-28.  Caesar  surrounds  the 
city  and  the  forces  of  Pompey  with  vast  outworks,  29-63.  Pompey 
sallies  forth  to  interrupt  the  works,  64-79.  A  famine  and  pestilence 
arise  in  his  army,  80-105.  The  army  of  Caesar  also  suffers  from 
famine,  106-117.  Pompey  attempts  to  break  through  the  outworks, 
118-124.  He  is  at  first  successful  in  his  attempts,  125  -139.  But  is 
driven  back  by  Scaeva,  140-144.  Whose  praises  are  sung  by  the 
Poet,  145-148.  Scaeva  exhorts  his  comrades,  149-165.  While 
bravely  fighting,  he  is  pierced  by  an  arrow,  166-227.  He  requests 
to  be  carried  to  the  camp  of  Pompey,  228-235.  Deceived  by  bis 
stratagem,  Aulus  is  slain  by  him,  235-239.  The  words  of  Scaeva, 
240-246.  His  wounds  are  described,  and  his  praises  descanted 
upon,  247-262.  Pompey  attacks  the  outworks  nearer  to  the  sea, 
263  278.  Caesar  prepares  to  renew  the  engagement,  278-289.  At 
the  approach  of  Pompey,  the  troops  of  Caesar  are  in  alarm,  290  299. 
Pompey  neglects  to  follow  up  his  successes,  299-313.  Caesar  repairs 
to  Thessaly,  and  is  followed  by  Pompey,  314-332.  The  situation 
of  Thessaly  is  described,  333-412.  Both  sides  pitch  their  camps, 
the  troops  anxiously  awaiting  the  event,  413-419.  Sextus,  the  son 
of  Pompey,  is  urged  by  fear  to  enquire  into  the  destinies  of  futurity 
by  means  of  magic  arts,  420-434.  The  Thessalian  incantations  are 
described,  434  506.  Erictho,  a  Thessalian  enchantress,  and  her  rites, 
are  described,  507-569.  Sextus  repairs  to  her  at  night,  570-588. 
He  addresses  her,  and  requests  her  to  disclose  to  him  the  future, 
589-603.  She  promises  him  that  she  will  do  so,  604-623.  A  dead 
body  is  chosen  for  her  to  restore  to  life,  and  is  dragged  to  her  cave, 
624-641.  The  cave  of  Erictho  is  described,  642-653.  Commencing 
her  incantations,  she  reproaches  the  attendants  of  Sextus,  654-666. 
By  her  incantations  and  magic  skill  she  raises  the  dead  body  to  life, 
667-761.  She  requests  it  to  disclose  the  future,  762-774.  It 
discloses  the  woes  of  Rome,  and  of  the  adherents  of  Pompey  in 
particular,  775-820.  The  body  is  then  burned,  and  Sextus  returns 
to  the  camp,  820-830 201 

BOOK  VII. 

The  vision  of  Pompey  the  night  before  the  battle  of  Pharsalia  is  de- 
scribed, 1-44.  His  soldiers  demand  to  be  led  forth  to  battle,  45-61. 
Cicero's  address  to  Pompey  on  this  occasion,  62-85.  Pompey'g 
answer,  85-123.  The  soldiers  prepare  for  battle,  124-150.  Por- 
tentous signs  appear,  151-184.  Distant  nations  are  made  aware  of 
the  impending  catastrophe,  185-213.  The  army  of  Pompey  is  de- 
scribed, 214-234.  Caesar's  delight  on  seeing  them  preparing  for 
battle,  235-249.  He  harangues  his  soldiers,  250-329.  They  prepare 
for  battle,  330-336.  Pompey  harangues  his  army,  337-384.  The 
Poet  laments  the  approaching  slaughter,  385-459.  The  soldiers 


CONTENTS. 


hesitate  on  both  sides  on  recognizing  each  other,  460-469.  Crastinus, 
a  soldier  in  Caesar's  army,  commences  the  battle,  470-475.  The 
beginning  of  the  battle  is  described,  476-505.  Caesar  attacks  the 
army  of  Pompey  in  flank,  and  the  cavalry  is  repulsed,  506-544. 
The  centre  of  Pompey's  army  offers  a  stronger  resistance,  545-550. 
The  Poet  is  averse  to  describe  the  scenes  of  horror  there  perpetrated, 
551-556.  Caesar  exhorts  his  men  to  deeds  of  valour,  557-585.  It 
is  the  design  of  Brutus  to  slay  Caesar,  586-596.  Multitudes  of  the 
Patricians  are  slain,  among  whom  is  Domitius,  597-616.  The  Poet 
laments  the  carnage,  617-646.  Pompey  takes  to  flight,  647-679. 
The  Poet  apostrophizes  Pompey,  680-711.  Pompey  comes  to  Larissa, 
where  he  is  welcomed  by  the  inhabitants,  712-727.  Caesar  takes 
possession  of  the  enemy's  camp,  728-786.  The  bodies  of  Pompey's 
troops  lie  unburied,  a  prey  to  birds  and  wild  beasts,  787-846.  The 
Poet  concludes  with  imprecations  against  the  scene  of  such  horrors, 
847-872 249 

BOOK  VIII. 

Pompey  arrives  at  the  sea-shore  in  his  flight,  1-34.  He  embarks  for 
Lesbos  to  join  Cornelia,  whose  apprehensions  are  described,  35-49. 
He  arrives  at  Lesbos,  50-71.  He  consoles  his  wife,  72-85.  Cornelia's 
answer,  86  -105.  The  people  of  Mitylene  welcome  Pompey,  106-127. 
He  commends  their  fidelity,  128-146.  He  leaves  Lesbos,  taking 
Cornelia  with  him,  amid  the  regrets  of  the  inhabitants,  147-158. 
At  night  he  addresses  the  pilot  of  the  ship  and  orders  him  to  avoid 
the  coasts  of  Italy  and  Thessaly,  and  to  leave  to  fortune  the  course  of 
the  ship,  159-201.  He  despatches  Deiotarus  to  seek  aid  for  his 
cause,  202-243.  And  then  sails  past  Ephesus,  Samos,  Rhodes, 
Pamphylia,  and  Taurus,  244-255.  Arriving  in  Cilicia  he  addresses 
his  companions,  and  recommends  them  to  take  refuge  with  Phraates, 
the  king  of  Parthia,  as  he  suspects  the  fidelity  of  the  Egyptians  and 
Nnmidians,  256-327.  He  is  opposed  by  Lentulus,  who  advises  him 
to  take  refuge  with  Ptolemy,  the  king  of  Egypt,  328-455.  He  follows 
the  advice  of  Lentulus,  and  proceeds  to  Pelusium,  456-466.  The 
ministers  of  Ptolemy  are  in  trepidation,  and  deliberate  what  steps  to 
take,  467-475.  Pothinus  urges  the  King  to  slay  Pompey,  476-535. 
Achillas  is  commissioned  by  Ptolemy  to  do  so,  536  538.  The  Poet 
expresses  his  grief  and  indignation,  539-560.  Pompey  goes  on  board 
a  small  boat  for  the  shore,  561-595.  He  is  there  murdered  in  the 
sight  of  Cornelia  by  Septimius  and  Achillas,  596-620.  His  last 
words,  621-636.  The  lamentations  of  Cornelia,  637-662.  Septimius 
cuts  off  his  head,  and  gives  it  to  Achillas,  who  carries  it  to  Ptolemy, 
663-686.  By  whose  order  it  is  embalmed,  687-691.  The  Poet 
deplores  the  fate  of  Pompey,  692-711.  Cordus,  an  attendant  of 
Pompey,  burns  the  body  on  the  shore,  and  burying  the  bones,  places 
over  them  a  stone  with  an  inscription,  712-793.  The  Poet  again 
laments  his  fate,  and  concludes  with  imprecations  against  treacherous 
Egypt,  794-872 293 


CONTENTS. 


BOOK  IX.  Page 

The  soul  of  Fompey,  leaving  the  tomb,  soars  to  the  abodes  of  the 
Blessed,  and  thence  looking  down  upon  the  earth  inspires  the  breasts 
of  Brutus  and  Cato,  1-23.  Cato,  with  the  remnant  of  Pompey's 
forces,  repairs  to  Corcyra,  24-35.  And  thence  to  Crete  and  Africa, 
where  he  meets  the  fleet  of  Pompey  with  Cornelia,  36-50.  She, 
having  beheld  the  death  of  her  husband  and  the  funeral  pile,  has 
been  reluctant  to  leave  the  shores  of  Egypt,  51-116.  After  which 
she  has  touched  at  Cyprus,  whence  she  has  repaired  to  Africa  to  join 
Cato  and  the  eldest  son  of  Pompey,  where  Sextus  informs  his  brother 
Cneius  of  their  father's  death,  117-145.  Cneius  is  desirous  to  proceed 
to  Egypt,  but  is  dissuaded  by  Cato,  146  166.  Cornelia  having  landed, 
burns  the  vestments  and  arms  of  Pompey,  which  she  has  brought 
with  her,  in  place  of  his  body,  and  performs  the  funereal  rites,  167- 
185.  Cato  delivers  an  oration-in  praise  of  Pompey,  186-214.  The 
soldiers  of  Cato  become  dissatisfied,  and  wish  to  return  home,  the 
chief  among  the  malcontents  being  Tarchondimotus,  the  Cilician, 
whom  Cato  rebukes  ;  on  which  another  one  replies  that  they  followed 
Pompey  for  his  own  sake,  and  not  for  the  love  of  civil  war,  and  that 
they  are  now  desirous  to  return  home,  215  254.  Cato  is  indignant, 
and  by  his  eloquence  prevails  upon  them  to  stay,  255-293.  The 
soldiers  are  trained  to  arms,  and  the  city  of  Cyrene  is  taken,  294-299. 
They  embark  for  the  kingdom  of  .Tuba;  the  Syrtes  are  described, 
300-318.  A  tempest  arises,  and  the  ships  are  separated,  319-347. 
The  region  of  Tritonis  is  described,  in  which  were  formerly  the  golden 
orchards  of  the  Hesperides,  and  the  river  Lethe,  348-367.  The  fleet, 
having  escaped  the  Syrtes,  anchors  off  the  coast  of  Libya,  368-370. 
Cato,  impatient  of  delay,  persuades  his  soldiers  to  disembark  and  to 
march  over  the  sandy  desert,  371-410.  A  description  of  Libya,  and 
the  evils  to  be  encountered  by  those  who  travel  there,  411-497.  The 
soldiers  are  tormented  by  thirst,  498  511.  They  arrive  at  the  Temple 
of  Jupiter  Ammon;  its  situation  is  described,  512-543.  Labienus 
exhorts  them  to  consult  the  oracle,  544-563.  Cato  dissuades  them, 
saying  that  it  is  enough  to  know  that  a  brave  man  ought  to  die  with 
fortitude,  564-586.  They  proceed  on  their  march,  and  arrive  at  a 
spring  filled  with  serpents,  at  which,  however,  encouraged  by  Cato, 
they  drink,  587-618.  The  Poet  enters  on  an  enquiry  how  Africa 
came  to  be  thus  infested  with  serpents,  and  relates  the  story  of 
Medusa,  619-658.  And  how  Perseus  cut  off  her  head,  659-684. 
And  then  flew  in  the  air  over  Libya,  the  blood  of  the  Gorgon  falling 
on  which  produced  the  serpents,  which  are  then  described,  685-733. 
During  Cato's  march,  many  of  his  men  are  killed  by  the  serpents ; 
their  deaths  are  described,  734-838.  The  complaints  of  the  soldiers, 
839-880.  The  fortitude  of  Cato,  881-889.  The  Paylli  assist  them 
in  their  distress  by  sucking  the  poison  out  of  their  wounds,  890-941. 
They  arrive  at  Leptis,  942-949.  In  the  meantime  Caesar,  in  pur- 
suit of  Pompey,  sails  along  the  Hellespont  and  touches  at  Troy,  950- 
965.  Which  is  described,  966-999.  He  arrives  in  Egypt,  where 


CONTENTS.       •  xi 

Page 

a  soldier,  sent  by  the  king,  meets  him  with  the  head  of  Pompey, 
1000-1033.  Caesar,  though  really  overjoyed,  sheds  tears,  and  re- 
proaches Pompey's  murderers,  and  then  commands  them  to  appease 
the  shade  of  Pompey,  1034-1108 337 

BOOK  X. 

Caesar,  although  finding  the  people  of  Egypt  hostile  to  him,  comes  to 
Alexandria,  and  visits  the  tomb  of  Alexander  the  Great,  1-19.  The 
Poet  inveighs  against  Alexander  and  the  people  of  the  East,  20-52. 
In  the  meantime  Ptolemy  comes  to  Cassar  as  a  hostage ;  Cleopatra 
also  obtains  admission  to  him  by  stratagem,  53-60.  The  Poet  utters 
maledictions  against  Cleopatra,  61-81.  Cleopatra  entreats  Caesar  to 
protect  her  and  her  brother  against  the  power  of  Pothinus,  82-103. 
Caesar  assents.  The  luxury  of  the  Egyptians  is  described,  104-135. 
The  dress  and  beauty  of  Cleopatra  are  depicted,  and  the  sumptuousness 
of  the  banquet,  136-171.  At  the  feast  Caesar  addresses  Achoreus, 
the  chief  priest,  on  the  subject  of  the  Egyptian  Gods  and  the  sources 
of  the  Nile,  172-192.  Achoreus  first  combats  the  false  notions  that 
exist  on  the  rise  of  the  Nile,  193-261.  And  then  states  his  own 
opinions  on  the  subject,  262-331.  Pothinus  plans  the  death  of  Caesar 
with  Achillas,  332-398.  Collecting  his  soldiers,  Achillas  surrounds 
the  palace,  399-443.  Caesar  orders  the  gates  to  be  closed,  and  detains 
the  king  as  a  hostage,  444-467.  The  palace  is  besieged,  468-484. 
The  valour  of  Caesar  is  described.  The  ships  of  the  enemy  being 
burnt,  Caesar  takes  possession  of  Pharos,  485-509.  Pothinus  is  put 
to  death,  510-519.  Arsinoe,  the  younger  sister  of  Ptolemy,  slays 
Achillas,  519-529.  Ganymedes,  the  newly-appointed  general,  ac- 
tively wages  the  war  against  Caesar,  and  the  work  concludes, 
530-546 384 


LUCAN'S 

PHARSALIA. 


BOOK  THE   FIKST. 

CONTENTS. 

The  nature  of  the  subject,  1-7.  The  lamentable  character  of  the  warfare, 
8-32.  The  Poet  addresses  Nero,  33-66.  The  causes  of  the  war,  67 
-97.  The  rivalry  between  Pompey  and  Caesar  after  the  death  of 
Crassus,  98-157.  The  luxury  of  Rome,  158-182.  Caesar  crosses  the 
Rubicon,  and  takes  possession  of  Ariminum,  183-230.  The  complaints 
of  the  inhabitants  of  those  parts  that  they  are  the  first  to  feel  the  effects 
of  every  war,  231-260.  Curio,  being  expelled  from  Rome,  comes  to 
Caesar's  camp,  and  entreats  him  to  march  against  Rome,  261-291.  Cassar's 
address  to  his  soldiers,  292-351.  The  soldiers  wavering,  Laelius  en- 
courages them,  352-385.  They  consent  to  march  against  Rome,  386- 
391.  Caesar  advancing  against  Rome,  his  forces  are  enumerated,  392-465. 
The  reports  at  Rome  on  his  approach.  The  fear  of  the  people.  The  Senators 
and  citizens,  with  Pompey,  take  to  flight,  466-522.  Prodigies  then  be- 
held are  recounted,  523-583.  Aruns,  the  Etrurian  prophet,  is  consulted. 
The  City  is  purified.  The  sacrifices  are  productive  of  ill  omens.  Anins 
presages  evil  to  the  state,  584-638.  Figulus  does  the  same,  639-672. 
A  Roman  matron  prophesies  woe  to  the  City,  673-695. 

WAKS  more  than  civil1  upon  the  Emathian  plains2,  and  li- 
cense conceded  to  lawlessness,  I  sing;  and  a  powerful  people 
turning  with  victorious  right-hand  against  its  own  vitals, 
and  kindred  armies  engaged ;  and,  the  compact  of  rule  rent 

1  Wars  more  than  civil)  ver.  1.     There  is  some  doubt  as  to  the  meaning 
of  this  expression.     It  has  been  suggested  that  the  Poet  refers  to  the  circum- 
stance of  foreign  nations  taking  part  in  a  warfare  which  had  originated  between 
the  citizens  of  Rome  ;  while  another  opinion  is,  that  he  alludes  to  the  fact  of 
Caesar  and  Pompey  being  not  only  fellow-citizens  but  connected  by  marriage. 

2  T/te  Ematkian  plains)  ver.  1.     Emathia  was  properly  that  part  of 
Macedonia  which  lay  between  the  rivers  Haliacmon  and  Axius.     The  poets, 
however,  frequently  give  the  name  of  Emathia  to  Thessaly,  which  adjoined 
Macedonia,  and  in  which  Pharsalia  was  situate. 

B 


2  PHARSALIA.  [B.  i.  3-20. 

asunder ',  a  contest  waged  with  all  the  might  of  the  shaken 
earth  for  the  universal  woe,  and  standards  meeting  with  hos- 
tile standards,  the  eagles  alike  -,  and  darts  threatening  darts :l. 
What  madness,  this,  0  citizens !  what  lawlessness  so  great 
of  the  sword,  while  nations  are  your  hate,  for  you  to  shed  the 
Latian  blood  ?  And,  while  proud  Babylon  was  to  be  spoiled  4 
of  the  Ausonian  trophies,  and  the  shade  of  Crassus  was  wan- 
dering unavenged,  has  it  pleased  you  that  wars,  doomed  to 
produce  no  triumphs,  should  be  waged  ?  Alas !  how  much 
of  land  and  of  sea  might  have  been  won  with  that  self-same 
blood  which  the  right-hands  of  fellow-citizens  have  shed. 
"Whence  Titan  makes  his  approach,  and  where  the  night  con- 
ceals the  stars,  and  where  the  mid-day  intensely  burns  with 
its  scorching  moments ;  where  too,  the  whiter,  frozen  and  un- 
used to  be  relaxed  by  the  spring,  binds  fast  the  icy  ocean  with 
Scythian  cold !  By  this  beneath  the  yoke  should  the  Seres 5, 
by  this  the  barbarian  Araxes6,  have  come,  and  the  race,  if 
any  there  be,  that  lies  situate  contiguous  to  the  rising  Nile7. 

1  The.  compact  of  rule  rent  asunder)  ver.  4.     By  the  use  of  the  word 
"  regnum,"  he  probably  refers  to  the  compact  which  had  been  originally  made 
between  the  Triumvirs  Pompey,  Caesar,  and  Crassus,  to  divide  the  sovereign 
power  among  themselves. 

2  T/*e  eagles  alike)  ver.  7.     "  Pares  aquilas."     More  literally  "  matched." 
The  figure  is  derived  from  the  "  comparatio"  or  "  matching"  of  the  gladiators 
at  the  gladiatorial  games. 

3  And  dartt  threatening  darts)  ver.  7.     "Pila."     Howe,  who  translates 
it  "pile,"  has  the  following  Note  here  : — "  I  have  chosen  to  translate  the  Latin 
word  '  pilum '  thus  nearly,  or  indeed  rather  to  keep  it  and  make  it  English ; 
because  it  was  a  weapon,  as  eagles  were  the  ensigns,  peculiar  to  the  Romans,  and 
made  use  of  here  by  Lucan  purposely  to  denote  the  war  made  among  themselves." 
It  was  a  javelin  or  dart  about  five  feet  in  length,  which  the  Roman  infantry 
discharged  against  the  enemy  at  the  commencement  of  the  engagement. 

4  Babylon  teas  to  be  spoiled)  ver.  10.     He  speaks  of  Babylon  as  then 
belonging  to  the  Parthians,  who  had  recently  conquered  the  Crassi  with  im- 
mense slaughter,  a  disaster  which  Had  not  been  avenged. 

5  Beneath  the  yoke  should  the  Seres)  ver.  19.     Seres  was  the  name  given 
to  the  inhabitants  of  Serica,  an  indefinite  region  situate  in  the  north-western 
parts  of  Asia  ;   but  it  is  generally  supposed  that  a  part  of  China  was  so  called. 
The  great  wall  of  China  is  called  by  Ammianus  Marcellinus  "  Aggeres  Se- 
rium,"  "  The  bulwarks  of  the  Seres." 

6  The  barbarian,  Araxes)  ver.  19.     There  were  rivers  of  this  name  in 
Armenia,  Mesopotamia,  Persia,  and  Thessaly.     Probably  the  first  is  the  one 
here  alluded  to. 

1  Contiguous  to  the  rising  File)  ver.  20.     The  subject  of  the  rise  of  the 
Nile  is  fully  treated  of  in  the  speech  of  Achoreus,  in  the  Tenth  Book. 


B.  i.  21-41.]  PHAESAL1A.  3 

Then,  Home,  if  so  great  thy  love  for  an  accursed  warfare, 
when  thou  hast  subjected  the  whole  earth  to  Latian  laws, 
turn  thy  hands  against  thyself;  not  as  yet  has  a  foe  been 
wanting  to  thee.  But  now  that  the  walls  are  tottering  with 
the  dwellings  half  overthrown  throughout  the  cities  of  Italy, 
and,"  the  fortifications  falling  away,  vast  stones  are  lying 
there,  and  the  houses  are  occupied  by  no  protector,  and  but 
few  inhabitants  are  wandering  amid  the  ancient  cities,  that 
Hesperia  has  remained  unsightly  with  brambles  and  un- 
ploughed  for  many  a  year,  and  that  hands  are  wanting 
for  the  fields  requiring  them — not  thou,  fierce  Pyrrhus, 
nor  yet  the  Carthaginian1,  will  prove  the  cause  of  ruin 
so  great;  to  no  sword  has  it  been  allowed  to  penetrate 
the  vitals;  deep-seated  are  the  wounds  of  the  fellow-citi- 
zen's right  hand. 

But  if  the  Fates  have  decreed  no  other  way8  for  Nero  to 
succeed,  and  at  a  costly  price  eternal  realms  are  provided 
for  the  Gods,  and  heaven  could  only  obey  its  own  Thunderer 
after  the  wars  of  the  raging  Giants :i;  then  in  no  degree,  O 
Gods  above,  do  we  complain ;  crimes  themselves,  and  law- 
lessness, on  these  conditions,  are  approved;  let  Pharsalia 
fill  her  ruthless  plains,  and  let  the  shades  of  the  Cartha- 
ginians be  sated  with  blood ;  let  the  hosts  meet  for  the  last 
time  at  tearful  Munda4.  To  these  destined  wars,  Caesar, 

1  Pyrrhus,  nor  yet  the  Carthaginian)  ver.  30.     He  alludes  to  Pyrrhus, 
king  of  Epirus,  and  Hannibal  the  Carthaginian,  two  of  the  most  terrible  ene- 
mies of  Rome. 

2  Have  decreed  no  other  way)  ver.  33.     One  of  the  Scholiasts  thinks  that 
this  is  said  in  bitter  irony  against  the  Emperor  Nero.     It  is,  however,  more 
probable  that  it  is  intended  in  a  spirit  of  adulation  ;  as  the  First  Book  was 
evidently  written  under  very  different  political  feelings  from  the  latter  ones  ; 
in  which  he  takes  every  opportunity  of  indirectly  censuring  the  tyrant. 

3  Wars  of  the  raging  Giants)  ver.  36.      He  alludes  to  the  Giganto- 
machia,  or  war  between  the  Gods  and  the  Giants.      By  this  expression  he 
either  intends  a  compliment  to  the  fame  of  Caesar  and  Pompey  individually, 
or  to  the  prowess  of  the  Roman  people. 

*  At  tearful  Mwnda)  ver.  40.  Munda  was  a  village  of  Spain  near 
Malaga,  or,  according  to  some,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cordova,  where  Caesar, 
in  the  year  B.C.  45,  defeated  the  sons  of  Pompey  with  the  loss  of  30,000 
men.  Cneins,  the  eldest,  was  slain  there.  The  Poet  alludes  in  the  preceding 
line  to  the  war  carried  on  in  the  north  of  Africa,  where  Juba  sided  with  the 
partisans  of  Pompey. 

B   2 


4  PHAESALIA.  [B.  I.  41-56. 

let  the  famine  of  Perusia1  and  the  struggles  of  Mutina2  be 
added,  the  fleets,  too,  which  rugged  Leucadia  overwhelmed3, 
and  the  servile  wars  beneath  the  burning  ^Etna^;  still,  much 
does  Eome  owe  to  the  arms  of  her  citizens,  since  for  thy 
sake  these  events  have  come  to  pass. 

When,  thy  allotted  duties  fulfilled,  thou  shalt  late  repair 
to  the  stars,  the  palace  of  heaven,  preferred  by  thee,  shall 
receive  thee 5,  the  skies  rejoicing ;  whether  it  please  thee  to 
wield  the  sceptre,  or  whether  to  ascend  the  flaming  chariot 
of  Phoebus,  and  with  thy  wandering  fire  to  survey  the  earth, 
hi  no  way  alarmed  at  the  change  of  the  sun  ° ;  by  every 
Divinity  will  it  be  yielded  unto  thee,  and  to  thy  free  choice 
will  nature  leave  it  what  God  thou  shalt  wish  to  be,  where 
to  establish  the  sovereignty  of  the  world.  But  do  thou 
neither  choose  thy  abode  in  the  Arctic  circle,  nor  where  the 
sultry  sky  of  the  south  behind  us  declines ;  whence  with 
thy  star  obliquely  thou  mayst  look  upon  Rome7.  If  thou 

1  The  famine  of  Perusia)  ver.  41.     Perusia  was  an  ancient  city  of  Etru- 
ria.     L.  Antonius,  the  brother  of  the  Triumvir,  took  refuge  here,  and  was 
besieged  by  Augustus  for  several  months,  till  he  was  compelled  by  famine  to 
surrender.  This  lengthened  siege  gave  occasion  to  that  campaign  being  called 
"  Bellum  Perusinum." 

2  And  the   struggles  of  Mutina)  ver.  41.     He  alludes  to  the  siege  of 
Mutina,  now  Modena,  in  the  years  B.C.  44,  43.     Decimus  Brutus  being  be- 
sieged there  by  Marc  Antony,  the  Consuls  Hirtius  and   Pansa  hastened  to 
relieve  him,  and  perished  in  battle  under  its  walls. 

3  Which  nigged  Leucadia  overwhelmed)  Ter.  43.     Keference  is  made  to 
the  sea  fight  at  Actium  near  the  isle  of  Leucas  or  Leucadia,  off  the  coast  of 
Acarnania,  in  which  Augustus  defeated  Antony  and  Cleopatra. 

4  Servile  wars  beneath  the  lurning  JEtna)  ver.  44.      He  alludes  to  the 
defeat  of  Seztus,  the  son  of  Poinpey,  in  the  Sicilian  seas;  where  a  vast  number 
of  slaves  had  ranged  under  his  banners.     He  was  first  defeated  by  Agrippa, 
the  son-in-law  of  Augustus,  off  Mylae,  and  again  off  Naulochus,  a  seaport  be- 
tween Mylse  and  Pelorum  in  Sicily,  B.C.  36. 

s  The  palace  of  heaven  shall  receive  thee)  ver.  46.  This  is  more  abject 
flattery  than  we  could  expect  from  a  Poet  whose  works  breathe  the  intense 
spirit  of  liberty  to  be  found  in  the  latter  books  of  this  Poem. 

a  Alarmed  at  the  change  of  the  sun)  ver.  49.  He  probably  alludes  to 
the  disastrous  result  of  Phaeton  guiding  the  chariot  of  the  Sun,  when  the 
world  was  set  in  flames.  Nero  prided  himself  upon  his  skill  as  a  charioteer, 
and  not  improbably  the  Poet  intends  here  to  flatter  him  on  his  weak  point. 
Ai  to  the  disaster  of  Phaeton,  see  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Second  Book. 

7  Obliquely  thou  mayst  look  upon  Rome)   ver.   65.     Some  of  the  Scho- 


B.  i.  56-77.]  PHAKSALIA.  5 

shouldst  press  upon  one  side  of  the  boundless  aether,  the 
sky  will  be  sensible  of  the  burden1.  Keep  thy  weight  in 
the  mid  sphere  of  the  balanced  heavens ;  may  all  that  part 
of  the  (Ether  with  sky  serene  be  free  from  mist,  and  may  no 
clouds  interpose  before  Caesar. 

Then,  arms  laid  aside,  may  the  human  race  consult  its 
own  good,  and  may  all  nations  love  one  another;  may  Peace, 
sent  throughout  the  world,  keep  close  the  iron  thresholds2 
of  the  warlike  Janus.  But  to  myself  already  art  thou  a 
Divinity ;  and,  if  I,  a  bard,  receive  thee  in  my  breast,  I  could 
not  wish  to  invoke  the  God  who  moves  the  mystic  shrines 
of  Cirrha3,  and  to  withdraw  Bacchus  from  Nysa"1.  Suffi- 
cient art  thou  to  supply  inspiration  for  Roman  song. 

My  design  leads  me5  to  recount  the  causes  of  events  so 
great,  and  a  boundless  task  is  commenced  upon ;  what  it 
was  that  impelled  a  frantic  people  to  arms  —  what  that 
drove  away  Peace  from  the  world.  The  envious  course  of 
the  Fates,  and  the  denial  to  what  is  supreme  to  be  of  long 
duration ;  the  heavy  fall,  too,  beneath  a  weight  too  great ; 
and  Rome  that  could  not  support  herself.  So  when, 
its  structure  dissolved,  the  last  hour  shall  have  closed  so 
many  ages  of  the  universe,  all  things  shall  return  once 
more  to  former  chaos  ;  constellations  shall  rush  on  against 
mingled  constellations ;  fiery  stars  shall  fall  into  the  deep ; 
faith  shall  refuse  to  extend  her  shores,  and  shall  cast  away 
th?  ocean ;  Phoebe  shall  come  into  collision  with  her  bro- 

liasts,  fancying  that  all  this  is  said  in  irony,  would  have  this  word  '  obliquum,' 
'sidelong,'  or  'oblique/  to  refer  to  the  squint  or  cast  observable  in  Nero's 
eye.  There  seems,  however,  no  ground  for  this  notion. 

1  Will  be  sensible  of  the  burden)  ver.  57.     The  same  Scholiasts  think 
that  satirical  allusion  is  here  made  to  the  fatness  of  Nero. 

2  Keep  close  the  iron  thresholds)  ver.  62.     He  alludes  to  the  Temple  of 
Janus,  which  was  shut  in  time  of  peace. 

3  The  mystic  shrines  of  Cirrha)  ver.  64.     Cirrha  was  a  town  of  Phocis, 
situate  on  Mount  Parnassus,  near  Delphi,  sacred  to  Apollo,  who  is  here  re- 
ferred to. 

4  Withdraw  Bacchus  from  Nysa)  ver.  65.    Nysa  was  the  name  of  several 
cities  sacred  to  Bacchus.     One  was  in  India,  which  is  also  supposed  to  have 
been  called  Dionysopolis.     Another  was  in  ^Ethiopia.     The  others  were  in 
Caria,   Cappadocia,  Thrace,  and  Boeotia.     As  the  latter  was,  like  Cyrrha, 
situate  on  Mount  Parnassus,  it  is  not  improbable  that  it  is  the  one  here  re- 
ferred to. 

'  My  design  leads  me)  ver.  67.  The  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid  begin  with 
the  same  expression,  "  fert  animus." 


6  PHARSALIA.  [u.  i.  77-97. 

ther,  and,  disdaining  to  guide  her  two-horsed  chariot  hi 
its  sidelong  course,  will  demand  the  day  for  herself ;  and 
the  whole  mechanism,  discordant,  will  confuse  the  ties  of 
the  universe  rent  asunder. 

Mighty  things  fall  of  themselves ;  this  limit  to  increase 
have  the  Deities  assigned  to  a  prosperous  state.  Nor  yet  to 
the  advantage  of  any  other  nations  does  Fortune  turn  her 
hate  against  a  people  all-powerful  by  land  and  hy  sea.  Thou, 
Rome,  wast  the  cause  of  thy  own  woes,  becoming  the  common 
property  of  three  masters1;  the  fatal  compact 2,  too,  for 
sway  never  successfully  entrusted  to  a  number.  0  ye,  dis- 
astrously concordant,  and  blinded  by  desires  too  great,  why 
does  it  please  you  to  unite  your  strength  and  to  share  the 
world  in  common  ?  While  the  earth  shall  support  the  sea, 
and  the  air  the  earth",  and  his  long  courses  shall  whirl  on 
Titan  in  his  career,  and  night  shall  -succeed  the  day  through 
signs  as  many,  no  faith  is  there  hi  partners  hi  rule,  and  all 
power  will  be  impatient  of  a  sharer. 

And  believe  not  any  nations,  nor  let  the  examples  of 
t his  fatality  be  sought  from  afar ;  the  rising  walls  of  Rome 
were  steeped  with  a  brother's  blood4.  Nor  was  the  earth 
and  the  ocean  then  the  reward  of  frenzy  so  great ;  an  humble 
retreat5  brought  into  collision  its  lords. 

1  The  common  property  of  three  masters)  ver.  85.  He  alludes  to  the  first 
Triumvirate  or  compact  secretly  made  between  Pompey,  Caesar,  and  Crauus 
to  share  the  Roman  power  between  them.  By  this  arrangement  Pod^ey 
had  Spain  and  Africa,  Crassus  Syria,  while  Caesar's  government  over  Gaul 
was  prolonged  for  five  years. 

8  The  fatal  compact,  too)  ver.  85,  6.  "  Nee  nmqnam  In  turbam  missi 
feralia  foedera  regni !"  The  meaning  is,  "The  sovereign  sway  divided  among 
several,  fatal  in  its  consequences,  and  a  thing  never  successfully  done  be- 
fore ;"  the  Romans  having  hitherto,  except  in  the  disastrous  times  of  Sulla 
and  Marius,  been  governed  by  the  laws  of  the  Republic,  from  the  period 
•when  the  kings  ceased  to  reign. 

3  And  the  air  the  earth)  ver.  90, 1.  Ovid  has  a  very  similar  passage  in 
the  Metamorphoses,  B.  i.  1.  11.  "The  earth  did  not  as  yet  hang  in  the 
surrounding  air,  balanced  by  its  own  weight." 

*  Steeped  with  a  brother'*  blood)  ver.  95.     He  alludes  to  the  death  of 
Remus,  who,  according  to  some,  was  slain  by  the  hand  of  his  brother  Romu- 
lus ;  Ovid,  however,  in  the  Fasti,  B.  iv.  1.  839,  says,  that  he  was  slain  by 
Celer,  one  of  the  followers  of  Romulus.    His  offence  was  the  contempt  which 
he  displayed  in  leaping  over  the  walls  of  infant  Rome. 

*  An  humble  retreat)  ver.  97.   "  Asylum." — Under  the  name  "  asylum,"  he 
probably  alludes  to  the  whole  of  the  spot  on  which  Rome  then  stood.  Roma- 


B.  1. 98-113.]  PHARSALIA.  7 

The  discordant  concord  lasted  for  a  short  time ;  and  peace 
there  was,  through  no  inclination  of  the  chieftains.  For 
Crassus,  interposing,  was  the  sole  impediment  to  the  des- 
tined war.  Just  as  the  narrow  Isthmus 1  which  cleaves  and 
barely  divides  the  two  seas,  nor  yet  allows  them  to  meet 
together ;  if  the  earth  were  to  withdraw,  the  Ionian  would 
dash  itself  against  the  JEgean  main ;  so,  when  Crassus,  who 
kept  asunder  the  ruthless  arms  of  the  chieftains,  hy  a  fate 
much  to  be  deplored  stained  Assyrian  Carrhse 2  with  Latian 
blood,  the  Parthian  misfortunes  let  loose  the  frenzy  of 
Home.  More,  ye  descendants  of  Arsaces3,  was  effected  by 
you  in  that  battle  than  you  suppose ;  civil  warfare  you  con- 
ferred upon  the  conquered. 

The  sway  is  cut  asunder  by  the  sword ;  and  the  fortunes 
of  a  powerful  people,  which  embrace  the  sea,  the  land,  the 
whole  earth,  brook  not  two  leaders.  For  Julia,  cut  off  by 
the  ruthless  hand4  of  the  Destinies5,  bore  away  to  the 
shades  below  the  ties  of  allied  blood,  and  the  marriage 

lus  constituted  a  grove  near  the  Tiber  a  place  of  refuge  for  the  slaves  and 
criminals  of  neighbouring  states,  that  he  might  thereby  augment  the  number 
of  his  own-citizens.  In  later  times  the  Asylum  was  walled  in.  From  a 
passage  in  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  ii.  1.  67,  it  seems  that,  running  down  to  the 
banks  of  the  Tiber,  it  skirted  the  Capitolium. 

1  Just  as  the  narrow  Isthmus)  ver.  101.  He  alludes  to  the  Isthmus  of 
Corinth,  which  connects  the  Peloponnesus  with  the  main  land,  and  has  the 
Ionian  Sea  on  the  west,  the  2Egean  on  the  east. 

3  Stained  Assyrian  Carrhee)  ver.  105.  Carrhae  or  Carrae,  the  Haran  of 
Scripture,  was  a  city  of  Osroene  in  Mesopotamia,  not  far  from  Edessa.  Cras- 
sus  was  slain  in  battle  there  with  the  Parthians,  B.C.  53. 

3  Ye  descendants  of  Arsaces)  v.  108.     The  kings  of  Parthia  were  called 
Arsacicke  from  Arsaces,  the  founder  of  the  Parthian  empire.     He  was  a  per- 
son of  obscure  origin,  and  said  to.  have  been  a  mountain  robber.     About 
250  B.C.  he  headed  a  revolt  of  the  Parthians  against  Antiochus  II.,  which 
being  successful,  he  became  their  first  monarch. 

4  Julia,  cut  off  by  tJie  ruthless  hand)  ver.  113.  Julia  was  the  daughter  of 
Julius  Caesar  by  his  wife  Cornelia,  and  his  only  child  in  marriage.     She  was 
betrothed  to  Servilius  Caepio,  but  was  married  to  Pompey,  B.C.  59.     She 
died  B.C.  54,  and  her  only  child,  which  some  writers  state  to  have  been  a 
son,  some  a  daughter,  died  a  few  days  after.     Seneca  says  that  Caesar  was  in 
Britain  at  the  time  of  Julia's  death.     Though  she  was  twenty-three  years 
younger  than  Pompey,  she  was  devotedly  attached  to  him,  and  received  a 
shock  which  proved  fatal  to  her  on  believing  him  to  have  been  slain  in  a 
popular  tumult. 

4  Of  the  Destinies)  ver.  113.  "  Parcarum."  Literally,  "  of  the  Parcae." 
This  was  a  name  of  the  Fates  or  Destinies,  Clotho,  Lachesis,  and  Atropos. 


8  PHARSALIA.  [B.  i.  113-128. 

torches1,  with  direful  omen,  portentous  of  woe.  But  if  the 
Fates  had  allowed  thee  a  longer  sojourn  in  life,  tliou  alone 
hadst  been  able  to  restrain  on  the  one  side  the  husband  and 
on  the  other  the  parent,  and,  the  sword  dashed  down,  to  join 
the  armed  hands,  just  as  the  Sabine  Avomen,  interposing3, 
united  the  sons-in-law  with  the  fathers-in-law.  By  thy  death 
is  friendship  rent  asunder,  and  license  granted  to  the  chief- 
tains to  commence  the  warfare.  TJie  ambition  of  rivalry  adds 
its  spur. 

Thou,  Magnus,  art  afraid  lest  recent  exploits  should  eclipse 
former  triumphs,  and  the  laurels  gained  from  the  pirates  should 
be  eclipsed  by 3  the  conquest  of  the  Gauls  ;  thee,  Casar,  does 
the  continuance  of  thy  labours  and  thy  experience  gained  by 
tliem  now  elevate,  and  Fortune 4  that  cannot  brook  a  second 
place.  Neither  can  Caesar  now  endure  any  one  his  superior, 
nor  Pompey  any  one  his  equal.  Who  with  the  more  justice  took 
up  arms  it  is  not  permitted  us  to  know3;  each  one  defends 
himself  with  a  mighty  abettor;  the  conquering  cause  was 
pleasing  to  the  Gods,  but  the  conquered  one  to  Cato 6. 

1  And  tlie  marriage  torches)  ver.  112.  "  Taedae"  were  the  marriage  torches 
borne  before  the  bride  when -being  led  to  her  husband's  house.  By  the 
use  of  the  word  "  feralia,"  he  means  that  her  marriage  torch  was  ominously 
soon  supplanted  by  the  torch  which  lighted  her  funeral  pile. 

3  As  tlie  Sabine  women  interposing)  ver.  118.  He  alludes  to  the  reconci- 
liation effected  by  the  Sabine  women,  who  had  been  carried  off  by  Romulus 
and  his  Romans,  between  their  relatives  and  their  husbands,  when  about  to 
engage  in  mortal  combat.  The  story  is  prettily  told  by  Ovid  in  the  Fasti, 
B.  iii.  1.  201,  et  seq. — See  the  Translation  in  Bohn's  Classical  Library,  p.  97. 

3  Laurels  gained  from  tJie  pirates  should  be  eclipsed  by)  ver.  122.     He 
alludes  to  the  victories  of  Caesar  in  Gaul,  and  those  gained  by  Pompey  over 
the  Cilician  pirates,  who  had  swarmed  in  vast  numbers  in  the  Mediterra- 
nean, and  whom  Pompey  had  defeated  with  a  fleet  of  500  ships.     The  Poet 
alludes  to  the  laurel  crown  with  which  Pompey  would  be  grated  when  pro- 
ceeding in  triumph  to  the  Capitol.     It  may  be  here  remarked  that  the  Poet 
throughout  the  work  calls  Pompey  by  his  surname  of  "  Magnus." 

4  And  Fortune)  ver.  124.     "  Fortuna."     Caesar  was  in  the  habit  of  pay- 
ing especial  veneration  to  the  Goddess  "  Fortune." 

*  It  is  not  permitted  us  to  know)  ver.  126.  This  passage  does  not  at  all 
correspond  with  the  spirit  in  which  the  latter  books  are  written  ;  where  every 
possible  invective  as  a  tyrant  and  murderer  is  unsparingly  lavished  upon 
Caesar.  It  is  not  improbable  that  this  book  was  written  several  years  be- 
fore the  latter  ones,  and  while  the  Poet  was  still  enjoying  the  favour  of  Nero. 

6  But  the  conquered  one  to  Cato)  ver.  128.  This  is  a  great  compliment  to 
Cato,  who  is  made  the  hero  of  the  Ninth  Book.  He  was  the  great-grandson 
of  Cato  the  Censor,  and  was  doubtless  the  most  virtuous  of  all  the  illustrioug 
Romans  of  his  day. 


B.  i.  129-147.]  PHARSALIA.  9 

Nor  did  they  meet  on  equal  terms ;  the  one,  with  his 
years  tending  downward  to  old  age,  and  grown  tranquil 
amid  a  long  practice  of  the  arts  of  peace',  had  now  in  tran- 
quillity2 forgotten  the  general;  and,  an  aspirant  for  fame, 
had  been  wont  to  confer  upon  the  public  many  a  largess'1; 
solely  to  he  wafted  on  by  the  popular  gales,  and  to  exult 
in  the  applause  of  a  theatre  his  own4;  not  to  recruit  his 
strength  afresh,  and  principally  to  rely  upon  his  former  suc- 
cesses. There  stood  the  shadow  of  a  glorious  name5 :  just 
as  the  lofty  oak,  hi  a  fertile  field,  which  bears  the  spoils6  of 
an  ancient  people  and  the  consecrated  gifts  of  chieftains,  now 
no  longer  standing  fast  by  its  firm  roots,  is  fixed  by  its  own 
weight;  and  sending  forth  its  bared  branches  into  the  air, 
with  its  trunk,  and  not  its  leaves,  forms  a  shade ;  and  al- 
though it  threatens  to  fall  at  the  first  eastern  blast,  and 
trees  so  many  around  it  lift  themselves  with  firmly-rooted 
strength,  still  it  alone  is  venerated. 

But  in  Csesar  not  only  was  there  a  name  as  great,  and 
the  fame  of  the  general ;  but  a  valour  that  knew  not  how  to 
rest  in  one  place,  and  a  shame  only  felt  at  not  conquering  in 

1  Of  the  arts  of  peace)  ver.  130.     "  Togse."     Literally  "  of  the  toga." 
This  was  the  robe  or  gown  worn  by  the  Roman  citizens  in  domestic  life. 

2  In  tranquillity  forgotten  the  general)  ver.   131.     Pompey  triumphed 
over  Mithridates  B.C.  62,  since  which  time,  for  a  period  of  fourteen  years, 
he  had  been  unused  to  active  warfare.     He  was  only  six  years  older  than 
Caesar. 

3  To  confer  many  a  largess)  ver.  133.     "Dare  multa."     By  the  word 
"  dare"  he  alludes  to  the  largesses  of  corn  which  Pompey  plentifully  bestowed 
on  the  Roman  populace,  and  the  gladiatorial  shows  which  he  exhibited. 

4  Applause  of  a  theatre  his  own)  ver.  133.     He  alludes  to  the  theatre 
which  Pompey  built  at  Rome.     It  was  the  first  one  of  stone  there  erected, 
and  was  large  enough  to  accommodate   40,000    spectators.     It  was  built 
in   the  Campus   Martins,  on  the  model  of  one  at  Mytilene,   in   the   isle  of 
Lesbos.     It  was  opened  with  scenic  representations,  gladiatorial  combats, 
and  fights  of  wild  beasts.     Five  hundred  lions  were  killed,  and  eighteen  ele- 
phants were  hunted,  and  a  rhinoceros  exhibited  for  the  first  time. 

5  Stood  the  shadow  of  a  glorious  name)  ver.  135.     The  Poet  probably 
alludes  here  to  Pompey's  title  or  surname  of  "  Magnus,"  or  "  Great,"  which 
•was  given  to  him  by  the  Roman  people  after  he  had  conquered  Domitius 
Ahenobarbus  and  Hiarbas  in  Sicily.     Plutarch  informs  us  that  Pompey  did 
not  use  that  name  himself  till  he  was  appointed  to  the  command  against  Ser- 
torius  in  Spain. 

6  Tliat  bears  the  spoils)  ver.  137.     He  compares  Pompey,  enriched  with 
the  spoil  of  nations  and  the  rewards  of  his  fellow-citizens,  to  an  oak,  upon 
which  a  trophy  has  been  erected  composed  of  spoils  and  gifts. 


10  PHARSALIA.  [B.  L  147-170. 

war.  Fierce  and  unrestrained;  ready  to  lead  his  troops 
whither  hope  and  whither  vengeance  should  summon,  and 
never  to  spare  fleshing  his  sword ;  to  press  on  his  own 
advantages,  to  rely  on  the  favour  of  the  Deity ;  bearing 
down  whatever  opposed  himself  as  he  sought  the  summit, 
and  rejoicing  amid  ruin  to  have  made  his  way. 

Just  as  the  lightning  forced  by  the  winds  through  the 
clouds  flashes  forth  with  the  echoes  of  the  riven  aether  and 
with  a  crash  throughout  the  universe,  and  overwhelms  the 
light  of  day,  and  terrifies  the  alarmed  nations,  dazzling  the 
eyes  with  its  sidelong  flame.  It  rages  against  temples  its 
own1;  and,  no  matter  impeding  its  going  forth,  both  fall- 
ing, it  sends  vast,  and  returning,  vast  devastation  far  and 
wide,  and  collects  again  its  scattered  fires. 

These  were  the  motives  secretly  existing  with  the  chief- 
tains ;  but  there  were  public  grounds  for  the  warfare,  which 
have  ever  overwhelmed  mighty  nations.  For  when,  the 
world  subdued,  Fortune  introduced  wealth  too  great,  and 
the  manners  gave  way  before  prosperity,  and  booty  and 
the  spoils  of  the  enemy  induced  luxurious  habits ;  no  mo- 
deration was  there  in  gold  or  hi  houses ;  hunger,  too,  dis- 
dained the  tables  of  former  tunes ;  dresses  hardly  suitable 
for  the  matrons  to  wear,  the  males  seized  hold  upon2;  po- 
verty fruitful  in  men3  was  shunned;  and  that  was  fetched 
from  the  entire  earth  by  means  of  which  each  nation  falls. 
Then  did  they  join  the  lengthened  boundaries  of  the  fields, 
and  the  extended  lands  once  turned  up  by  the  hard  plough- 
share of  Camillus4,  and  which  had  submitted  to  the 
ancient  mattocks  of  the  Curii ',  lay  far  and  wide  beneath 
the  charge  of  husbandmen  unknown  to  their  employers. 

1  Against  temples  tit  own)  ver.  155.     He  means  that  as  the  lightnings 
rage  amid  the  clouds  and  the  air,  their  own  realms,  so  Caesar  displayed  hit 
warlike  fury  among  his  own  fellow-citizens. 

2  The  males  seized  hold  upon)  ver.  164.     He  probably  alludes  to  the  use 
of  "  multitia,"  certain  thin  garments  and  silken  textures  which  had  been 
recently  introduced  into  Home. 

3  Fruitful  in  men)  ver.  165.  "  Virorum."  In  the  sense  of  "  manly  spirits." 

4  Ploughshare  of  Camillna)  ver.  168.    He  alludes  to  M.  Furius  Camillus, 
the  Roman  Dictator,  who  was  said  to  hare  been  taken  from  the  plough  to 
lead  his  fellow-citizens  against  the  enemy.     He  died  of  the  plague,  B.C.  365. 

*  Mattocks  of  the  Curii)  ver.  169.  He  alludes  to  Marius  Curius  Dentatus, 
who  held  the  Consulship  with  P.  Cornelius  llufinus,  and  enabled  the  Ro- 
mans to  withstand  Fyrrhus,  and  triumphed  over  the  Samnites.  \Vhen  their 


B.  J.  171-187.]  PHARSALIA.  11 

This  was  not  the  people  whom  tranquil  peace  might 
avail,  whom  its  own  liberty  might  satisfy  with  arms  un- 
moved. Thence  arose  ready  broils,  and  the  contemptible 
wickedness  which  poverty  could  prompt;  and  the  great 
honor,  and  one  worthy  to  be  sought  with  the  sword,  to  have 
been  able  to  do  more  than  one's  own  country;  might, 
too,  was  the  measure  of  right;  hence  laws  and  decrees 
of  the  people1  constrained,  and  Tribunes  confounding  their 
rights  with  Consuls.  Hence  the  Fasces  2  snatched  up  at 
a  price,  and  the  populace  itself  the  vendor  of  its  own 
applause,  and  canvassing  fatal  to  the  city,  bringing  round 
the  annual  contests  on  the  venal  Plain  of  Mars'6;  hence 
devouring  usury,  and  interest  greedy  for  each  moment, 
and  credit  shaken,  and  warfare  profitable  to  the  many4. 

Now  had  Caesar  in  his  course 5  passed  the  icy  Alps,  and 
revolved  in  his  mind  the  vast  commotions  and  the  future 
war.  When  he  had  arrived  at  the  waves  of  the  little  Eubi- 
con6,  the  mighty  image  of  his  trembling  country  distinctly 
appeared  to  the  chieftain  hi  the  darkness  of  the  night,  bear- 
ambassadors  came  with  the  intention  of  bribing  him,  they  found  him  at  work 
in  his  field,  and  in  answer  to  their  solicitations,  he  told  them  that  he  would 
rather  be  the  ruler  of  the  rich  than  be  rich  himself,  and  that,  invincible  in  the 
field,  he  could  not  be  conquered  by  money.  He  died  B.C.  270. 

'  Laws  and  decrees  of  the  people)  ver.  176.  At  Rome  the  "  leges,"  or 
"  laws  "  were  approved  by  the  Senate  ;  while  the  "  plebiscita,"  or  "  decrees 
of  the  people,"  were  passed  at  the  "  Comitia  Tributa,"  or  meetings  of  the 
tribes,  on  the  rogation  of  a  Tribune. 

*  Hence  the  Fasces)  ver.  178.    "Fasces."    These,  which  were  formed  of  a 
bundle  of  rods  inclosing  an  axe,  were  the  insignia  of  the  Consular  dignity ; 
and  the  word  is  frequently  used  to  denote  the  office  itself.     Lucan  here  al- 
ludes to  the  corrupt  and  venal  manners  of  the  Eoman  people  at  this  period. 

3  The  venal  Plain  of  Mars)  ver.  180.  He  alludes  to  the  elections  of  the 
Eoman  magistrates  in  the  Campus  Martius  at  Rome,  and  the  system  of  bri- 
bery by  which  the  suffrages  of  the  people  were  purchased. 

*  Profitable  to  the  many)  ver.  182.  Those,  namely,  who  had  nothing  to  lose. 
s  Ccesar  in  his  course)  ver.  185.     On  his  march  from  Gaul  to  Italy. 

0  The  leaves  of  tlie  little  Rubicon)  ver.  185.  This  was  a  small  river  be- 
tween Caesenum  and  Ariminum,  in  the  north  of  Italy,  falling  into  the 
Adriatic.  It  was  the  ancient  boundary  of  Gaul,  which  was  Caesar's  province. 
It  is  said  to  have  received  its  name  from  the  red  (rubri)  stones  with  which 
it  abounded.  It  is  uncertain  whether  it  was  the  stream  called  Lusa,  or  that 
named  Pisatello  at  the  present  day.  It  is  said  that  on  the  bank  of  this  river 
a  pillar  was  placed  by  a  decree  of  the  Senate,  with  an  inscription  importing 
that  whoever  should  pass  in  arms  into  the  Roman  territory  would  be  deemed 
an  enemy  to  the  state. 


12  PHARSALIA.  [B.  i.  187-201. 

ing  marks  of  extreme  sadness  on  her  features,  letting  loose 
the  white  hair  from  her  tower-bearing  head,  with  her  long 
locks  dishevelled,  standing  with  her  arms  all  bare,  and 
uttering  these  uvrds,  mingled  with  sighs  : 

"  Whither  beyond  this  do  you  proceed  ?  Whither,  ye  men, 
do  you  bear  my  standards  ?  If  rightfully  you  come,  if  as 
citizens,  thus  far  you  may."  Then  did  horror  smite  the  limbs 
of  the  chieftain,  his  hair  stood  on  end,  and  a  languor  that 
checked  his  course  withheld  his  steps  on  the  verge  of  the 
bank.  Soon  he  exclaims,  "  O  Thunderer,  who  dost  look 
down '  upon  the  walls  of  the  mighty  city  from  the  Tarpeian 
rock,  and  ye  Phrygian  Penates  of  the  Julian  race2,  ye  se- 
cret mysteries,  too,  of  Quirinus  borne  away3,  and  Jove 
of  Latium,  who  dost  reside  in  lofty  Alba4,  and  ye  Vestal 
hearths 5,  and  thou,  O  Rome,  equal  to  a  supreme  Deity,  favour 
my  designs !  With  no  fatal  arms  am  I  pursuing  thee ;  lo ! 

1  Thunderer,  who  dost  look  down)  ver.  196.  He  alludes  to  Jupiter  Capi- 
tnlinus,  whose  temple  was  on  the  Capitoline  hill,  a  part  of  which  was  called 
the  Tarpeian  rock,  from  the  virgin  Tarpeia,  who  was  killed  and  buried  there. 

*  Phrygian  Penates  of  the  Julian  race)  ver.  197.  JJneas  rescued  his 
Penates  or  household  gods  from  the  flames  of  Troy,  the  capital  of  Phrygia. 
Ascanius  or  lulus,  his  son,  was  said  to  have  been  the  ancestor  of  the  Julian 
family,  of  which  Julius  Caesar  was  a  member.  Jupiter  had  a  temple,  which 
was  built  on  the  mountain  of  Alba  by  Ascanius,  and  was  there  worshipped 
under  the  name  of  Jupiter  Latialis.  The  holy  Are  sacred  to  Vesta  was 
first  preserved  there,  until  it  was  removed  from  Alba  to  Rome  by  Numa. 

3  Mysteries  of  Quirinus  lome  away)  ver.  197.     Quirinus  was  a  name  of 
Romulus,  derived,  according  to  Dionysius  of  Haliearnassus,  from  the  Sabine 
language.     Some  suppose  it  to  have  originated  in  the  Sabine  word  "  curis,"  a 
spear.     Lucan  here  alludes  to  the  mysterious  manner  in  which  Romulus  dis- 
appeared.    It  is  not  improbable  that  he  was  slain  by  his  nobles,  and  that 
through  their  agent  Julius  Proculus  they  spread  the  report  that  he  had  been 
taken  up  to  heaven.     In  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  ii.  1.  505,  he  is  represented 
as  saying,  "  Forbid  the  Quirites  to  lament,  and  let  them  not  offend  my 
Godhead  with  their  tears.     Let  them  offer  me  frankincense,  and  let  the 
multitude  pay  adoration  to  Quirinus,  their  new  God,  and  let  them  practise 
my  father's  arts  and  warfare." 

4  Who  dost  reside  in  lofty  Alba)  ver.  198.     Alba  Longa  was  said  to  be 
the  most  ancient  town  in  Latium,  and  to  have  been  founded  by  Ascanius, 
the  son  of  ./Eneas.     It  derived  its  name  of  Longa  from  its  extending  in  a 
long  line  down  the  Alban  mount  toward  the  Alban  lake.    It  was  totally  de- 
stroyed  by  Tullus  Hostilins,  and  its  inhabitants  were  removed  to  Rome. 

4  And  ye  Vestal  hearths)  ver.  199.  He  alludes  to  the  sacred  fire  which 
was  tended  by  the  Vestal  virgins  in  the  Temple  of  Vesta,  said  to  have 
been  brought  from  Troy  by  J2neas. 


B.  I.  201-230.]  PHARSALIA.  13 

here  am  I,  Caesar,  the  conqueror  by  land  and  hy  sea.  every- 
where (if  only  it  is  permitted  me)  thine  own  soldier  even 
still.  He  will  it  be,  he  the  guilty  one,  who  shall  make 
me  thy  foe ! " 

Then  did  he  end  the  respite  from  the  warfare,  and  swiftly 
bore  the  standards  through  the  swollen  stream.  Just  as  when 
in  the  parched  plains  of  sultry  Libya  a  lion,  his  enemy 
perceived  at  hand,  crouches  undecided  until  he  collects  all 
his  fury ;  soon  as  he  has  aroused  himself  by  the  lashings 
of  his  infuriate  tail,  and  has  raised  his  mane  erect,  and 
from  his  vast  throat  the  loud  roar  re-echoes ;  then,  if  the 
light  lance  of  the  Moor,  hurled,  pierces  him,  or  the  hunt- 
ing spears  enter  his  broad  chest,  amid  the  weapons, 
careless  of  wounds  so  great,  he  rushes  on. 

From  a  small  spring  rises  the  ruddy  Rubicon,  and, 
when  fervid  summer  glows,  is  impelled  with  humble  waves, 
and  through  the  lowly  vales  it  creeps  along,  and,  a  fixed 
boundary,  separates  from  the  Ausonian  husbandmen  the 
Gallic  fields.  At  that  time  winter1  gave  it  strength,  and 
now  the  showery  Cynthia  with  her  blunted  horn  for  the 
third  tiime2  had  swollen  the  waves,  and  the  Alps  were 
thawed  by  the  watery  blasts  of  the  eastern  breeze.  First 
of  all  the  charger3  is  opposed  obliquely  to  the  stream,  to 
bear  the  brunt  of  the  floods ;  then  the  rest  of  the  throng 
bursts  through  the  pliant  waves  of  the  river,  now  broken  in 
its  course,  across  the  easy  ford.  When  Csesar,  the  stream 
surmounted,  reached  the  opposite  banks,  and  stood  upon 
the  forbidden  fields  of  Hesperia ;  "  Here,"  said  he,  "  here  do 
I  leave  peace,  and  the  violated  laws  behind ;  thee,  Fortune, 
do  I  follow ;  henceforth,  far  hence  be  treaties !  The  Desti- 
nies have  we  trusted ;  War  as  our  umpire  we  must  adopt." 

Thus  having  said,  the  active  leader  in  the  shades  of 
night  hurries  on  his  troops,  and  swifter  than  the  hurled 

1  At  that  time  winter)  ver.  217.  Caesar  passed  the  Rubicon  at  the  end  of 
the  month  of  January. 

'  With  her  Hunted  horn  for  the  third  time)  ver.  218.  "  Tertia  Cynthia"  is 
probably  the  third  night  after  the  change  of  the  moon.  The  passage  seems  to 
menn  that  it  had  mined  three  nights  (and  probably  days)  successively. 

*  The  charger)  ver.  220.  ';  Sonipes,"  "  sounding  hoof,"  is  the  name  gene- 
rally used  by  Lucan  when  he  speaks  of  the  charger  or  war-horse. 


14  PHARSALIA.  [B.  1. 230-249. 

charge  of  the  Balearic  sling1,  and  the  arrow2  shot 
behind  the  back  of  the  Parthian ;  and  threatening  he  sur- 
prises Ariminum3.  Lucifer  left  behind,  the  stars  fled 
from  the  fires  of  the  sun,  and  now  arose  the  day  doomed 
to  behold  the  first  outbreak  of  the  war.  Whether  by  the 
will  of  the  Gods,  or  whether  the  murky  south  wind  im- 
pelled them,  clouds  obscured  the  saddened  light.  When  in 
the  captured  Forum  the  soldier  halted,  commanded  to  pitch 
his  standard,  the  clash  of  clarions  and  the  clang  of  trum- 
pets sounded  the  ill-omened  signals4  together  with  the 
hoarse-sounding  horn.  The  rest  of  the  people  was  broken, 
and,  aroused  from  their  beds,  the  youth  snatched  down  the 
arms  fixed  up  near  the  hallowed  Penates,  which  a  pro- 
longed peace  still  afforded ;  they  laid  hold  of  shields  decaying 
with  the  frames  now  bare,  and  darts  with  blunted  points, 
and  swords  rough  with  the  cankering  of  swarthy  rust. 

When  the  well-known  eagles  glittered,  and  the  Koman 
standards,  and  Csesar  mounted  aloft  was  beheld  hi  the 
midst  of  the  ranks,  they  grew  chilled  with  alarm,  icy  dread 
bound  fast  their  limbs,  and  they  revolved  these  silent 
complaints  within  their  speechless  breasts : — "  O  walls  ill 
founded,  these,  with  the  Gauls  for  their  neighbours 5 !  O  walls 

1  Of  the  Balearic  sling)  ver.  229.     The  Baleares  were  islands  in  the  Me- 
diterranean, off  the  coast  of  Spain,  and  were  called  "  Major"  and  "  Minor ;" 
whence  their  present  names  Majorca  and  Minorca.     Their  inhabitants  were 
noted  for  their  great  skill  in  the  use  of  the  sling,  and  were  much  employed  in 
the  Roman  and  Carthaginian  armies. 

2  The  arrow)  yer.  230.     The  Parthians  were  filmed  for  the  dexterity 
with  which  they  used  the  bow  when  retreating  on  horseback  at  the  swiftest 
speed. 

3  He  surprises  Ariminum)  ver.  231.    Ariminum,  now  called  Rimini,  was  a 
city  of  TJmbria,  on  the  coast  of  the  Adriatic;  about  nine  miles  south  of  the 
Rubicon.     The  Via  Flaminia  and  the  Via  JEmilia  led  to  it  from  Rome. 
Caesar  took  possession  of  it  immediately  after  passing  the  Rubicon,  as  being 
a  spot  from  which  he  could  conveniently  direct  his  operations  against  Etruria 
and  Picenum.     Caesar  informs  us  in  his  account  of  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.,  c.  8, 
that  he  took  possession  of  this  place  with  the  13th  legion,  and  that  here  he 
met  the  Tribunes  who  had  fled  to  him  from  Rome  for  protection. 

4  The  ill-omened  signals)  ver.  238.     Because  sounding  the  note  of  civil 
war. 

*  The  Gauls  for  tiieir  neighbours)  ver.  248.  Ariminum  was  originally  inha- 
bited by  the  Umbrians,  then  by  the  Senonian  Gauls,  who  were  expelled  by 
the  Romans  in  the  year  B.C.  268,  when  it  was  colonized  from  Rome. 


B.  i.  249-265.]  PHARSALIA.  15 

condemned  to  a  hapless  site  !  Profound  peace  and  tranquil 
repose  is  there  throughout  all  nations,  we  are  the  prey  and  the 
first  encampment  for  these  thus  frenzied.  Far  better,  For- 
tune, wouldst  thou  have  afforded  an  abode  in  an  eastern 
clime,  and  under  the  icy  north,  and  wandering  abodes1, 
rather  than  to  have  to  protect  the  threshold  of  Latium.  We 
were  the  first  to  behold  the  commotions  of  the  Senones2, 
the  Cimbrian3,  too,  rushing  on,  and  the  hosts  of  Libya4, 
and  the  career  of  the  Teutonic  rage.  As  oft  as  Fortune 
aims  a  blow  at  Eome,  this  is  the  passage  for  the  warfare." 

Thus  with  a  secret  sigh  spoke  each,  not  venturing  to  ex- 
press his  alarm  aloud ;  no  voice  was  entrusted  to  anguish ; 
but  in  the  same  degree  in  which,  when  the  winter  keeps  in 
the  birds,  the  fields  are  silent,  and  the  mid  ocean  without  a 
murmur  is  still,  thus  profound  was  the  silence.  Light  has 
now  dispelled  the  cold  shades  of  night ;  lo !  the  Fates  sup- 
ply to  his  wavering  mind  the  torches  of  war  and  induce- 
ments provoking  to  battle,  and  rend  asunder  all  the  pauses 
of  moderation ;  Fortune  struggles  that  the  movements  of 
the  chieftain  shall  be  justified,  and  discovers  pretexts  for 
his  arms. 

'  And  wandering  abodes)  ver.  253.  He  alludes  either  to  the  wander- 
ing life  of  the  Numidian  tribes  or  of  the  Scythians,  who  were  said  to  move 
from  place  to  place,  and  to  live  in  waggons. 

*  The  commotions  of  the  Senones)  ver.  254.  The  Senonian  Gauls  were 
originally  from  Gallia  Lugdunensis,  dwelling  near  the  Sequana  or  Seine.  A 
part  of  their  people  passed  into  Italy  by  way  of  the  Alps  about  B.C.  400, 
and  penetrating  to  the  south,  they  took  up  their  abode  on  the  borders  of  the 
Adriatic,  after  expelling  the  Umbrians.  Marching  against  Rome  they  took 
all  the  City  except  the  Capitol,  B.C.  390.  They  were  finally  subdued  by  the 
Romans,  and  the  greater  part  of  them  destroyed  by  the  Consul  Dolabella,  B.C. 
283.  Of  course  Ariminum,  being  at  the  very  verge  of  Italy,  would  be  ex- 
posed to  their  first  attacks. 

3  T/ie  Cimbrian,  too)  ver.  254.     The  Cimbri  are  supposed  to  have  originally 
inhabited  the  Chersonesus  Cimbrica,  or  Jutland.     Migrating  south  with  the 
Teutoni  and  Ambrones,  they  overran  Gaul,  which  they  ravaged  in  all  direc- 
tions. They  repulsed  several  Roman  armies  with  great  slaughter,  but  were  ulti- 
mately defeated  by  Caius  Marius  near  Aquae  Sextiae  (now  Aix)  in  Gaul,  and 
by  Marius  and  Catulus  at  the  battle  of  Cainpi  Raudii,  near  Verona,  B.C.  101. 

4  And  the  hosts  of  Libya)  ver.  255.     Under  the  name  of  "  Mars  Libyes" 
he  alludes  to  the  Punic  wars;  in  the  second  of  which  Ariminum  played  a 
distinguished  part.     In  the  year  B.C.  218  Sempronius  directed  his  legions 
thither  in  order  to  oppose  Hannibal  in  Cisalpine  Gaul ;  and  throughout  that 
war  it  was  one  of  the  points  to  which  the  greatest  importance  was  attached 
from  its  commanding  position. 


16  PHARSALIA.  [u.  i.  266-276. 

The  threatening  Senate,  the  law  violated,  expelled  from 
the  divided  city  the  differing  Tribunes  \  the  Gracchi  being 
thrown  in  their  teeth  2.  These  now  repairing  to  the  stand- 
ards of  the  chieftain  moving  onward  and  in  their  vicinity, 
the  daring  Curio,  with  his  venal  tongue3,  accompanies;  a 
voice  that  once  was  the  people's,  and  that  had  dared  to 
defend  liberty,  and  to  place  armed  potentates  on  a  level 
with  the  lower  classes 4. 

And  when  he  beheld  the  chieftain  revolving  his  various 
cares  in  his  breast,  he  said,  "  While,  Csesar,  thy  party 
could  be  aided  by  my  voice,  although  against  the  will  of 
the  Senate,  then  did  we  prolong  thy  rule 5,  so  long  as  I  had 

1  Expelled  the  differing  Tribunes}  ver.  266.  Caesar  offered  to  lay  down 
his  command  if  Pompey  would  do  the  same ;  but  the  party  of  the  latter 
would  listen  to  no  proposals  for  an  accommodation.  Quintus  Cassius  Longi- 
nus,  and  Marc  Antony,  the  Tribunes  of  the  people,  ventured  to  speak 
boldly  in  behalf  of  Caesar,  but  were  violently  censured  by  the  Consuls 
Marcellus  and  Lentulus,  who  reminded  them  very  significantly  of  the  con- 
duct and  fate  of  the  Gracchi,  and  threatened  them  with  a  similar  end;  on 
which  they  escaped  from  the  city  by  night,  disguised  like  slaves,  and  fled  to 
Caesar  at  Ariminnm.  This  the  Poet  considers  to  be  unfortunate,  inasmuch 
as  it  would  consequently  appear  that  Caesar  marched  towards  Rome  for  no 
other  reason  than  to  preserve  the  privileges  of  the  Tribunes,  and  to  support 
the  laws  of  his  country. 

3  The  Gracchi  leing  throvm,  in  their  teeth)  ver.  267.  Tiberius  and  Caius 
Gracchus  devoted  their  public  career  to  asserting  the  rights  of  the  Plebeians 
againat  the  Patricians  of  Rome,  for  which  reason  their  names  became  by- 
words for  sedition  and  violence.  They  both  met  with  violent  deaths  at 
different  periods. 

3  The,  daring  Curio,  with  hit  venal  tongue)  ver.  269.    C.  Scribonius  Curio 
was  an  orator  of  great  natural  talents.     He  first  belonged  to  the  party  of 
Pompey;  but  having  run  deeply  into  debt,  he  abandoned  him  and  joined 
Caesar,  on  the  understanding  that  he  would  pay  off  all  his  liabilities.    When 
the  Senate  demanded  that  Caesar  should  lay  down  his  command  before  coming 
into  the  city,  Curio  proposed  that  Pompey  should  do  the  same.     While  he 
was  opposing  the  party  of  Pompey  in  the  Senate,  the  year  of  his  Tribune- 
ship  came  to  a  close,  and,  fearing  for  his  own  safety,  he  fled  from  the  city 
and  joined  Caesar  at  Ariminum ;  or,  according  to  some,  at  Ravenna. 

*  On  a,  level  t?ith  the  loiter  classes)  ver.  271.  By  his  eloquence  he  was 
able  to  counteract  the  ambition  of  great  men,  and  to  reduce  them  to  a  private 
station.  It  is  supposed  by  some  that  Curio  is  the  person  referred  to  by  Virgil 
in  the  sixth  Book  of  the  JKncid,  in  the  famous  words,  "  Vendidit  hie  auro  pa- 
triam."  "  This  man  sold  his  country  for  gold." 

4  Then  did  we  prolong/  thy  rule)  ver.  275.     He  takes  to  himself  the 
credit  of  having  obtained  for  Csasar  a  prolongation  of  his  government  of 
Gaul  for  another  five  years. 


B.  I.  27.6-291.]  PHARSALIA.  17 

the  liberty  to  occupy  the  Eostra  *,  and  to  bring  over  to  thee 
the  wavering  Quirites.  But  after  the  laws,  coerced  by  war- 
fare, were  dumb,  we  were  driven  from  our  paternal  homes, 
and  of  our  own  accord  we  endured  exile  ;  '  t  is  thy  victory  will 
make  us  citizens  again.  While,  strengthened  with  no 
support,  the  factions  are  still  in  doubt,  away  with  delay !  it 
always  injures  men  prepared  to  procrastinate.  Equal  labours 
and  anxieties  are  being  sought  for  a  greater  reward 2.  Gaul 
has  kept  thee  engaged  in  war  for  twice  five  years 3,  a  portion 
of  the  earth  how  trifling !  If  with  a  happy  result  thou  hast 
fought  a  few  battles,  Rome  for  thee  will  subdue  the  world J ! 
"  Now  neither  does  the  procession  of  the  lengthened 
triumph5  receive  thee  returning,  nor  does  the  Capitol 
demand  the  consecrated  laurels.  Cankering  envy  denies 
thee  everything;  and  hardly  wilt  thou  escape  with  im- 
punity having  subdued  the  foe ;  it  is  the  determination  of 
the  son-in-law  to  deprive  the  father-in-law6  of  the  sway. 
Thou  canst  not  share  the  earth ;  alone  thou  mayst  pos- 
sess it." 

1  To  occupy  the  Rostra)  ver.  275.     "  Eostra,"  or  "  The  Beaks,"  was  the 
name  given  to  the  stage  in  the  Forum  at  Rome,  from  which  the  Orators 
addressed  the  populace.     It  was  so  called  from  having  been  adorned  with 
the  "rostra,"  or  "  beaks  "  of  the  ships  of  war  taken  from  the  Antiates.  The 
Rostra  were  transferred  by  Julius  Caesar  to  another  part  of  the  Forum,  from 
which  time  the  spot  where  the  ancient  Rostra  had  stood  was  called  "  Rostra 
Vetera,"  while  the  other  was  styled  the  "  Rostra  Nova,"   or  "  Rostra  Julia." 

2  Are  sought  for  a  greater  reward)  ver.  282.     Meaning,  "  The  risk  and 
labour  are  equal  to  those  you  encountered  in  the  Gallic  war,  but  the  reward 
will  be  far  greater." 

3  For  twice  five  years)  ver.  283.     "  Geminis  lustris."    The  original  mean- 
ing of  the  word  "  lustrum  "  (which  was  derived  from  "  luo,"  "  to  cleanse," 
or  "atone  for,")  was,  "a  purifying  sacrifice,"  offered  in  behalf  of  the  whole 
people  by  one  of  the  Censors,  after  finishing  the  census  or  review  of  the 
Roman  people,  at  the  end  of  every  five  years,  or  four  years  according  to 
the  Julian  Calendar.     The  Gallic  campaigns  of   Caesar  extended   over  a 
period  of  ten  years. 

4  Rome  for  thee  will  subdue  the  world)  ver.  285.     That  is  to  say,  "  in 
conquering  Rome  you  will  have  conquered  the  world." 

5  Procession  of  (fa  lengthened  triumph)  ver.  286.     He  alludes  to  the  un- 
just refusal  which  Caesar  had  met  with  when  he  demanded  a  triumph  for  his 
conquests  in  Gaul. 

a  The  son-in-law  to  deprive  the  father-in-law)  ver.  289.  Throughout  his 
poem,  Lucan  generally  styles  Caesar  "  socer,"  "  the  father-in-law,"  and 
Ponipey  "  gener,"  "  the  son-in-law,"  relatively  to  each  other.  The  marriage 
of  Pompey  to  Julia,  the  daughter  of  Caesar,  has  been  previously  referred  to. 

0 


13  PHAKSAL1A.  [B.  L  291-313. 

After  he  bad  thus  spoken,  and  had  aroused  iu  him, 
though  eager  already  for  the  war,  much  anger  still,  and  had 
inflamed  the  chieftain,  hi  the  same  degree  as  the  Elean 
courser  is  urged  on  by  the  shouts 1,  although,  the  starting 
place  now  closed2,  he  struggles  against  the  door,  and  head- 
long loosens  the  bolts.  -  Forthwith  he  summons  the  armed 
maniples :f  to  the  standards,  and  when,  the  multitudes  collect- 
ing, he  has  well  calmed  their  hurrying  tumultuousness,  with 
his  countenance  and  his  right  hand  he  enjoins  silence  : 

"  O  companions  in  war ! "  he  exclaims,  "  who  together  with 
me  have  experienced  the  thousand  hazards  of  battle,  now 
in  the  tenth  year  that  you  have  conquered,  has  your  blood, 
shed  in  the  regions  of  the  north,  deserved  this,  and  wounds 
and  death,  and  winters  passed  at  the  foot  of  the  Alps? 
Not  otherwise  is  Home  convulsed  by  the  vast  tumultuous 
preparations  for  war,  than  if  the  Punic  Hannibal  were  de- 
scending from  the  Alps.  With  stout  recruits  the  cohorts 
are  being  filled ;  for  the  fleet  every  forest  is  falling ;  and 
both  by  sea  and  by  land  is  Csesar  ordered  to  be  expelled. 
What,  if  my  standards  had  lain  prostrate  in  adverse  war- 
fare, and  if  the  fierce  nations  of  the  Gauls  had  been  rushing 
close  on  our  backs  ?  Now,  when  Fortune  acts  with  me  hi 
prospering  circumstances,  and  the  Gods  are  summoning  us 
to  the  mastery,  we  are  challenged.  Let  him  come  to  the 
war,  the  chieftain,  enfeebled  by  prolonged  peace4,  with  his 
soldiery  so  hastily  levied,  his  toga-clad  partisans,  too,  and 

1  Elean  courser  it  urged  on  by  the  shouts)  ver.  294.     He  alludes  to  the 
coursers  in  the  chariot  races  at  the  Olympic  games,  which  were  celebrated 
in  the  territory  of  Elis,  in  the  Peloponnesus. 

2  The  starting  place  closed)  ver.  295.     The  "carceres"  were  vaults  at  the 
end  of  the  race-course,  closed  by  gates  of  open  woodwork,  which,  on  the 
signal  being  given,  were  simultaneously  opened  by  the  aid  of  men  and 
ropes,  and  the  chariots  came  forth,  ready  for  starting.     The  "  carceres  "  were 
fastened  with  "  repagula,"  "  bars  "  or  "  bolts." 

3  Sumnnont  the  armed  maniples)  ver.  296.     In  the  early  times  of  the 
Koman  state  a  bundle  of  hay  on  the  end  of  a  pole  served  the  Roman  army 
for  the  purposes  of  a  standard.     To  each  troop  of  a  hundred  men,  a  "  mani- 
pulus,"  or  "  wisp  "  of  hay  (so  called  from  "  manum  implere,"   "  to  fill  the 
hand,"  as  forming  a  handful),  was  assigned  as  a  standard,  and  hence  in  time 
the  company  itself  obtained  the  name  of  "  manipulus,"  and  the  soldier,  as  a 
member  of  it,  was  called  "  manipularis." 

4  The  chieftain,  enfeebled  by  prolonged  peace)  ver.  311.     He  alludes  to 
Pompey,  in  recent  years  grown  unused  to  warfare. 


B.  L  313-322.]  PHARSALIA.  19 

the  loquacious  Marcellus1,  the  Catos  as  well,  mere  idle 
names2.  Will,  forsooth,  men  from  afar3  and  purchased 
dependants  still  associate  Pompey  with  the  sway  for  years 
so  many  ?  Is  he  to  be  guiding  the  triumphal  chariot,  his 
years  not  yet  permitting  it4?  Is  he  never  to  resign  the 
honors  which  he  has  once  usurped?  Why  need  I  now 
complain  of  the  fields  placed  under  restraint5  throughout 
the  whole  earth,  and  how  that  starvation  at  his  command  has 
become  his  slave  ?  Who  does  not  know  how  the  camp  has 
been  intermingled  with  the  trembling  Forum  ?  When  the 
swords  ominously  threatening  surrounded  the  terrified  judg- 
ment seat6  with  an  unwonted  array,  and,  the  soldiery  pre- 
suming to  burst  in  upon  the  midst  of  the  legal  proceedings, 

1  The  loquacious  Marcellus)  ver.  313.     C.  Claudius  Marcellus  is  re- 
ferred to,  who,  when  Consul,  together  with  his  colleague,  Cornelius  Len- 
tulus,  distinguished  himself  by  his  fierce  animosity  against  Csesar.     He 
appears  to  have  been  a  person  of  slender  abilities,  and  a  tool  in  the  hands  of 
the  partisans  of  Pompey.  Judging  from  the  present  passage,  he  was  probably 
noted  for  his  garrulity.    It  is  supposed  that  he  perished  in  the  Civil  War. 

2  The  Catos,  as  well,  mere  idle  names)  ver.  313.     The  plural  number  is 
used  here  as  a  contemptuous  mode  of  expression.     M.  Porcius  Cato  was 
tbe  only  one  of  the  family  who  was  distinguished  at  this  period. 

3  Men  from  afar)  ver.  314.     Cortius  thinks  that  the  word  "  extremi  " 
refers  to  the  "  lowest,"  or  "  dregs"  of  the  people.    It  is  more  probable  that  it 
alludes  to  persons  or  nations  from  a  distance,  as  Pompey  had  gained  victories 
and  subdued  nations  in  Spain,  Africa,  Asia  Minor,  and  other  parts  of  the 
world. 

4  His  years  not  yet  permitting  it)  ver.  316.     According  to  the  laws  of 
Rome,  a  general  was  not  allowed  to  enjoy  a  triumph  till  he  had  arrived  at 
his  thirtieth  year.     Pompey  having  conquered  Hiarbas,  King  of  Numidia, 
who  had  espoused  the  cause  of  Cn.  Domitius  Ahenobarbus,  the  Marian 
leader,  obtained  a  triumph  before  he  had  attained  his  twenty-fifth  year. 

5  Fields  placed  under  restraint)  ver.  318.     We  are  informed  by  Cicero, 
in  his  Epistles  to  Atticus,  and  by  Plutarch,  in  the  Life  of  Pompey,  that 
by  a  law  passed  for  the  purpose,  the  whole  power  of  importing  corn  was 
entrusted  to  Pompey  for  five  years ;  and  Plutarch  states  that  it  was  asserted 
by  Clodius  that  the  law  was  not  made  by  reason  of  the  scarcity  of  corn, 
but  that  the  scarcity  of  corn  was  made  that  it  might  give  rise  to  a  law  to 
invest   Pompey  with  a  power  almost  supreme.     Pompey  was  accused  of 
having,  by  his  agents,  used  under-hand  means  to  create  this  scarcity. 

8  Surrounded  the  terrified  judgment  seat)  ver.  321.  He  alludes  to  the 
conduct  of  Pompey,  on  the  occasion  when  T.  Annius  Papianus  Milo  was 
accused  of  the  murder  of  Clodius,  and  defended  by  Cicero,  who  then  pro- 
nounced his  oration  pro  Milone,  or  rather  a  part  of  it,  as,  being  intimi- 
dated, he  forgot  a  large  portion  of  what  he  had  intended  to  say  in  favour 
of  his  client.  Pompey  was  then  the  sole  Consul,  and  to  prevent  the  tumults 

c  a 


20  PHARSALIA.  [u.  i.  323-337. 

the  standards  of  Pompey  closed  around  the  accused  Milo. 
Now,  too,  lest  an  old  age  spent  in  privacy  should  await  him 
in  his  feebleness,  he  is  preparing  for  contests  accursed, 
accustomed  to  civil  warfare,  and,  trained  by  crimes,  to 
surpass  his  master  Sulla'.  And  as  the  fierce  tigers  never 
lay  aside  their  fury,  which,  in  the  Hyrcanian  forest*,  while 
they  haunted  the  lairs  of  their  dams,  the  blood  deep-drawn 
of  the  slain  herds  has  nurtured ;  so  too,  Magnus,  does  thy 
thirst  survive  to  thee  accustomed  to  lick  the  sword  of  Sulla. 
Once  received  within  the  lips,  no  blood  allows  the  polluted 
jaws  to  become  satiated.  Still,  what  end  will  power  meet 
with,  thus  prolonged  ?  What  limit  is  there  to  crimes '?  At 
least,  dishonorable  man,  let  this  Sulla  of  thine  teach  thee3 
now  to  dismount  from  this  supreme  sway.  Shall  then,  after 
the  wandering  Cilicians4,  and  the  Pontic  battles  of  the  ex- 
hausted monarch5,  with  difficulty  ended  through  barbarian 

that  were  threatened  by  the  friends  of  Clodius,  he  lined  the  Forum  and  the 
surrounding  hills  with  soldiers.  This  was  contrary  to  law,  and  though 
Pompey  aided  the  prosecution  of  Milo,  Caesar  is  made  to  insinuate,  in  the 
present  speech,  that  it  was  done  to  protect  him  ;  whereas,  in  all  probability, 
Pompey  acted  thus  solely  with  the  view  of  maintaining  the  public  peace. 
Milo  was  condemned,  and  retired  in  exile  to  Massilia  or  Marseilles. 

1  To  surpass  his  master  Sulla)  ver.  326.     Pompey  was  one  of  the  most 
successful  legates  of  the  Dictator  Sulla,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  civil  wars 
against  the  Marian  faction.    He  married  JEmilia,  the  step-daughter  of  Sulla, 
having  put  away  his  wife,  Antistia,  for  that  purpose. 

2  In  the  Hyrcanian  forest)  ver.  328.     The  Hyrcanian  forest  was  situate 
on  the  shores  of  the  Caspian  Sea.     It  was  said  to  be  the  haunt  of  numerous 
panthers,  leopards,  and  tigers,  to  which  reference  is  here  made.  The  country 
of  Hyrcania  flourished  most  under  the  Parthian  kings,  who  often  resided 
there  during  the  summer. 

3  Let  this  Sulla  of  thine  teach  thee)  ver.  335.     He  alludes  to  the  retire- 
ment of  Sulla  from  public  life,  who,  at  the  age  of  sixty,  resigned  the  Dic- 
tatorship, and  retired  to  the  town  of  Puteoli. 

4  sifter  the  wandering  Cilicians)  ver.  336.     The  pirates  are  alluded  to, 
who  were  conquered  by  Pompey,  and  whose  strongholds  were  on  the  coast 
of  Cilicia,  in  Asia  Minor. 

5  The  Pontic  battles  of  the  exhausted  monarch)  ver.  336.     He  alludes  to 
the  death  of  Mithridates,  king  of  Pontus,  who  waged  war  with  the  Romans 
for  a  period  of  forty  years.     Having  received  many  overthrows  from  Sulla 
and  Lucullus,  he  was  ultimately  conquered  by  Pompey.     Being  closely  be- 
sieged in  a  fortress  by  his  son  Pharnaces,  he  attempted  to  poison  himself, 
but  from  his  previous  continued  use  of  antidotes,  he  was  unable  to  do  so ; 
on  which  he  fell  on  his  sword  and  perished.     In  the  next  line  Caesar  refers 
to  the  protracted  length  of  this  war. 


B.  i.  337-358.]  PHARSALIA.  21 

poison,  Caesar  be  granted  to  Pompey  as  a  last  province, 
because,  commanded  to  lay  down  my  conquering  eagles,  I 
did  not  obey?  If  from  myself  the  reward  of  my  labours 
is  torn  away,  to  these,  at  least,  let  the  rewards  of  their 
prolonged  service  be  granted,  though  not  with  their  general ; 
under  some  leader,  whoever  he  is,  let  these  troops  enjoy 
their  triumph.  Whither,  after  the  wars,  shall  pallid  old  age 
betake  itself?  What  settlement  is  there  to  be  for  those 
who  have  served  their  time  ?  What  lands  shall  be  granted l 
for  our  veterans  to  plough-  ?  What  walls  for  the  invalided  ? 
Or,  Magnus,  shall  pirates,  in  preference,  become  the  settlers 3  ? 
Victorious  already,  raise,  raise  your  standards ;  the  might  we 
must  employ,  which  we  have  acquired ;  to  him  who  wields 
arms  does  he  surrender  everything  who  refuses  what  is  his 
due.  The  Deities,  too,  will  not  forsake  us  ;  for  neither  is 
plunder  nor  sovereignty  sought  by  my  arms ;  we  are  tear- 
ing away  its  tyrants4  from  a  City  ready  to  be  enslaved." 

Thus  he  speaks ;  but  the  hesitating  ranks  mutter  among 
themselves  words  of  indecision  in  whispers  far  from  dis- 
tinct ;  duty  and  their  paternal  Penates  check  their  feelings 
although  rendered  fierce  with  carnage,  and  their  swelling 
spirits;  but  through  ruthless  love  of  the  sword  and 
dread  of  their  general,  they  are  brought  back.  Then 
Lcelius,  Avho  held  the  rank5  of  first  centurion,  and  wore  the 

1  What  lands  shall  lie  granted)  ver.  344.  The  "  emeriti "  in  the 
Roman  armies  were  those  who  had  served  for  the  stipulated  time,  and  were 
entitled  to  immunity  for  the  future. 

*  For  our  -veterans  to  plouyli)  ver.  345.  When  an  "emeritus"  was  induced 
to  continue  in  the  service,  either  from  attachment  to  his  general,  or  from  hopes 
of  promotion,  he  was  called  " veteranus."  When  the  "  emeriti"  retired  from 
the  service,  it  was  usual  to  bestow  on  them  grants  of  the  public  land. 

3  Pirates,  in  preference,  become  tlie  settlers)  ver.  346.     He  refers  to  the 
manner  in  which  Pompey  disposed  of  the  Cilician  pirates  after  he  had  con- 
quered them  ;  some  of  whom  he  distributed  among  the  cities  of  Cilicia,  and 
many  were  settled  at  Soli,  on  the  Cicilian  coast,  which  had   lately  been 
depopulated  by  Tigranes,  king  of    Armenia,   and  which  was  thenceforth 
called  Pompeiopolis.     Others  received  grants  of  land  at  Dymae,  in  Achaia, 
others  in  Calabria. 

4  We  are  tearing  away  its  tyrants)  ver.  351.     He  probably  alludes  here 
to  the  sons  of  Pompey,  as  well  as  their  father. 

s  Lcelius,  who  held  the  rank)  ver.  357.  Lselius  was  the  "  primipilus,"  or 
"  first  centurion  "  of  the  thirteenth  legion.  The  "  primipilus  "  commanded 
the  first  maniple  of  the  "  Triarii,"  and  was  next  in  rank  to  the  military 
Tribunes.  In  his  charge  was  the  eagle  of  the  legion,  which,  perhaps,  is  here 


22  PHARSALIA.  [B.  i.  358-372. 

insignia  of  the  decoration  won  in  service1,  the  oak  that 
bespoke  the  reward  for  saving  a  citizen2,  exclaimed: 

"  If  it  is  lawful,  0  greatest  guardian  of  the  Roman  fame, 
and  if  it  is  allowed  to  utter  the  accents  of  truth — that  a 
patience  so  long  enduring  has  withheld  thy  might,  do  we 
complain.  Was  it  that  confidence  hi  us  was  wanting  to  thee? 
So  long  as  the  warm  Wood  imparts  motion  to  these  breath- 
ing bodies,  and  so  long  as  stalwart  arms  have  might  to  hurl 
the  javelin,  wilt  thou  be  submitting  to  the  degenerate  arts  of 
peace8,  and  the  sovereign  sway  of  the  Senate  ?  Is  it  so  very 
dreadful  to  prove  the  conqueror  hi  civil  war  ?  Come,  lead  us 
amid  the  tribes  of  Scythia,  amid  the  inhospitable  shores  of 
Syrtis4,  amid  the  sultry  sands  of  thirsting  Libya.  This  army, 
when  it  left  the  conquered  world  behind  its  back,  stilled  the 
swelling  waves  of  Ocean5  with  its  oars,  and  subdued  the 
foaming  Rhine  at  its  northern  mouth6.  To  me,  in  following 
thy  commands,  it 'is  as  much  a  matter  of  course  to  do,  as 

referred  to  under  the  title  of  "  insignia."  The  vine  sapling  with  which  they 
had  the  power  of  inflicting  punishment  on  refractory  soldiers  was  another  of 
the  insignia  of  the  centurions. 

1  Won  in  service)  ver.  357.  "  Emeriti."  On  the  meaning  of  this  word, 
see  the  Note  to  1.  344. 

4  The  reward  for  saving  a  citizen)  ver.  358.  The  "  corona  civica,"  or 
"  civic  crown,"  was  the  second  in  honor  and  importance  in  the  Roman 
armies,  and  was  presented  to  the  soldier  who  had  saved  the  life  of  a  fel- 
low-citizen in  battle.  It  was  originally  made  from  the  "  ilex,"  afterwards 
from  the  "jesculns,"  and,  finally,  from  the  "quercus,"  three  different  kinds 
of  oak.  The  elder  Pliny  informs  us  that  before  the  claim  was  allowed  it 
was  necessary  to  satisfy  the  following  requisitions — to  have  saved  the  life  of 
a  fellow-citizen  in  battle,  slain  his  opponent,  and  maintained  his  ground. 

s  Degenerate  arts  of  peace)  ver.  365.  "  Togam."  Literally,  the  "  toga," 
or  "  gown,"  which  was  worn  by  the  citizens  in  time  of  peace. 

4  Inhospitable  shores  of  Syrtis)  ver.  367.  There  were  two  quicksands  off 
the  coast  of  Africa,  known  by  the  name  of  "  Syrtis"  or  "  Syrtes."  The  greater 
Syrtis  was  a  wide  gulf  on  the  shores  of  Tripolita  and  Cyrenaica,  opposite 
the  mouth  of  the  Adriatic.  It  was  especially  dangerous  for  its  sandbanks 
and  quicksands,  and  its  exposure  to  the  northern  winds ;  while  on  the  shore 
it  was  skirted  by  loose  burning  sands.  The  lesser  Syrtis  lay  considerably  to 
the  west  of  the  other  one,  and  was  dangerous  from  its  rocky  shores  and  the 
variableness  of  its  tides. 

4  Stilled  tin  swelling  waves  of  Ocean)  ver.  370.  He  alludes  to  the  passage 
of  Caesar  from  the  coast  of  Gaul  to  that  of  Britain. 

•  At  its  northern  mouth)  ver.  371.  "Venice;"  literally,  "heights." 
There  is  considerable  doubt  among  the  Commentators  as  to  the  exact  mean- 
ing of  this  word  in  the  present  passage. 


B.  i.  372-395.]  PHARSALIA.  23 

it  is  to  will.  And  no  fellow-citizen  of  mine,  Csesar,  is  he 
against  whom  I  shall  hear  thy  trumpet-signal.  By  the 
prospering  standards  of  thy  ten  campaigns  I  swear,  and 
by  thy  triumphs  gained  over  every  foe ;  if  thou  shouldst  bid 
me  bury  my  sword  in  the  breast  of  my  brother,  in  the  throat 
too  of  my  parent,  and  in  the  entrails  of  my  wife  teeming 
with  her  burden,  still,  though  with  unwilling  right  hand, 
I  will  do  all  this ;  if  to  despoil  the  Gods,  and  to  set  fire  to 
the  Temples,  the  flames  of  thy  camp1  shall  envelope  the 
Divinity  of  Juno  Moneta ;  if  to  pitch  the  camp  above  the 
waves  of  Etrurian  Tiber2,  a  bold  marker-out  of  the  en- 
campment will  I  enter  upon  the  Hesperian  fields.  Whatever 
walls  thou  shalt  desire  to  level  with  the  plain,  impelled  by 
these  arms  the  battering-ram  shall  scatter  the  stones  far 
and  wide ;  even  though  that  city  which  thou  shouldst  order 
to  be  utterly  razed  should  be  Eome  herself." 

To  these  words  the  cohorts  at  once  shout  assent,  and 
pledge  themselves  with  hands  lifted  on  high,  for  whatever 
wars  he  shall  summon  them  to.  An  uproar  ascends  to  the 
skies  as  vast,  as,  when  the  Thracian  Boreas  beats  against 
the  crags  of  pine-bearing  Ossa3,  the  trunks  bending  of  the 
woods  bowed  down,  or  returning  again  upright  into  the  air, 
the  roar  of  the  forests  arises. 

Caesar,  when  he  perceives  that  the  war  is  embraced  by  the 
soldiers  thus  heartily,  and  that  the  Fates  are  favouring,  that 
by  no  indecision  he  may  impede  his  fortune,  summons  forth 
the  cohorts  scattered  throughout  the  Gallic  fields,  and  with 
standards  moved  from  every  direction  marches  upon  Home. 

1  The  flames  of  thy  camp)  ver.  380.  "  Numina  miscebit  castrensis 
flamma  MoneUe."  The  exact  meaning  of  this  passage  has  caused  much  dis- 
cussion among  the  Commentators,  but  it  seems  most  probable  that  the 
veteran  is  expressing  his  readiness,  at  the  command  of  his  general,  to  melt 
the  statues  of  the  Gods  in  the  flames  for  his  master's  purposes.  Under  the 
name  Moneta,  as  the  protectress  of  money,  Juno  had  a  Temple  on  the 
Capitoline  Hill,  in  which  was  the  mint  of  Rome.  The  speaker  probably 
means  to  hint  his  readiness,  if  necessary,  to  march  into  the  very  heart 
of  Rome  to  seize  the  statues  of  the  Divinities. 

3  Waves  of  Elrv.nan  Tiler)  ver.  381.  The  Tiber  takes  its  rise  in  the 
ancient  country  of  Etruria. 

3  The  crags  of  pine-bearing  Ossa)  ver.  389.  Ossa  was  a  mountain  much 
celebrated  by  the  poets.  It  was  in  the  north  of  Magnesia,  in  Thessaly,  and 
was  in  the  vicinity  of  Pelion  and  Olympus,  but  was  much  less  lofty  than  the 
latter. 


24  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  I.  396-406. 

They  deserted  the  tents  pitched  by  the  cavity  of  Lemanus l, 
and  the  camp  which  soaring  aloft  above  the  curving  rock  of 
Vogesus 2  used  to  overawe  the  pugnacious  Lingones :l  with 
their  painted  arms.  Those  left  the  shallows  of  Isara J,  which 
running  with  its  own  flood  through  such  an  extent,  falling 
into  a  stream  of  greater  fame,  bears  not  its  men  name  down 
to  the  ocean  waves.  The  yellow-haired  Rutenr'  are  re- 
lieved from  the  prolonged  garrison;  the  placid  Ataxc  re- 
joices at  no  longer  bearing  the  Latian  keels ;  the  Varus, 
too7,  the  limit  of  Hesperia,  her  boundaries  now  extended8; 
where,  too,  beneath  the  divine  authority  of  Hercules,  the 
consecrated  harbour  adjoins  the  sea9  with  its  hollowed 

1  Lemanus)  ver.  396.     Now  the  Lake  of  Geneva. 

2  Curving  rock  of  Vogesus)  ver.  397.      Vogesus,  or  Vosgesus,  now  the 
Vosges,  was  the  name  of  a  range  of  mountains  in  Gaul,  running  parallel  to 
the  river  Rhine.     The  rivers  Seine,  Saone,  and  Moselle  rise  in  these  moun- 
tains. 

3  The  pugnacious  Lingones)  ver.  398.     The  Lingnnes  were  a  powerful 
people  of  Transalpine  Gaul,  separated  from  the  Sequani  by  the  river  Arar, 
or  Saone.      Their  chief  town  was   Andeinaturinum,  afterwards  Lingones, 
now  called   Langres.      Tacitus   informs  us   that  the  Germans  were  also 
accustomed  to  paint  their  arms. 

4  The  shallows  of  Isara)  ver.  399.     Isara,  now  the  Isere,  a  river  of  Gaul, 
flows  into  the  Rhone,  north  of  Valentia. 

5  The  yellow-haired  Ruteni)  ver.  402.     The  Ruteni,  or  Rutbeni,  were  a 
people  of  Gallia  Aquitanica.     Their  chief  town  was  Segodunum,  afterwards 
Civitas  Rutenorum,  now  called  Rodez. 

*  The  placid  Atax)  ver.  403.     The  Atax,  or  Narbo,  was  a  river  of  Gallia 
Narbonensis,  rising  in  the  Pyrenees :  it  is  now  called  Aude. 

7  The  Varus,  too)  ver.  404.  The  Varus,  now  called  Var,  or  Varo,  was  a 
river  of  Gallia  Narbonensis,  rising  in  Mount  Cema,  in  the  Alps,  and  falling 
into  the  Mediterranean. 

*  Her  boundaries  now  extended)  ver.  404.      "  Promote  limite."     This 
passage  has  presented  difficulties  to  some  of  the  Commentatorsj  but  it  is 
pretty  clear  that  he  alludes  to  the  period  when,  the  Roman  state  having 
extended  beyond  its  former  limits,  the  Rubicon  was  no  longer  considered  the 
boundary  which  separated  Italy  from  Gaul,  and  the  Varus,  which  lay  far  to 
the  north-west  of  it,  was  substituted  as  such  in  its  place.     Hesperia,  or  the  • 
"  country  of  the  West,"  was  one  of  the  ancient  names  of  Italy.     Spain  also 
was  sometimes  called  by  that  name. 

9  The  consecrated  harbour  adjoins  the  sea)  ver.  405.  This  was  the  "  Por- 
tus  Monoeci,"  a  seaport  on  the  coast  of  Liguria,  founded  by  the  Massilians. 
The  town  was  situate  on  a  promontory,  and  possessed  a  temple  of  Her- 
cules Monoecus,  from  whom  the  place  derived  its  name.  The  harbour  was 
of  importance,  as  being  the  only  one  on  this  part  of  the  coast  of  Liguria. 
Hercules  was  said  to  have  touched  here  when  on  his  expedition  against 
Geryon,  king  of  Spain. 


B.  I.  406-422.]  PHAESALIA.  25 

rocks ;  no  Corus l  holds  sway  over  it,  nor  yet  the  Zephyr ; 
alone  does  Circius3  disturb  the  shores  his  own,  and  with- 
holds the  ships  from  the  safe  harbour  of  Monoecus.  Where, 
too,  the  doubtful  coast  extends3,  which  land  and  sea  claim 
at  alternate  periods,  when  the  vast  ocean  is  poured  forth 
upon  it,  or  when  with  ebbing  waves  it  retreats.  Whether 
it  is  tJiat  the  wind  thus  rolls4  on  the  sea  from  distant 
climes,  and  bearing  it  on  there  leaves  it ;  or  whether  the 
waves  of  wandering  Tethys5,  influenced  by  the  second  of 
the  heavenly  bodies fi,  flow  at  the  lunar  hours ;  or  whether 
the  flaming  Titan,  that  he  may  quaff  the  refreshing  waves, 
uplifts  the  ocean,  and  raises  the  billows  to  the  stars — do 
you  enquire,  whom  the  economy  of  the  universe  engages ; 
but  to  me,  thou  Cause,  whatever  thou  art,  that  dost 
govern  movements  thus  regular,  as  the  Gods  of  heaven 
have  willed  it  so,  for  ever  lie  concealed ! 

Then  does  he,  who  occupies  the  fields  of  Nemetis 7  and 
the  banks  of  the  Aturus8,  where  on  the  curving  shore,  flowing 
by  Tarbela9,  it  encloses  the  sea  gently  flowing  in,  move  his 

1  No  Corus  holds  sway)  ver.  406.     Corus,  or  Cauvus,  the  Argestes  of  the 
Greeks,  is  considered  a  stormy  wind  in  Italy.     It  blows  from  the  north-west. 

2  Alone  does  Circius)  ver.  407.     Circius  was  a  violent  wind  which  was 
said  to  blow  in  the  ancient  Gallia  Narbonensis.     According  to  some  it  blew 
from  the  north-north-west,  while  others  call  it  a  south  wind.     The  latter 
seems  most  probably  the  case,  as  if,  as  is  sometimes  represented,  the  harbour 
of  Monoecus  opened  to  the  south-west,  it  could  not  well  be  exposed  to  any 
wind  blowing  from  the  north. 

3  Where  the  doubtful  coast  extends)  ver.  409.     He  probably  alludes  to  the 
flat  coast  off  Belgium  and  the  present  kingdom  of  Holland. 

*  It  is  that  the  wind  thus  rolls)  ver.  412.  Pomponius  Mela,  in  his  Third 
Book,  mentions  the  same  three  theories.  The  second  is  the  right  one. 

5  Waves  of  wandering  Tethys)  ver.  414.     Tethys  is  a  name  very  gene- 
rally given  by  the  poets  to  the  ocean.     She  was  one  of  the  most  ancient  of 
the  Deities,  and  was  the  wife  of  Oceanus,  daughter  of  Coslus  and  Vesta,  and 
the  foster-mother  of  Juno. 

6  The  second  of  the  heavenly  bodies)  ver.  413.     "  Sidere  secundo."     Un- 
der this  name  he  refers  to  the  moon,  as  being  the  next  in  apparent  mag- 
nitude to  the  sun. 

7  Who  occiipies  the  fields  of  Nemetis)  ver.  419.     The  Nemetes,  or  Ne- 
metae,  were  a  people  of  Gallia  Belgica,  on  the  Rhine.     Their  chief  town 
was  Noviomagus,  afterwards  Nemetae,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Spires. 

8  The  banks  of  the  Aturus)  ver.  420.     The  Aturus,  or  Atur,  now  called 
the  Adour,  was  a  river  of  Gallia  Aquitanica,  rising  in  the  Pyrenees,  and 
flowing  through  the  territory  of  the  Tarbelli  into  the  ocean. 

9  Flowing  by  Tarbela)  ver.  421.     The  city  of  the  Tarbelli,  who  were  a 


26  PHARSALIA.  [B.  L  422-427. 

standards,  and  the  Santonian  exults1,  the  enemy  removed; 
the  Biturigian2,  too,  and  the  active  Suessonesa  with  their 
long  arms ;  the  Leucan4  and  the  Rheman9,  most  adroit  in 
extending  the  arm  with  tJie  poised  javelin ;  the  Sequanian 
race  most  adroit  with  the  reins  guided  in  the  circle ;  the 
Belgian,  too6,  the  skilful  guide  of  the  scythed  chariot7;  the 

powerful  people  of  Gallia  Aquitanica,  lying  between  the  ocean  and  the 
Pyrenees.  Their  chief  town  was  '  Aquae  Tarbellicae,'  or  '  AugusUe,'  on 
the  Atur  or  Adour.  It  is  now  called  Dacqs. 

1  The  Santonian  exults)  ver.    422.     The  Santoni,   or  Santones,  were 
a  nation  of  Gallia  Aquitanica,  dwelling  near  the  ocean,  to  the  north  of  the 
Garumua,  or  Garonne.     Their  chief  town  was  called  Mediolanum,  after- 
wards Santones,  now  Salutes. 

2  The  Biturigian,  too)  ver.  423.     The  Bituriges  were  a  powerful  people 
of  Gallia  Aquitanica.     They  were  divided  into  the  Bituriges  Cubi,  who  in- 
habited the  district  now  called  Bourges,  having  Avaricum  for  their  capital; 
and  the  Bituriges  Vivisci,  or  Ubisci,  on  the   Garonne,  whose  capital  was 
Burdigala,  now  Bordeaux. 

3  And  the  active  Suessones)  ver.  423.     The  Suessones,  or  Suessiones,  were 
a  warlike  nation  of  Gallia  Belgica.     Their  king,  Divitiacus,  in  the  time  of 
Caesar,  was  reckoned  the  most  powerful  chief  in  Gaul.     They  inhabited  a 
fertile  country  to  the  west  of  the  Rhine,  and  possessed  twelve  towns,  of 
which    the  capital  was  Noviodunum,   afterwards  Augusta  Suessonum,  or 
Suessones,  now  Soissons.     They  were  noted  for  the  height  of  their  stature, 
and  the  length  of  their  spears  and  shields. 

4  The  Leucan)  ver.  424.     The  Leuci  were  a  people  in  the  south-east  of 
Gallia  Belgica,  between  the  rivers  Matrona  and  Mosella.     Their  chief  town 
was  Tullum,  now  Toul. 

•  And  the  Kheman)  ver.  424.  The  Remi,  or  Rhemi,  were  a  very  power- 
ful people  of  Gallia  Belgica,  lying  to  the  east  of  the  Suessones  and  the 
JBellovaci.  They  formed  an  alliance  with  Caesar,  when  the  rest  of  the 
Belgae  made  war  against  him,  B.C.  57.  Their  chief  town  was  Durocortornm, 
afterwards  called  Remi,  now  Rheims.  From  the  expression  "  optimus 
excusso  lacerto,"  it  appears  that  the  Rhemi  were  especially  famed  for  their 
skill  in  the  use  of  the  javelin. 

'  The  Belgian,  too)  ver.  426.  The  Belgae  formed  one  of  the  three  great 
peoples  into  which  Caasar  divides  the  population  of  Gaul.  They  were 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Rhine,  on  the  west  by  the  ocean,  on  the  south 
by  the  Sequana  or  Seine  and  the  Matrona  or  Marne,  and  on  the  east  by 
the  territory  of  the  Treviri.  They  were  of  German  origin,  and  had  settled 
in  the  country,  on  dispossessing  the  former  inhabitants.  Though  mentioned 
here  separately  from  the  Nervii,  Remi,  and  Suessones,  all  the  latter  were 
really  tribes  of  the  Belgae. 

7  Skilful  guide  of  the  scythed  chariot)  ver.  426.  "  Rostrati — covini." 
The  "  covinus"  was  a  kind  of  chariot  much  in  use  among  the  Belgae  and 
the  ancient  Britons.  Its  spokes  were  armed  with  long  scythes,  which  are  here 
referred  to  in  the  epithet  "  rostrati,"  literally  "  beaked."  From  the  Romans 
having  designated  a  covered  travelling  carriage  by  the  same  name,  it  is 


B.  i.  427-431.]  PHARSALIA.  27 

Arverni,  likewise1,  who  have  presumed  to  pretend  them- 
selves2 of  Latian  brotherhood,  descended  from  the  race 
of  the  people  of  Ilium ;  the  Nervian,  also 3,  too  fatally  re- 
bellious 4,  and  denied  by  the  broken  treaty  with  the  slaugh- 
tered Cotta  ;  the  Vangiones,  toofl,  who  imitate  thee,  Sarma- 
tian,  with  the  loosely-flowing  trowsers6;  the  fierce  Batavians, 

supposed  that  the  "  covinus  "  was  covered  on  all  sides  except  the  front,  and 
that  it  was  occupied  by  one  person  only,  the  "  covinarius,"  or  driver  of  the 
chariot.  We  learn  from  Tacitus,  that  the  "  covinarii "  constituted  a  regular 
part  of  the  British  army. 

1  The  Arverni,  likewise)  ver.  427.    The  Arverni  were  a  powerful  nation  of 
Celtica,  and,  in  the  time  of  Caesar,  the  rivals  of  the  .ZEdui  for  the  supre- 
macy.    They  are  supposed  to  have  possessed  a  large  portion  of  the  high 
lands  of  central  France,  in  the  valley  of  the  Allier.     Their  territory  gave  its 
name  to  the  modem  Auvergne. 

2  Who  have  presumed  to  pretend  themselves)  ver.  427.      It  has  been 
suggested  that  either  this  remark  is  a  mistake  of  the  Poet,  or  that  he  simply 
alludes  to  the  pride  of  the  Arverni  before  they  were  conquered  by  the 
Romans,  whose  equals  they  considered  themselves  to  be.     It  has  been,  how- 
ever, supposed  by  some  that  the  Arverni  really  did  claim  descent  from  Antenor, 
the  Trojan.    One  of  the  Scholiasts  says  that  a  Trojan  named  Alvernus  founded 
the  colony,  and  that  Cicero  makes  mention  of  them  in  the  words — "  In- 
venti  sunt  qui  etiam  fratres   populi  Romani  vocarentur."      "  There   have 
been  found  some  who  were  even  called  the  brothers  of  the  Roman  people." 
This  passage,  however,  is  to  be  found  in  none  of  the  fragments  of  Cicero's 
works  which  have  come  down  to  us. 

3  The  Nervian,  also)  ver.  429.     The  Nervii  were  a  warlike  people  of 
Gallia  Belgica,  whose  territory  extended  from  the  river  Sabis  (now  Sambre) 
to  the  ocean,  and  part  of  which  was  covered  by  the  forest  of  Arduenna 
or  Ardennes.     They  were  divided  into  several  smaller  tribes,  the  Centrones, 
Grudii,  Levaci,  Pleumoxii,  and  Geiduni. 

4  Too  fatally  rebellious)  ver.  429.     He  alludes  to  the  fete  of  Q.  Aurun- 
culeius  Cotta,  an  officer  in  the  army  of  Julius  Caesar.     He  and  Q.  Titurius 
Sabinus  had  the  command  of  one  legion  and  four  cohorts,  with  which  they 
took  up  their  position  in  the  territory  of  the  Eburones.     Listening  to  the 
advice  of  Sabinus,  he  was  drawn  into  an  ambuscade  by  Ambiorix  and  Cati- 
volcus,  on  which  they,  with  the  greater  part  of  their  soldiers,  were  cut  to 
pieces. 

5  The  Vangiones,  loo)  ver.  431.      The  Vangiones  were  a  people  of  Ger- 
many, in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  modern  Worms. 

'  With  the  loosely-flowing  trowsers)  ver.  430.  Ovid,  speaking  of  the 
people  of  Tomi,  in  Thrace,  bordering  on  Sannatia,  refers  to  this  peculiarity 
in  their  dress.  In  the  Tristia,  B.  iii.  El.  10,  1.  19,  he  says — "  The  in- 
habitants barely  defend  themselves  from  the  cold  by  skins  and  sewn  trow- 
sers." And  again,  in  B.  v.  El.  10,  1.  34,  he  says — "  Even  those  who  are 
supposed  to  derive  their  origin  from  the  Grecian  city,  the  Persian  trowsers 
cover  instead  of  the  dress  of  their  country ;"  and  in  B.  iv.  El.  6,  1.  47 — 
"  Here  there  is  a  Scythian  multitude,  and  crowds  of  the  Getae,  wearing 


28  PHARSALIA.  [a  1.431 -439. 

too1,  whom  the  harsh-sounding  trumpets  of  crooked  brass2 
inflame  to  war;  where  Cinga  flows  around3  with  its  tide; 
where  the  Rhone  bears  to  the  sea  the  Arar4,  swept  along 
with  its  impetuous  waves ;  where  the  race  dwells  upon  the 
heights  on  the  mountain  summits,  the  Gebennse  precipi- 
tous5 with  their  snow-white  crags.  [The  Pictones,  left  at 
liberty0,  cultivate  their  fields 7 ;  and  no  more  does  the  camp 
pitched  around  keep  in  check  the  fickle  Turones ".  The 
Andian  disdaining,  Meduana9,  to  pine  amid  thy  fogs,  is 

trowsers."  The  following  nations  are  read  of  in  ancient  times  as  wearing 
"braccae,"  or  "trowsers:" — the  Medes  and  Persians,  the  Parthians,  the 
Phrygians,  the  Sacae,  the  Sannatians,  the  Dacians,  the  Getae,  the  Gauls, 
the  Britons,  the  Belgae,  and  the  Teutones. 

1  The  fierce  Bataviaiu,  too)  ver.  431.  The  Batavi  were  a  people  who  in- 
habited the  country  between  the  Maas  and  the  Waal,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Rhine,  now  Holland.  Their  country  was  first  styled  "  Insula  Batavorum," 
and  at  a  later  period  Batavia.  Their  chief  towns  were  Batavodurum  and 
Lugdunum,  now  Leyden.  These  people  were  long  the  allies  of  the  Romans 
in  their  wars  against  the  Germans,  and  were  of  great  service  by  means  of 
their  excellent  cavalry. 

3  Harsh-sounding  trumpets  of  crooked  brass)  ver.  432.  The  "tuba" 
or  trumpet  of  the  Roman  armies  was  straight,  while  the  "  cornu  "  and  the 
"  lituus  "  were  curved.  Probably  the  peculiarity  of  the  "  tubae "  of  the 
Batavi  was,  that  while  they  preserved  the  sound  of  the  "  tuba,"  they  had 
the  form  of  the  "  cornu." 

*  Where  Cinga  flows  around)  ver.  432.     Cinga,  now  Cinca,  a  river  of 
Hispania  Tarraconensis,  rising  in  the  Pyrenees,  falling  with  the  Sicoris  into 
the  Iberus,  or  Ebro. 

*  Bears  to  the  sea  the  Arar)  ver.  433.     The  Arar,  now  the  Saone,  is  a 
river  of  Gaul,  which,  rising  in  the  Vosges,  flows  into  the  Rhodanus  or 
Rhone,  at  Lugdunum  or  Lyons. 

*  The  Gebennce  preeipitous)  ver.  435.     Gebennae,  or  Cebenna  Mons,  was 
the  range  of  mountains  now  called  the  Cevennes,  situate  in  the  middle  of 
Gaul,  extending  northwards  to  Lugdunum  or  Lyons,  and  separating  the 
Arverni  from  the  Helvii. 

•  T/ie  Pictones,  left  at  liberty)  ver.  436.     This  and  the  next  five  lines  are 
generally  looked  upon  as  spurious.     According  to  some,  they  were  first  found 
by  Cujacius ;    but  Cortius  says,  that  the  report  was,  that  Marbodus  An- 
dinus,  the  Bishop  of  Rennes,  inserted  these  verses  in  the  Poem  to  gratify  his 
countrymen. 

7  Cultivate  their  field*)  ver.  436.  The  Pictones,  who  were  afterwards 
called  the  Pictavi,  were  a  powerful  people  on  the  coast  of  Gallia  Aquitanica. 
Their  chief  town  was  Limonum,  subsequently  called  Pictavi,  now  Poitiers. 

•  Keep  the  fickle  Turones)  ver.  437.     The  Turones,  Turoni,  or  Turonii, 
were  a  people  in  the  interior  of  Gallia  Lugdunensis.     Their  chief  town  was 
Caesarodunum,  subsequently  Turoni,  now  Tours. 

•  Meduana)  ver.  438.     A  river  of  Gaul,  flowing  into  the  Ligeris,  now 
called  the  Mayne. 


B.  i.  439-444.]  PHARSALIA.  29 

now  refreshed  by  the  placid  stream  of  Liger1 ;  from  the 
squadrons  of  Csesar  renowned  Genabos2  is  set  free.] 

Thou,  too,  Treviriana,  overjoyed  that  the  course  of  warfare 
is  turned  back;  and  thou,  Ligurian4,  now  shorn,  in  former 
times  with  thy  locks  hanging  adown  thy  graceful  neck, 
preferred  to  the  whole  of  long-haired  Gaul6;  those,  too,  by 
whom  the  relentless  Teutates8  is  appeased  by  direful 
bloodshed,  and  Hesus,  dreadful7  with  his  merciless  altars  ; 
and  the  shrine  of  Taranis8,  not  more  humane  than  that 
of  Scythian  Diana9.  You,  too,  ye  Bards10,  who,  as  poets, 
hand  down  hi  your  praises  to  remote  ages  spirits  valiant, 

1  Stream  of  Liger)  ver.  439.     Liger,  orLigeris,  now  the  Loire,  is  one  of 
the  largest  rivers  of  France,  and  rises  in  the  Cevennes. 

2  Renowned  Genabos)  ver.   440.     Genabum,  or  Cenabum,  was  a  town 
of  Gallia  Lugdunensis,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Ligeris,  and  the  chief  town 
of  the  Carnutes  ;  it  was  plundered  and  burnt  by  Csesar,  but  was  afterwards 
rebuilt.     The  present  city  of  Orleans  stands  on  its  site. 

3  Thou,  too,  Trevirian)  ver.  441.     The  Treviri  were  a  powerful  nation  of 
Gallia  Belgica,  and  were  faithful  allies  of  the  Romans.     They  were  famous 
for  the  excellence  of  their  cavalry.     Their  territory  lay  to  the  eastward  of 
that  of  the  Rhemi,  and  the  Mosella  flowed  through  it.      Their  chief  town 
was  made  a  Roman  colony  by  Augustus,  and  was  called  Augusta  Trevi- 
rorum,  now  Trier,  or  Treves. 

4  And  thou,  Ligurian)  ver.  442.     The  Ligurian  tribes  were  divided  by 
the  Romans  into  the  Ligures  Transalpini  and  Cisalpini.     Those  who  inhabited 
the  Maritime  Alps  were  called  "  Capillati,"  or  "  Comati,"  from  the  custom 
of  wearing  their  hair  long. 

s  The  long-haired  Gaul)  ver.  443.  "  Gallia  Comata"  was  the  name  given 
to  that  part  of  Gaul  which  was  the  last  conquered  by  the  Romans,  and  re- 
ceived its  name  from  the  inhabitants  continuing  to  wear  their  hair  long  and 
flowing,  while  the  other  nations  of  Gallia  Cisalpina  had  adopted  the  Roman 
manners. 

6  The  relentless  Teutates)  ver.  445.     Teutas,  or  Teutates,  is  supposed  to 
have  been  the  name  of  a  Gallic  Divinity  corresponding  to  the  Roman  Mer- 
cury.    Human  victims  were  offered  to  him. 

7  And  Hesus,  dreadful)  ver.  445.    Hesus  was  the  Mars  of  the  Gauls,  and 
to  him  the  prisoners  taken  in  battle  were  sacrificed. 

8  The  shrine  of  Taranis)  ver.  446.     Taranis  is  supposed  to  have  been  the 
Jupiter  of  the  Celtic  nations. 

9  That  of  Scythian  Diana)  ver.  446.    He  alludes  to  the  worship  of  Diana  at 
Tauris  in  Scythia,  where,  by  order  of  Thoas,  the  king,  all  strangers  were  slain 
and  sacrificed  to  the  Gods.    Iphigenia  was  her  priestess,  and  narrowly  escaped 
sacrificing  her  own  brother  Orestes.     See  the  story  related  in  the  Tristia  of 
Ovid,  B.  ii.  El.  2,  p.  425  of  the  Translation  in  Eohn's  Classical  Library. 

10  You  too,  Bards)  ver.  449.     The  "  IBardi "  were  the  Poets  of  Gaul  and 
Germany,  whose  province  it  was  to  sing  the  praises  of  their  chieftains  and 
of  the  heroes  who  had  died  in  combat. 


80  PHAESALIA.  [B.  i.  44^-464. 

and  cut  off  in  war,  freed  from  alarm,  did  then  pour  forth  full 
many  a  strain ;  and  you,  Druids1,  after  arms  were  laid  aside, 
sought  once  again  your  barbarous  ceremonials  and  the  ruth- 
less usages  of  your  sacred  rites.  To  you  alone  *  has  it  been 
granted  to  know  the  Gods  and  the  Divinities  of  heaven,  or 
alone  to  know  that  they  do  not  exist.  In  remote  forests  do 
you  inhabit  the  deep  glades.  On  your  authority :t  the  shades 
seek  not  the  silent  abodes  of  Erebus,  and  the  pallid  realms 
of  Pluto 4  in  the  depths  below ;  the  same  spirit  controls  other 
limbs  in  another  world5 ;  death  is  the  mid  space  in  a  pro- 
longed existence,  if  you  sing  what  is  ascertained  as  truth. 
Assuredly  the  nations  whom  the  Northern  Bear  looks  down 
upon  are  happy  in  their  error,  whom  this,  the  very  greatest 
of  terrors,  does  not  move,  the  fear  of  death.  Thence  have 
the  people  spirits  ever  ready  to  rush  to  arms,  and  souls 
that  welcome  death ;  and  they  deem  it  cowardice  to  be  sparing 
of  a  life  destined  to  return.  You,  too,  stationed  to  prevent 
the  Cauci6,  with  then-  curling  locks,  from  warfare,  repair  to 

1  And  you,  Druids)  ver.  451.  The  "  Druidae,"  or  Druids,  were  the  high- 
priests  of  the  Gauls,  and  performed  many  mysterious  rites.  By  "  positia 
armis,"  the  Foet  does  not  mean  that  they  wielded  arms,  but  that  after  arms 
were  laid  aside  in  Gaul  by  reason  of  the  civil  wars,  they  resumed  thair  super- 
stitious practices,  which  had  been  checked  by  Caesar.  Caesar  says,  in  his 
Gallic  War,  B.  vi.  ch.  14 — "  The  Druids  do  not  go  to  war,  nor  do  they  pay 
tribute  together  with  the  rest." 

9  To  you  alone)  ver.  453.  The  meaning  seems  to  be,  "  To  you  alone  is 
it  granted  to  know  the  mysteries  of  the  Gods,  or  the  fact  that  there  are 
no  Gods." 

3  On,  your  authority)  ver.  454.     The  meaning  is,  that  the  Druids  taught 
the  doctrine  of  the  immortality  of  the  soul. 

4  The  pallid  realms  of  Pluto)  ver.  455.     Dis  wa«  an  epithet  of  Pluto, 
the  king  of  Erebus,  or  the  infernal  regions. 

4  In  another  world)  ver.  457.  "  Orbe  alio "  may  mean  simply  "  in 
another  region  "  of  the  earth  ;  but  it  most  probably  refers  to  the  idea  preva- 
lent with  those  who  taught  the  doctrine  of  the  transmigration  of  the  soul,  that 
it  animated  various  bodies  in  the  stars  in  a  certain  cycle  or  routine.  The 
doctrine  of  the  Druids  differed  from  that  of  Pythagoras,  who  is  said,  but 
upon  very  slender  authority,  to  have  derived  his  notions  on  this  subject 
from  them.  The  Druids  believed  that  the  soul  passed  from  man  into  man 
alone ;  while  Pythagoras  thought  that  on  leaving  the  human  body  it  passed 
into  the  bodies  of  various  animals  in  succession. 

*  To  prevent  the  Cauci)  ver.  464.  The  Cauci,  Cayci,  or  Chauci,  were  a 
powerful  people  in  the  north-east  of  Germany,  whose  country  was  divided 
by  the  Visurgis  or  Weser.  Tacitus  describes  them  as  the  noblest  and  most 
courageous  of  the  German  tribes.  In  the  use  of  the  word  "  cirrigeros,"  he 


B.  i.  464-487.]  PHARSALIA.  31 

Borne,  and  desert  the  savage  banks  of  the  Ehine,  and  the 
world  now  laid  open  to  the  nations. 

Csesar,  when  his  immense  resources,  with  their  collected 
strength,  had  created  confidence  for  daring  still  greater 
things,  spread  throughout  all  Italy,  and  filled  the  neigh- 
bouring fortified  towns1.  Idle  rumours,  too,  were  added 
to  well-founded  fears,  and  burst  upon  the  feelings  of  the 
public,  and  presented  to  them  the  destined  slaughter,  and, 
a  swift  forerunner  of  the  hastening  warfare,  let  loose  tongues 
innumerable  to  false  alarms.  Some  there  are  who,  where 
Mevania  displays  itself2  in  the  plains  that  rear  the  bulls, 
aver  that  the  audacious  squadrons  are  pushing  onward  to 
the  combat,  and  that,  where  Nar  flows 3  on  to  the  stream  of 
Tiber,  the  barbarian  troops  of  the  ruthless  Caesar  are  spread- 
ing far  and  wide;  that  he  himself,  leading  all  his  eagles 
and  his  collected  standards,  is  advancing  with  no  single 
column,  and  with  a  camp  densely  thronged.  And  not  such 
as  they  remember  him  do  they  now  behold  him ;  both  more 
terrible  and  relentless  does  he  seem  to  their  imaginations, 
and  more  inhuman  than  the  conquered  foe4.  That  after 
him  the  nations  lying  between  the  Rhine  and  the  Alps, 
torn  from  the  Arctic  regions  and  from  their  paternal  homes, 
are  following  close,  and  that  the  City  has  been  ordered,  a 
Roman  looking  on,  to  be  sacked  by  barbarous  tribes. 

Thus,  by  his  fears,  does  each  one  give  strength  to 
rumour;  and  no  one  the  author  of  their  woes,  what  they 
have  invented  they  dread.  And  not  alone  is  the  lower 
class  alarmed,  smitten  by  a  groundless  terror ;  but  the  Senate 

alludes  to  the  custom  of  the  German  nations  of  wearing  the  hair  long  and 
curling. 

1  Filled  the  neighbouring  fortified  towns)  ver.  468.     We'  learn   from 
Caesar's  Civil  War,  B.  L  c.  11,  12,   that  the  next  places  which  he  took 
after  Ariminum,  were  Arretium,  Pisaurus,  Fanum,  Iguvium,  and  Auximum. 

2  Mevania  displays  itself)   ver.  473.     This  was  an  ancient  city  in  the 
interior  of  Umbria,  on  the  river  Tinea.     It  was  situate  on  the  road  from 
Borne  to  Ancona,  and  was  very  strongly  fortified.     The  Clitumnus  was  a 
river  in  the  neighbourhood,  famous  for  a  breed  of  white  oxen  fed  on  its 
banks. 

3  And  where  Nar  flows)  ver.  475.   This  was  a  river  of  Central  Italy,  on 
the  frontiers  of  Umbria  and  Picenum.    Passing  by  Interamna  and  Narnia,  it 
fell  into  the  Tiber,  not  far  from  Ocriculum. 

4  More  inhuman  than  the  conquered  foe)  ver.  480.      Namely,  the  Gauls 
and  the  Britons. 


82  PHAR3ALIA.  [B.  i.  487-514. 

house,  and  the  Fathers  themselves  rush  forth  from  their 
seats,  and  the  Senate  taking  to  flight  gives  its  hateful  de- 
crees *  for  the  warfare  into  the  charge  of  the  Consuls.  Then 
uncertain  what  to  seek  as  safe,  and  what  to  leave  as  worthy 
to  he  feared,  whither  the  anxiety  for  flight  directs  each  one, 
it  urges  the  populace  headlong,  and  the  throng,  connected  in 
one  long  line,  bursts  forth. 

You  would  suppose  either  that  accursed  torches  had  set 
fire  to  the  abodes,  or  that  now,  the  ruins  shaking,  the 
nodding  houses  were  tottering  to  their  fall ;  thus  does  the 
panic-stricken  multitude  at  random  rush  throughout  the  City 
with  precipitate  steps,  as  though  there  had  been  but  one 
hope  hi  their  ruined  fortunes,  to  desert  their  paternal 
walls.  Just  as,  when  the  stormy  south  wind  has  repulsed 
from  the  Libyan  Syrtes  the  boundless  ocean,  and  the 
broken  mass  of  the  sail-bearing  mast  has  sent  forth  its 
crash,  and  the  pilot,  the  ship  deserted,  leaps  into  the  waves, 
the  seaman,  too,  and  thus,  the  structure  of  the  vessel  not  yet 
torn  asunder,  each  one  makes  a  shipwreck  for  himself ;  so 
the  City  forsaken,  do  they  fly  unto  the  warfare.  The  parent, 
now  weakened  with  old  age,  was  able  to  call  no  one  back2; 
nor  yet  the  wife  her  husband  with  her  tears ;  nor  did  the 
household  Lares  detain  them,  while  they  were  breathing 
prayers  for  their  safety  thus  doubtful;  nor  did  any  one 
pause  at  the  threshold,  and  then,  filled  with  perhaps  his 
last  glimpse  of  the  beloved  City,  take  his  departure ;  not 
to  be  called  back,  the  crowd  rushes  on. 

0  Deities,  ready  to  grant  supreme  prosperity,  and  loth 
to  preserve  the  same !    The  cowardly  throngs  left  the  City  a 

1  Oives  its  hateful  decrees)  ver.   489.      Speaking  of  this  crisis,  Caesar 
says,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  ch.  5 — "  Recourse  was  had  to   that  extreme 
and  formal  decree  of  the  Senate"  (which  was  never  resorted  to  even  by  daring 
proposers  except  when  the  City  was  in  danger  of  being  set  on  fire,  or  when 
the  public  safety  was  despaired  of),  "  that  the  Consuls,  Praetors,  Tribunes  of 
the  people,  and  Proconsuls  in  the  City,  should  take  care  that  the  State  re- 
ceived no  detriment."     Of  course  these  decrees  would  be  odious  to  the  parti- 
zans  of  Caesar. 

2  Was  able  to  call  no  one  lack)  ver.  505.     There  is  a  similar  passage  in 
the  Tristia  of  Ovid,  B.  i.  El.  B,  1.  54,  where,  describing  the  night  of  his 
leavisic  Rome  in  banishment,  he  says  : — "  Thrice  did  I  touch  the  threshold  ; 
thrice  was  I  called  back,  and  my  lingering  foot  itself  paused  indulgent  to 
my  feelings ;  often,  having  bade  him  farewell,  did  I  again  give  utterance  to 
many  a  word  and,  as  if  now  departing,  I  gave  the  last  kiss." 


B.  I.  515-538.]  PHARSALIA.  33 

prey  on  Caesar's  approach,  filled  with  the  people  and  with 
conquered  nations,  and  able  to  hold  the  human  race,  if  the 
multitude  were  collected  together.  When,  hi  foreign  re- 
gions, the  Eoman  soldier,  pressed  by  the  foe,  is  hemmed  in, 
he  escapes  the  dangers  of  the  night  by  a  simple  trench  ; 
and  the  rampart  suddenly  formed  with  the  protection  of 
some  clods  torn  up  affords  secure  slumbers  within  the 
tents.  Thou  Rome,  on  the  name  only  of  war  being  heard 
art  being  deserted ;  a  single  night  has  not  been  trusted  to 
thy  walls. 

Still,  pardon  must  be  granted,  yes,  must  be  granted  for 
alarms  thus  great.  Pompey  flying,  they  were  in  dread1. 
Besides,  that  even  no  hope  in  the  future  might  cheer 
their  failing  spirits,  there  was  added  the  disclosed  assurance 
of  a  still  worse  future,  and  the  threatening  Gods  of  heaven 
filled  with  prodigies  the  earth,  the  seas,  the  skies.  The 
gloomy  nights  beheld  stars  unknown,  and  the  sky  burn- 
ing with  flames,  and  torches  flying  obliquely  through  the 
expanse  along  the  heavens,  and  the  train  of  a  fear-inspiring 
meteor,  and  a  comet  threatening  tyranny  to  the  earth  *. 
Incessant  hghtnings  flashed  in  the  deceptive  clear  sky,  and 
the  fire  described  various  forms  in  the  dense  atmosphere  ; 
now  a  javelin,  with  a  prolonged  flame,  and  now  a  torch, 
with  a  scattered  light,  flashed  in  the  heavens.  Lightning  in 
silence  without  any  clouds,  and  bringing  its  fires  from  the 
Arctic  regions3,  smote  the  Capital  of  Latium4;  the  lesser 
stars,  too,  that  were  wont  to  speed  onwards  in  the  still 
hours  of  the  night,  came  in  the  middle  of  the  day;  and, 
*her  horns  closed,  when  Phoebe  was  now  reflecting  her 

1  Pompey  flying,  they  were  in  dread)  ver.  522.     According  to  Caesar, 
Civil  War,  B.  i.  ch.  14,  Pompey  left  the  City  on  his  road  to  the  legions 
which  he  had  placed  in  winter  quarters  in  Apulia. 

2  Threatening  tyranny  to  the  earth)  ver.  529.     By  its  appearance  threaten- 
ing tyranny  to  the  earth ;  such  as  it  had  suffered  under  Marius  and  Sulla. 

3  From  the  Arctic  regions)  ver.  534.     This  was  considered  portentous 
of  ill,  inasmuch  as  lightning  was  supposed  generally  to  proceed  from  the 
south. 

4  The  Capital  of  Latium)  ver.  535.     By  "  Latiale  caput "  some  un- 
derstand Home,  as  being  the  chief  city  of  Latium.    It  is  not  Improbable  that 
the  Temple  of  Jupiter  on  the  Capitoline  Hill  is  meant.    Jupiter  Latialis  is 
mentioned  in  1. 198. 

D 


34  PHARSALIA.  [B.  L  538-554. 

brother  on  her  whole  orb,  struck  by  the  sudden  shadow  of 
the  earth  she  turned  pale.  Titan  himself,  when  he  was 
raising  his  head  in  mid  Olympus,  concealed  his  glowing 
chariot  in  dense  darkness,  and  enwrapped  the  earth  in 
shade,  and  forced  the  nations  to  despair  of  day ;  just  as, 
the  Sun  retreating  by  the  east,  Mycenae  of  Thyestes  brought 
on  the  night1. 

Grim  Mulciber  opened  the  mouths  of  Sicilian  Etna2; 
nor  did  it  raise  its  flames  to  the  heavens,  but  with  its  crest 
bending  low  the  flame  fell  downwards  on  the  Hesperian 
side.  The  black  Charybdis  stirred  up  from  her  depths  sea 
of  the  colour  of  blood ;  the.  savage  dogs  barked  in  dismal 
tones.  The  fire  was  torn  from  the  Vestal  altars ;  and  the 
flame  that  showed  that  the  Latin  rites  3  were  completed  was 
divided  into  two  parts,  and  rose  with  a  twofold  point,  re- 
sembling the  funeral  piles  of  Thebes4.  Then  did  the  Earth 
withdraw  from  her  axis,  and,  their  ridges  quaking,  the  Alps 
shook  off  their  ancient  snows.  With  billows  more  mighty 

1  Mycence  of  Thyestes  brought  on  the   night)    ver.  544.      Atrens  and 
Thyestes,  the    sons    of  Pelops  and:  Hippodamia,  slew  their   half-brother 
Chrysippus.     Thyestes  having  seduced   JErope,  the  wife  of   Atrens,    sent 
Pleisthenes,  the  son  of  Atreus.  whom  he  had  brought  up,  to  murder  his 
lather,  on  which  Atreus,  supposing  him  to  be  the  son  of  Thyestes,  slew  him. 
According  to  another  version  of  the  story,  which  is  the  one  here  referred  to, 
Atreus,  feigning  a  reconciliation,  invited  Thyestei  to   his   kingdom,  and 
killed  and  dressed  the  bodies  of  Tantalus  and  Pleisthenes,  the  sons  of  Thy- 
estes, and,  while  his  brother  was  enjoying  the  meal,  had  their  hands  and 
heads  brought  in  and  shown  to  him,  on  which  Thyestes  fled  to  the  court  of 
Thesprotus.    The  Sun  is  said  to  have  hid  his  face  in  horror,  and  turned  back 
in  his  course,  on  seeing  this  transaction. 

2  Opened  the  mouths  of  Sicilian  Etna)  ver.  545.     This  is   a  poetical 
method  of   stating  that  there  was  an  eruption   of  Etna   at   this  period. 
Mulciber  was  a  name  of  Vnlcan,  derived  from  "  mulcco  "  "  to  soften,"  from 
his  being  the  inventor  of  working  iron. 

3  Showed  that  the  Latin  rites)  ver.  550.     The   festival  called    "  Latinrc 
feriae,"  or  simply  "  Latinae,"  was  performed  in  honour  of  Jupiter  Latialis 
on  the  Alban  Mount,  when  an  ox  was  sacrificed  there  by  night:  multi- 
tudes flocked   thither,   and   the   season    was   one  of  great  rejoicings  and 
feasting. 

4  Resembling  the  funeral  piles  of  Thebes)  ver.  552.     Eteocles  and  Pbly- 
nices,  the  Theban  brothers,  sons  of  (Edipus,  having  slain  each  other  in 
combat,  their  bodies  were  burnt  on  the  same  funeral  pile,  bnt  their  animosity 
was  said  to  have  survived  in  death,  and  the  flames  refused  to  unite. 


B.  i.  555-564.]  PHARSALIA.  35 

Tethys  did  overwhelm  Hesperian  Calpe '  and  the  heights  of 
Atlas*.  We  have  heard  how  that  the  native  Deities a  wept,, 
and  how  with  sweat  the  Lares  attested  the  woes  of  the  Ciky, 
how,  too,  that  the  presented  gifts  fell  down  in  their  Temples, 
and  hirds  of  ill  omen4  polluted  the  day;  and  how  that 
the  wild  heasts,  emboldened,  the  woods  at  nightfall  deserted, 
made  their  lairs  in  the  midst  of  Rome.  Then  were  the 
tongues  of  cattle  adapted0  to  human  accents;  monstrous 
births,  too,  there  were,  of  human  beings,  both  as  to  the  num- 
ber and  the  formation  of  the  limbs,  and  her  own  infant  struck 
the  mother  with  horror;  the  fatal  lines0,  too,  of  the  Pro- 

1  Hesperian  Calpe)  ver.  555.  The  rock  of  Gibraltar  in  Hesperia,  or 
Spain,  which  was  also  called  the  Columns  of  Hercules. 

5  The  heights  of  Atlas)  ver.  555.  Atlas  was  the  name  of  a  mountain 
range  in  the  north-west  of  Africa,  situate  between  the  Mediterranean  and 
the  Great  Desert,  now  called  the  Desert  of  Sahara. 

3  The   native    Deities)    ver.   556.     The  "  Dii  Indigetes "    were    those 
Gods  of  the  Romans  who  were  supposed  to  have  once  lived  on  earth  as 
mortals,  and  were  after  their  death  raised  to  the  rank  of  Gods,  such  as 
Janus,   Faunus,  Picus,  JEneas,  Evander,  Hercules,  Latinus,  and  Romulus. 
Some  take  them  to  have  been  only  such  Deities  as  took  part  in  the  foundation 
of  Rome,  as  Mars,  Venas,  Vesta,  and  others  ;  while  others  think  that  they 
were  those  whose  worship  was  introduced  into  Latium  from  Troy. 

4  And  birds  of  ill   omen)  ver.  558.     He  probably  means  screech-owls 
and  bats,  which  were  considered  birds  of  ill  omen. 

5  Tongues  of  cattle  adapted)  ver.  561.     Livy  and  Valerius  Maximus  tell 
us  that  an  ox  spoke  and  warned  Rome  of  the  disasters  which  would  ensue 
on  Hannibal's  arrival  in  Italy.     We  learn  from  one  of  the  Scholiasts  that 
in  these  Civil  Wars  an  ass  spoke.    Another  informs  us  that  an  ox  spoke  when 
ploughing,  in  reproof  of  his  driver,  and  told  him  that  it  was  useless  to 
urge  him  on,  for  soon  there  would  be  no  people  left  in  Italy  to  consume  the 
produce  of  the  fields. 

6  The  fatal  lines)  ver.  564.     He  alludes  to  the  Prophecies  of  the  Sibyl ; 
a  name   given   to  several   mysterious   personages   of   antiquity,  of    whom 
ten  are  mentioned  by  Varro.     The  one  here  alluded  to,  resided  at  Cumae, 
on  the  sea-coast  of  Italy.      Erythrea   was   her  usual   name,   but   she   is 
sometimes  called  Herophile,  Daphne,  Deiphobe,  Manto,  &c.     Apollo  granted 
her  a  life  to  equal  in  the  years  of  its  duration  the  grains  contained  in  a 
handful  of  sand.     Forgetting  to  add  to  her  request  the  enjoyment  of  health 
and  strength,  decrepitude  and  infirmity  became  her  lot  as  her  years  ad- 
vanced.    There  was  another  Sibyl  of  Cumse  in  2Etolia,  who  is  represented 
as  a  different  personage   from  the   former.     According   to  the  Scholiasts, 
Lucan  here  alludes  to  a  prophecy  of  the  Sibyl  couched  under  the  follow- 
ing letters :  R.R.R.  P.P.P.P.   F.F.F.,  which  was  said  to  mean  "  Romanum 
ruitregnum,   Pompeius,  pater  patriae,  pellitur  ferro,  flamma,  fame."     "The 
Roman  state  comes  to  ruin,  Pompey,  the  father  of  his  country,  is  expelled 

D    2 


36  PHARSALIA.  [B.  i.  564-576. 

phetess  of  Cumae  were  repeated  among  the  populace.  Then 
did  those,  whom  with  their  hacked  arms  the  savage  Bellona 
inspires  *,  sing  of  the  Gods  enraged ;  and  tossing  their  blood- 
stained hair,  the  Galli  howled  forth2 sad  accents  to  the  throng. 
Urns  filled  with  bones  laid  at  rest  sent  forth  groans. 

Then  arose  the  crash  of  arms,  and  loud  voices  were  heard 
amid  the  remote  parts  of  the  groves,  and  ghosts  came  nigh 
to  men*.  Those,  too,  who  till  the  fields  adjacent  to  the  extre- 
mities of  the  walls,  fled  in  all  directions  ;  the  mighty  Erinnys 
was  encompassing  the  City  about,  shaking  her  pitch-tree 
torch  down-turned  with  flaming  top,  and  her  hissing  locks ; 
such  as  when  the  Fury  impelled  the  Theban  Agave4,  or 
whirled  in  air  the  weapons  of  the  savage  Lycurgus';  or  such 

by  sword,  flames,  and  hunger."  According  to  one  account  a  frantic  woman 
ran  through  the  streets  of  Rome  calling  out  these  initial  letters.  For  a 
full  account  of  the  Sibyls  see  the  Translation  of  Ovid's  Metamorphoses,  in 
Bohris  Classical  Library,  p.  484  et  seq. 

1  The  savage  Bellona  inspires)  ver.  565.   Bellona,  the  Goddess  of  war, 
•was  probably  a  Sabine  divinity,  and  is  represented  as  the  companion  of 
Mars,  sometimes  as  his  sister  or  his  wife.     Her  priests  at  Rome,  to  whom 
reference  is  here  made,  were   called  "  Bellonarii,"  and  when  they  offered 
sacrifice  to  her  they  wounded  their  own    arms  and  legs,  and   offered   up 
the  blood,  and  sometimes  even  drank  thereof,  that  they  might  become  in- 
spired with  a  warlike  enthusiasm.    This  sacrifice  was  performed  on  the  24th 
of  March,  which  was  thence  called  "Dies  sanguinis,"  "the  Day  of  blood." 

2  The  Galli  howled  forth)  ver.  567.     The  Galli  were  eunuch  priests  of 
Cybele,  whose  worship  was  introduced  into  Rome  from  Phrygia,  B.C.  204. 
Their  wild  and  boisterous  rites  are  here  referred  to,  and,  like  the  priests  of 
Bellona,  they  were  in  the  habit  of  mutilating  their  own  bodies.     The  origin 
of  their  name  is  uncertain,  but  it  was  most  probably  derived  from  the  river 
Gallus  in   Phrygia,  which  flowed  near  the  temple  of  Cybele.     One  of  the 
Scholiasts  says,  that  to  insult  the  Galli,  after  the  conquest  of  Gaul,  Caesar 
had  some  persons  castrated  and  shut  up  in  the  temple  of  Cybele.     Papias 
relates  the  same  story. 

3  Ghosts  came  nigh  to   men)  ver.  570.     "  Venientes  cominus  umbrae."* 
It  has  been  suggested  that  this  passage  means  that  the  shadows  of  the  body 
ominously  fell  in  front  at  a  time  when  they  ought  to  have  fallen  behind. 
The  translation  given  in  the  text  is,  however,  the  preferable  one. 

*  Impelled  the  Theban  Agave)  ver.  574.  Pentheus  having  forbidden  the 
people  to  worship  Bacchus,  and,  having  ordered  him  to  be  captured,  his  mother 
Agave  and  the  other  Bacchantes  became  inspired  by  the  Furies  and  tore 
him  to  pieces.  See  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  Book  vii.  1.  510,  et  seq. 

5  T/ie  weapons  of  the  savage  Lycurgus)  ver.  575.  Lycurgus,  king  of 
Thrace,  having  denied  the  Divinity  of  Bacchus,  was  punished  with  insanity, 
on  which  he  slew  his  own  wife  and  child,  and  cut  off  his  own  legs,  mistaking 
them  for  vine  branches.  According  to  one  account  he  was  murdered  by  his 


B.  i.  576-585.]  PHARSALIA.  37 

as,  when,  by  the  command  of  the  unjust  Juno,  Pluto  now 
visited,  Alcides  shuddered  at  Megsera1.  Trumpets  re- 
sounded, and  black  night,  amid  the  silent  shades,  sent  forth 
an  uproar  as  loud  as  that  with  which  the  cohorts  are  min- 
gled in  combat.  The  shade  of  Sulla,  too,  seeming  to  arise  in 
the  middle  of  the  Plain  of  Mars2,  uttered  ill-boding  prophe- 
cies ;  and  the  husbandmen  fled  from  Marius  raising  his  head 
at  the  cold  waves  of  Anio3,  his  sepulchre  burst  asunder. 

By  reason  of  these  things  it  seemed  good  that,  according 
to  the  ancient  usage,  the  Etrurian  prophets4  should  be 

subjects,  who  were  forbidden  by  an  oracle  to  taste  wine  till  he  had  been 
dispatched,  while  another  version  states  that  he  was  slain  by  the  panthers 
sacred  to  Bacchus.  The  fates  of  Pentheus  and  Lycurgus  are  mentioned  in 
conjunction,  in  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  iii.  1.  721-2.  "  Thon  also,  unhappy 
prey  of  thy  Theban  mother,  shalt  remain  unmentioned ;  thou  too,  Lycurgus, 
impelled  by  madness  to  assail  thy  own  knee." 

1  Alcides  shuddered  at  Megcera)  ver.  577.  He  alludes  to  a  tradition 
relative  to  Hercules,  which  stated  that  when  he  had  returned  from  the  In- 
fernal Regions,  he  was  seized  with  madness,  which  Megaera,  the  chief  of  the 
Furies,  had,  by  the  command  of  Juno,  his  relentless  persecutor,  sent  upon 
him  ;  on  which  he  slew  Megara,  the  daughter  of  Creon  (who  had  been  his 
wife,  and  whom  he  had  given  to  lolaus),  and  her  children  by  lolaiis.  This 
madness  was  inflicted  upon  him  for  having  slain  Lycus,  king  of  Thebes. 
Hercules  was  called  Alcides,  probably  from  the  Greek  word,  k\*ot,  strength. 

9  In  the  middle  of  the  Plain  of  Mars)  ver  581.  After  the  death  of 
Sulla  the  Senate  paid  him  the  honor  of  a  public  funeral,  and,  with  the 
Priests,  Vestal  Virgins,  and  Equites,  accompanied  the  funeral  procession  to 
the  Campus  Martius,  where,  according  to  the  express  desire  of  the  deceased, 
his  body  was  burnt,  as  he  feared  that  his  enemies  might  insult  his  remains, 
as  he  had  done  those  of  Marius,  which  had  been  taken  out  of  the  grave  and 
thrown  into  the  Anio  at  his  command.  This  circumstance  was  the  more 
striking,  as  it  had  been  previously  the  custom  of  the  Cornelian  family,  of 
which  he  was  a  member,  to  bury  and  not  burn  their  dead.  A  monument 
was  erected  to  him  in  the  Campus  Martius,  the  inscription  on  which  he  is 
said  to  have  composed  himself.  It  stated  that  none  of  his  friends  ever  did 
him  a  service,  and  none  of  his  enemies  a  wrong,  without  being  fully  repaid. 

3  The  cold  loaves  of  Anio)  ver.  582.     The  Anio  was  a  small  stream 
which  ran  into  the  Tiber.     In  using  the  word  "  fracto,"  "  burst  asunder," 
the  Poet  probably  alludes  to  the  circumstance  above-mentioned,  of  the  viola- 
tion of  his  tomb  by  the  orders  of  the  vengeful  Sulla. 

4  The  Etrurian  prophets)  ver.  584.     The  Romans  received  their  supersti- 
tions relative  to  augury  and  soothsaying  from  Etruria,  which  was  always  fa- 
mous for  the  skill  of  its  natives  in  those  branches,  and  was  for  many  centuries 
the  nursery  of  the  Roman  priesthood.     Ovid  says,  in  the  Metamorphoses, 
B.  xv.  1.  559,  that  Tages,  who  was  fabled  to  have  sprung  out  of  the  earth,  was 
the  first  to  teach  the  Etrurian  nation  how  to  foretell  future  events. — See  1.  637 
of  this  Book,  and  the  Translation  in  Bohn's  Classical  Library,  p.  543. 


88  PHABSALIA.  [B.  i.  585-599. 

summoned.  Of  whom,  Aruns,  the  one  most  stricken  in 
years,  inhabited  the  walls  of  deserted  Luca1,  well-skilled 
in  the  movements  of  the  lightnings,  and  the  throbbing 
veins  of  the  entrails,  and  the  warnings  of  the  -whig2  hover- 
ing  in  the  air.  In  the  first  place  he  orders  the  monsters, 
which  revolting  nature  has  produced  from  no  seed,  to  be 
seized,  and  then  bids  them  burn  the  accursed  progeny  of  the 
barren  womb  in  ill-omened  flames 3.  Then  next  he  orders 
the  whole  City  to  be  perambulated  by  the  trembling  citi- 
zens, and  the  priests,  who  purify  the  walls  at  the  festive  lus- 
trum, to  whom  is  granted  the  power  to  perform  the  rite,  to 
go  round  about  the  lengthened  spaces  without  the  walls  *, 
at  the  extreme  boundaries.  The  inferior  throng  follows, 
tightly  girt  in  the  Gabinian  fashion 5,  and  the  filleted  priestess 
leads  the  Vestal  choir,  to  whom  alone  it  is  permitted  to 
behold  the  Trojan  Minerva",  l^ext,  those  who  have  charge 

1  Deserted  Luca)  ver.  586.  Luca,  now  Lucca,  was  a  lognrian  city  in 
upper  Italy,  at  the  foot  of  the  Apennines.  Luna  is  another  reading  here  ; 
it  was  a  town  of  Etruria,  situate  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Macra,  about  four 
miles  from  the  sea-shore.  It  was  famed  for  its  white  marble,  which  now 
takes  its  name  from  the  neighbouring  town  of  Carrara.  The  character  of 
Aruns  here  mentioned  is  probably  a  fabulous  one,  invented  by  the  Poet. 

*  Warnings  of  the  wing)    ver.  588.     Auspices  w«re  derived   from   the 
flight  and  from  the  voice  of  birds.     Those  which  afforded  the  former  were 
called  "  Prsepetes,"  those  which  gave  the  latter  were  called  "  Oscines." 

3  In  ill-omened  flames)  ver.  591.     Infaustie — flammis.     One  of  the  Scho- 
liasts tells  us  that  those  flames  were  called  "  infaustae  "  which  were  kindled 
from  wood  which  had  been  struck  by  lightning,  or  which  had  been  used  in 
burning  the  dead. 

4  Spaces  without  ike  ttulls)  ver.  594.     Pornceria.     This  word  is  probably 
compounded  of  "post"  and  "  moerium,"  the  old  name  for  "  a  wall,"  and  sig- 
nified a  space  of   ground  adjoining  the  city  •walls.      The   limits   of   the 
Pomcerium   were   marked   out  by  stone  pillars  at  certain  distances.     The 
Pomoerium  was  probably  described  to  denote  the  space  within   which  the 
City  auspices  were  to  be  taken. 

5  In  the  Gabinian.  fashion)  ver.  596.    According  to  Servius,  the  "  Cinctus 
•Gabinius"  was  formed  by  girding  the  toga  tight  round  the  body  by  one  of  its 
"  laciniiE,"  or  loose  ends.     This  was  done  by  forming  a  part  of  the  toga  into 
3  girdle,  drawing  its  outer  edge  round  the  body,  and  tying  it  in  a  knot  in 
the  front,  at  the  same  time  that  the  head  was  covered  with  another  portion  of 
the  garment     The  Lares  were  generally  represented  in  the  Gabinian  habit. 

*  To  behold  the  Trojan  Jf inertia)  ver.  598.     He  alludes  to  the  Palladium 
or  image  of  Minerva  which  had  been  brought  by  JEneas  from  Troy,  and  was 
deposited  in  the  Temple  of  Vesta  nnder  the  care  of  the  Vestal  Virgins,  who 
alone  were  permitted  to  look  upon  it. 


B.  i.  599-603.]  PHARSALIA.  89 

of  the  decrees  of  the  Gods  and  the  mystic  prophecies, 
and  who  reconduct  Cybele,  when  bathed,  from  the  little 
Almo1:  the  Augur,  too,  skilled  in  observing  the  birds  on  the 
left  hand;  and  the  Septemvir2,  joyous  at  the  festivals,  and 
the  fellowship  of  the  Titii3, — the  Salian,  likewise4,  carrying 

1  When  bathed  from  the  little  Almo)  ver.  600.     It  was  a  yearly  custom 
with  the  Komans  to  wash  the  statue  of  the  Goddess  Cybele  and  her  chariot 
in  the  waters  of  the  Almo,  a  small  river  near  Rome.     Ovid  mentions  this 
practice  in  the  Fasti,  B.  iv.  1.  338,  et  seq.     "  There  is  a  spot  where  the  rapid 
Almo  flows  into  the  Tiber,  and  the  lesser  stream  loses  its  name  in  that  of 
the  greater.     There  does  the  hoary  priest,  in  his  purple  vestments,  lave  the 
lady   Goddess  and  her  sacred  utensils  in  the  waters  of  the  Almo."     One 
of  the  Scholiasts  says  that  there  was  a  river  of  the  same  name  in  Phrygia, 
•whence  the  worship  of  Cybele  was  brought.    This  line  is  by  some  thought  to 
be  spurious.     In  the  previous  line  the  Poet  alludes  to  the  "  Quindecimviri," 
or  "  Fifteen,"  whose  duty  it  was  to  preserve  the  Sibylline  books,   which 
•were  supposed  to  reveal  the  destinies  of  Borne.    Their  number  was  originally 
two,  next  ten,  and  by  Sulla  they  were  increased  to  fifteen. 

2  And  the  Septemvir)  ver.  602.     "  Septemvir."     He  alludes  to  the  "  Sep- 
temviri  Epulones,"  who  were  originally  three  in  number,  and  whose  office 
was  first  instituted  in  the  year  B.C.  196.     Their  duty  was,  to  attend  to  the 
"  Epulum  Jovis,"  or  "  Feast  of  Jove,"  and  the  banquets,  or  "  lectisternia," 
given  in  honor  of  the  other  Gods  ;  a  duty  which  had  originally  belonged  to 
the  Pontifices.      Julius  Caesar  added  three  to  their  number,  but  they  were 
afterwards  reduced  to  seven.     They  formed  a  Collegium,  and  were  ene  of 
the  four  religious  corporations  of  Borne,  the  other  three  being  those  of  the 
Pontilices,  Augures,  and  Quindecimviri. 

3  Fellowship  of  the  Titii)  ver.  602.    The  "  Titii  Sodales"  formed  a  College 
of  priests  at  Borne,  who  represented  the  Titii  or  second  tribe  of  the  Bomans, 
•which  was  descended  from  the  Sabines,  and  continued  to  perform  their 
ancient  rites.     This  body  is  said  to  have  been  instituted  by  Titus  Tatius,  the 
king  of  the   Sabines,  who  reigned  jointly   with  Romulus.     According  to 
Tacitus,  it  would  seem  that  Bomulus  made  the  worship  of  Tatius  after  his 
death  a  part  of  the  Sabine   sacred   rites.     Varro  derives  the  name  from 
"  Titioe  aves,"  the  "  Titian  birds,"  which  were  observed  by  these  priests  in 
certain  auguries,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  they  kept  the  auguries  peculiar 
to  the  Sabines  distinct  from  those  used  by  the  other  tribes.     It  is  very 
doubtful  whether  the  office  of  the  "  Titii  Sodales,"  as  the  preservers  of  the 
Sabine  ritual,  was  in  existence  in  the  time  of  Lucan. 

4  The  Salian,  likewise)  ver.  603.     The  Salii  were  priests  of  Mars,  who 
were  instituted  by  Numa  to  keep  the  sacred  shields  or  "  ancilia ;"  they  re- 
ceived their  name  from  "  »alio,"  to  "  leap"  or  "dance,"  because  in  the  pro- 
cession round  the  City  they  danced  with  the  shields  suspended  from  their 
necks.     Some  writers  say  that  they  received  their  name  from  Salius,  an  Ar- 
cadian, a  companion  of  jEneas,  who  taught  the  Italian  youths  to  dance  in 
armour.     After  the  processions   had  lasted   some   days,  the   shields  were 
replaced  in  the  Temple  of  Mars.    The  dress  of  the  Salii  was  an  embroidered 
tunic,  with  a  brazen  belt,  the  "  trabea,"  and  the  "apex,"  or  tufted  conical  cap; 


40  PHARSALIA.  [a  i.  603-610. 

the  ancilia1  on  his  exulting  neck;  and  the  Flamen2,  who 
wears  the  tuft3  upon  his  noble  head. 

And  while  in  prolonged  circuit  they  go  round  about  the 
emptied  City,  Aruns  collects  the  dispersed  objects  struck  by 
flames  of  lightning,  and  with  a  lamenting  murmur  buries 
them  in  the  earth,  and  bestows  a  name  upon  the  conse- 
crated spots4.  Then  does  he  urge  onward  to  the  altar  a 
male,  with  selected  neck.  Now  had  he  begun  to  pour  the 

each  having  a  sword  by  his  side,  and  a  spear  or  staff  in  his  hand,  with 
•which,  while  dancing,  he  struck  the  ancile,  kept  time  with  the  voice  and 
the  movements  of  the  dance. 

1  Carrying  the  ancilia)  ver.  603.     The  "ancile"  was  a  sacred  shield, 
•which  was  said  to  have  fallen  from  heaven  in  the  time  of  King  Numa.     To 
prevent  its  being  stolen,  as  the  destiny  of  the  Roman  state  was  supposed  to 
depend  on  its  preservation,  Numa  ordered  a  number  of  shields  to  be  made  by 
Mamurius  exactly  resembling  it,  in  order  that  those  having  criminal  designs 
might  not  be  able  to  steal  it.     The  "ancilia"  were  under  the  especial  charge 
of  the  Salii.     See  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  iii.  1.  363,  ft  teq. 

2  And  the  Flamen)  ver.  604.     The  Flamens  were  priests  who  dedicated 
their  services  to  one  particular  Deity,  while  the  Pontifices  offered  sacrifice  to 
all.     The  "  Flamen  Dialis,"  or  "  Flamen  of  Jupiter,"  held  the  highest  office 
of  the  Roman  priesthood,  though  his  political  influence  was  less  than  that  of 
the  "  Pontifex  Maximus."     Among  other  privileges,  that  of  having  a  lictor 
was  one.  • 

3  Who  wears  the  tuft)  ver.  604.   "  Apicem."   Under  the  name  of  "  apex" 
he  refers  to  a  peculiar  cap  worn  by  the  Flamens  and  Salii  at  Rome.     That 
name,   however,  properly  belonged  to  a  pointed  piece  of  olive  wood,  the 
base  of  which  was  surrounded  with  wool.     This  was  held  on  the  head  by 
fillets  or  by  a  cap,  which  was  fastened  by  two  bands  called  "  apicula,"  or 
"  offendices."     The  cap  was  of  a  conical  form,  and  was  generally  made  of 
sheep-skin  with  the  wool  on;  and  from  the  "apex  "on  its  summit  it  at 
length  acquired  that  name.     The  Flamens  were  chosen  from  the  higher 
classes;  hence  the  present  epithet  "generoso." 

4  A  name  upon  (tie  consecrated  spots)  ver.  608.     He  alludes  to  the  conse- 
cration of  the  "bidental."     This  was  a  name  given  to  a  place  struck  by 
lightning,  which  was  held  sacred  ever  afterwards.     Similar  veneration  was 
also  paid  to  a  place  where  a  person  who  had  been  killed  by  lightning  was 
buried.     Priests  collected  the  earth  that  had  been  torn  up,  the  branches 
broken  off  by  the  lightning,  and  everything  that  had  been  scorched,  and 
buried  them  in  the  ground  with  lamentations.    The  spot  was  then  consecrated 
by  sacrificing  a  two-year  old  sheep,  which  being  called  "bidens,"  gave  itt 
name  to  the  place.   An  altar  was  also  erected  there,  and  it  was  not  allowable 
to  tread  on  the  spot,  or  to  touch  it,  or  even  to  look  at  it.     When  the  altar 
had  fallen  to  decay,  it  might  be  repaired,  but  to  enlarge  its  boundaries  was 
deemed  sacrilege,  and  madness  was  supposed  to  ensue  on  committing  such 
an  offence  ;  Seneca  mentions  a  belief  that  wine  which  had  been  struck  by 
lightning  would  produce  death  or  madness  in  those  who  drank  it. 


E.  L  610-633.]  PHAESALIA.  41 

wine,  and  to  place  on  it  the  salted  corn",  with  knife  pointed 
downwards ;  and  long  was  the  victim  impatient  of  the  rites2 
not  grateful  to  him;  when  the  aproned  attendants  pressed 
upon  the  threatening  horns,  sinking  on  his  knees  he  pre- 
sented his  subdued  neck.  And  no  blood  as  usual  spurted 
forth ;  but  from  the  gaping  wound  there  was  black  venom, 
poured  forth  instead  of  ruddy  gore.  Astounded  at  the  ill- 
omened  rites  Aruns  turned  pale,  and  sought  the  wrath 
of  the  Gods  of  heaven  in  the  torn-out  entrails.  The  very 
colour  alarmed  the  prophet;  for  a  pervading  lividness 
streaked  with  spots  of  blood  the  pallid  vitals,  tinted  with 
foul  spots  and  gorged  with  congealed  blood.  He  perceives 
the  liver  reeking  with  corruption,  and  beholds  the  veins 
threatening  on  the  enemy's  side3.  The  fibres  of  the  pant- 
ing lungs  lie  concealed,  and  a  narrow  line  separates  the 
vital  parts.  The  heart  lies  still ;  and  through  gaping  clefts 
the  vitals  emit  corrupt  matter;  the  cauls,  too,  disclose 
their  retreats  ;  and,  shocking  sign !  that  which  has  appeared 
with  impunity  in  no  entrails,  lo !  he  sees  growing  upon 
the  head  of  the  entrails  the  mass  of  another  head4 — a  part 
hangs  weak  and  flabby,  a  part  throbs  and  with  a  rapid 
pulsation  incessantly  moves  the  veins. 

When,  by  these  means,  he  understood  the  fated  allotment 
of  vast  woes,  he  exclaimed,  "  Hardly  is  it  righteous,  Gods  of 
heaven,  for  me  to  disclose  to  the  people  what  you  warn 
me  of!  nor  indeed,  supreme  Jupiter,  have  I  propitiously 
offered  unto  thee 5  this  sacrifice ;  and  into  the  breast  of  the 

1  The  salted  corn)  ver.  610.      The  "mola,"  used  in  sacrifice,  was  a  mix- 
ture of  salt  and  spelt,  which,  together  with  wine,  was  poured  between  the 
horns  of  the  victim  before  it  was  offered  in  sacrifice.     "  Obliquo  cultro " 
seems  to  mean  "with  the  knife  pointed  downwards,"  vertically,  and  not 
obliquely,  which  latter,  however,  is  the  more  usual  meaning  of  "obliquus." 

2  Impatient  of  the  rites)  ver.  611.    For  the  victim  to  struggle  when  about 
to  be  sacrificed  was  considered  an  ill  omen. 

3  On  the  enemy's  side)  ver.  622.     In  divining  by  the  entrails,  it  was  the 
custom  for  the  priests  to  divide  them  into  two  portions  ;  one  being  assigned 
to  those  whom  they  favoured,  the  other  to  the  enemy.     In  this  instance  the 
enemy's  part,  which  was  assigned  to  Caesar,  was  replete  with  appearances  of 
the  most  fatal  ominousness. 

4  Mass  of  another  head)  ver.  628.    He  finds  a  twofold  portion  of  what  they 
called  the  head  of  the  liver.     This,  which  was  a  portentous  omen,  was  sup- 
posed to  denote  the  increase  of  Caesar's  prosperity  at  the  expense  of  Pompey. 

4  Offered  unto  thee)  ver.  633.  He  means  that  from  the  appearance  of  the 
victim  it  would  seem  as  though  he  had  not  been  sacrificing  to  Jupiter,  but  to 


42  PHAESALIA.  [B.  L  633-648. 

slaughtered  bull  have  the  infernal  Deities  entered !  Things 
not  to  be  uttered  do  we  dread;  but  things  still  greater  than 
our  apprehensions  will  come  to  pass.  May  the  Gods  grant 
a  prosperous  result  to  what  has  been  seen,  and  may  tkere 
be  no  truth  in  the  entrails ;  but  rather  may  Tages,  the  foun- 
der of  the  art1,  have  fondly  invented  all  these  things ! " 
Thus  did  the  Etrurian,  obscuring  the  omens  and  conceal- 
ing them  in  much  perplexing  doubt,  utter  his  prophecies. 

But  Figulus2,  to  whom  it  was  a  care  to  know  the  Gods 
and  the  secrets  of  the  heavens,  whom  not  Egyptian  Mem- 
phis* could  equal  in  the  science  of  the  stars  and  hi  the 
principles  which  regulate  the  heavenly  bodies,  exclaimed : — 
"  Either  this  world  wanders  without  any  laws  throughout  all 
ages,  and  the  Constellations  run  to  and  fro  with  uncertain 
movements ;  or  else,  if  the  Fates  hold  sway,  a  speedy  de- 
struction is  preparing  for  the  City  and  the  human  race.  Will 
the  earth  yawn,  and  cities  be  swallowed  up  ?  Or  will  the 
glowing  atmosphere  deprive  us  of  all  moderate  temperature  ? 
Will  the  faithless  earth  refuse  her  crops  of  corn  ?  Will  all 

the  Furies  and  the  other  Deities  of  the  Infernal  Regions,  who  have  answered 
him  with  direful  omens. 

1  Tages,  the  founder  of  the  art)  ver.  637.    See  the  note  to  1.  584.    Cicero 
mentions  Tages  as  having  sprung  from  the  earth,  in  his  book  On  Divination, 
B.  ii-  c.  23. 

2  But  Figulus)  ver.  639.     He  probably  alludes  to  P.  Nigidius  Figulus,  a 
Roman  Philosopher,  who  had  a  great  reputation  for  learning.    Aulus  Gellius 
pronounces  him  as,  next  to  Varro,  the  most  learned  among  the  Romans.     lie 
was  noted  for  his  mathematical  and  physical  investigations,  and  followed  the 
tenets  of  the  Pythagorean  school  of  Philosophy.     He  was  also  famed  as  an 
astrologer,  and,  in  the  Eusebian  Chronicle,  he  is  called  a  magician.     He  was 
an  intimate  friend  of  Cicero,  and  was  one  of  the  Senators  selected  by  him  to 
take  down  the  examinations  of  the  witnesses  who  gave  evidence  with  regard 
to  Catiline's  conspiracy,  B.C.  63.     He  was  Praetor  four  years  afterwards,  and 
took  an  active  part  in  the  Civil  War  on  the  side  of  Pompev.   He  was,  conse- 
quently, compelled  by  Caesar  to  lire  in  banishment,  and  died  B.C.  44.    A 
letter  of  Cicero  to  him  is  still  extant,  in  his  Epistles  Ad  Familiares,  B.  iv. 
Ep.  13.     He  is  said  to  have  received  the  name  of  Figulus,  which  means 
"  a  potter,"  from  the  circumstance  of  having  promulgated  on  his  return  from 
Greece  that  the  globe  whirled  round  with  the  rapidity  of  the  potter's  wheel. 

8  Not  Egyptian  Memphit)  ver.  640.  This  was  the  second  city  in  import- 
ance in  ancient  Egypt,  but  sank  into  insignificance  after  the  foundation  of 
Alexandria.  It  was  of  unknown  antiquity,  its  foundation  being  ascribed 
to  Menes.  It  stood  on  the  banks  of  the  Nile,  and  was  connected  by  canals 
with  the  lakes  Moeris  and  Mareotis.  It  was  the  "seat  of  the  worship  of  the 
Egyptian  Ptha,  or  the  Hephaestus  of  the  Greeks.  The  Egyptian  priesthood 
were  especially  famed  for  their  skill  in  astrology  and  divination. 


u.  I.  648-672]  PHARSA.LIA.  43 

the  water  be  mingled  with  poison  infused  therein  ?  What 
kind  of  ruin,  O  Gods  of  heaven,  with  what  plagues  do  you 
furnish  your  vengeance  ?  At  the  same  instant  the  closing 
days  of  many  have  met.  If  the  cold  star  of  Saturn,  with  its 
evil  influence  in  the  lofty  heaven,  had  lighted  up  its  dusky 
fires,  Aquarius  would  have  poured  forth  showers  worthy  of 
Deucalion 1,  and  the  whole  earth  would  haye  been  concealed 
in  the  ocean  spread  over  it.  If,  Phcebus,  thou  wast  now 
urging  the  fierce  Nemean  lion2  with  thy  rays,  flames  would 
be  making  their  way  over  the  whole  world,  and,  set  on  fire  by 
thy  chariot,  the  sky  would  be  in  a  blaze.  Those  fires  pause : 
thou,  Gradivus,  who  dost  inflame  the  threatening  Scorpion 
with  his  burning  tail,  and  dost  scorch  his  claws,  why  dost 
thou  make  preparations  thus  mighty  ?  For  with  his  remote 
setting  propitious  Jupiter3  is  going  down,  and  the  healthful 
star  of  Venus  is  dim,  and  the  Cyllenian  Deity4,  rapid  in  his 
movements,  is  retarded,  and  Mars  occupies  the  heavens  alone. 
"  Why  have  the  Constellations  forsaken  their  courses,  and 
why  hi  obscurity  are  they  borne  along  throughout  the  uni- 
verse ?  Why  thus  intensely  shines  the  side  of  the  sword-girt 
Orion 5  ?  The  frenzy  of  arms  is  threatening ;  and  the  might 
of  the  sword  shall  confound  all  right  by  force  ;  and  for  many 
&  year  shall  this  madness  prevail.  And  what  avails  it  to 
ask  .an  end  from  Hie  Gods  of  heaven  ?  That  peace  comes 
with  a  tyrant  alone.  Prolong,  Rome,  the  continuous  series 
of  thy  woes ;  protract  for  a  length  of  tune  thy  calamities, 
only  now  free  during  civil  war." 

1  Showers  wort/iy  of  Deucalion)  ver.  653.    For  an  account  of  the  flood 
of  Deucalion,  see  the  First  Book  of  Ovid's  Metamorphoses. 

*  The  fierce  Nemean  lion)  ver.  655.     The  Constellation  Leo  in  the  Zodiac 
•was  fabled  to  have  been  formed  by  the  Lion  of  the  Nemean  forest,  which 
was  conquered  by  Hercules. 

3  Propitious  Jupiter)  ver.  661 .     He  means  the  star  so  called. 

4  And  the  Cyllenian  Deity)  ver.  662.     Mercury  was  called  "  Cyllenius," 
from  Mount  Cyllene  in  Arcadia,  on  which  he  was  said  to  have  been  born. 

*  Side  of  the  sword-girt  Orion)  ver.  665.    "  The  unguarded  words  of  Orion 
«xcited  the  anger  of  the  Gods.     '  There  is  no  wild  beast,'  said  he,  '  that  I  am 
unable  to  conquer.'     The  Earth  sent  a  scorpion ;  it  attempted  to  fasten  its 
crooked  claws  on  the  Goddess,  the  mother  of  the  twins ;  Orion  opposed  it. 
Latona  added  him  to  the  number  of  the  radiant  stars,  and  said,  '  Enjoy  the 
reward  of  thy  deserts.' "     Such  is  the  account  which  Ovid  gives  in  the  Fasti, 
B.  v.  L  540,  of  the  origin  of  the  Constellation  of  Orion.    See  also  the  curious 
•tory  of  his  birth  related  in  the  same  Book,  L  493,  ct  teg.     Hesiod,  however, 
•ays  that  he  was  the  son  of  Neptune  by  Euryale,  the  daughter  of  Minos. 
Pindar  makes  the  isle  of  Chios  to  have  been  his  birth-place,  and  not  Boeotia. 


44  PHARSALIA  IB.  L  673-681. 

These  presages  greatly  alarm  the  trembling  multitude, 
but  greater  ones  confound  them.  For  just  as  on  the 
heights  of  Pindus1  the  Edonian  female2,  filled  with  the 
Ogygian  Lyseus3,  hurries  along,  so  likewise  is  a  matron4, 
borne  along  through  the  astounded  City,  disclosing  by 
these  words  how  Phoebus  is  exciting  her  breast :  "  Whither, 
O  Paean3,  am  I  being  borne  ?  In  what  land  art  thou  placing 
me,  hurried  along  amid  the  skies  ?  I  see  Pangceum",  white 
with  its  snowy  ridges,  and  extended  Philippi  beneath  the 
crags  of  Hsemus7.  What  frenzy  this  is,  O  Phoebus,  tell 

1  On  the  heighti  of  Pindut)  ver.  674.  Pindus  was  the  name  of  that  part 
of  the  mountain  range  running  through  Greece  which  separated  Thessaly 
from  Epirus. 

*  The  Edonian  female)  ver.  675.    The  Edoni  or  Edones  were  a  Thracian 
people,  situate  between  the  Nestus  and  the  Strymon.     They  were  celebrated 
by  their  devotion  to  the  orgies  of  Bacchus;  whence  "  Edonis"  in  the  Latin 
Poets,  as  in  the  present  instance,  signifies  a  female  worshipper  of  Bacchus. 

3  The  Ogygian  Lyaut)  ver.  675.     Bacchus  was  called  Lyaeus,  from  the 
Greek  word  Xwr»,  to  "loosen"  or  "relax,"  because  wine  dispels  care.     He 
was  probably  styled  "  Ogygian  "  from  the  circumstance  of  his  having  been 
born  at  Thebes,  which  was   called  Ogygia,  from  Ogyges,  one  of  its  early 
kings. 

4  It  a  matron)  ver.  676.     Sulpitius  says  that  her  name  was  Oritia. 

*  Whither,  0  Pcean)  ver.  678.     Paean  was  originally  a  name  given  to  a 
Deity  who  was  the  physician  of  the  Gods.     In  that  sense  it  came  from  the 
Greek  -rcttui,  "  healing."    Similarly  it  afterwards  became  a  surname  of  JEscu- 
lapius,  a  God  who  had  the  power  of  healing.     It  was  also  given  to  Apollo 
and  Thanatos,  or  Death,  perhaps  as  being  liberators  of  mankind  from  suffering 
and  sorrow.     It  may,  however,  have  been  applied  to  the  two  last  as  coming 
from  •ra.'itu,  "  to  strike,"  Death  being  supposed  to  strike  with  his  dart,  and 
Apollo,  as  the  Deity  of  the  Sun,  striking  with  his  rays.  Apollo  was  frequently 
appealed  to  under  this  name,  as  all-powerful  to  avert  evil. 

6  I  see  Pangceum)  ver.  679.     Pangaeum,  or  Pangaeus,  was  a   range    of 
mountains  in  Macedonia,  between  the  Strymon  and  the  Nestus,  in  the  vici- 
nity of  Philippi. 

7  The  crags  of  Hcemus)  ver.  680.     The  Haemus  formed  a  lofty  range  of 
mountains  (now  called  the  Balkan  chain)  separating  Thrace  from  Moesia. 
Though  famed  among  the  Poets  for  their  immense  height,  they  do  not  ex- 
ceed 4000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.     Lucan  here  falls  into  the  error  of 
confounding  Pharsalia  with  Philippi,  the  place  where  Brutus  and   Cassius 
were  afterwards  defeated  by  Antony  and  Augustus  Caesar.     Howe  has  the 
following  Note  here : — "  It  is  pretty  strange  that  so  many  great  names  of 
antiquity,  as  Virgil,  Ovid,  Petronius,  and  Lucan  should  be  guilty  of  such 
a  blunder  in  geography,  as  to  confound  the  field  of  battle  between  Julius 
Caesar  and  Pompey  with  that  between  Octavius  Caesar  and  Brutus,  when 
it  was  very  plain  one  was   in  the  middle  of  Thessaly  and  the  other  in 
Thrace,  a  great  part  of  Macedonia  lying  between  them.     Sulpitius,  indeed, 
one  of  the  commentators  on  Lucan,  says,  there  was  a  town  called  Philippi, 


B.  i.  681-695.]  PHARSALIA.  45 

me ;  why  do  Roman  armies  mingle  their  weapons  and  their 
bands  ?  Without  an  enemy 1  is  there  war  ?  Torn  away, 
whither  am  I  being  borne?  Thou  art  conducting  me  to 
the  distant  east,  where  the  sea  is  changed  by  the  stream 
of  the  Nile  of  Lagus3.  Him  who  is  lying  a  hideous  trunk3 
on  the  river's  sand,  do  I  recognize.  Over  the  seas  am  I 
borne  to  the  shifting  Syrtes 4  and  the  parched  Libya,  whither 
the  direful  Erinnys  has  transferred  the  ranks  of  Emathia5. 
Now  above  the  heights  of  the  cloud-capt  Alps  and  the 
aerial  Pyrenees6  am  I  torn  away.  To  the  abodes  of  my 
native  City  I  return,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  Senate 
impious  warfare7  is  being  waged.  Factions  again8  arise, 
and  once  more  throughout  all  the  earth  do  I  proceed. 
Permit  me  to  behold  fresh  shores  of  the  sea y,  and  fresh 
lands;  now,  Phoebus,  have  I  beheld  Philippi!" 

Thus  she  said ;  and  exhausted  by  her  wearied  frenzy  she 
laid  her  down. 

in  whose  neighbourhood  the  battle  between  Caesar  and  Pompey  was  fought, 
but  upon  what  authority  I  know  not;  but  supposing  that,  it  is  undeniable 
that  these  two  battles  were  fought  in  two  different  countries.  I  must  own 
it  seems  to  me  the  fault  originally  of  Virgil  (upon  what  occasion  so  correct 
a  writer  could  commit  so  great  an  error  is  not  easy  to  imagine),  and  that  the 
rest  took  it  very  easily  from  him,  without  making  any  further  enquiry." 

1  Without  an  enemy)  ver.  682.     That  is,  "  without  a  foreign  foe." 

2  The  Nile  of  Lagus)  ver.  684.     The  Nile  is  so  called,  as  being  under  the 
sway  of  Ptolemy,  the  descendant  of  the  Macedonian  Lagus ;  it  was  said  to 
change  the  waters  of  the  sea  at  its  mouth  in  colour  and  taste. 

3  A  hideous  trunk)  ver.  685.      In  allusion  to  the   death  of    Pompey, 
which  is  related  in  the  Eighth  Book. 

*  To  the  shifting  Syrtes)  ver.  686.    He  alludes  to  the  march  of  the  Roman 
army  along  the  desert  sands  of  Libya  under  the  command  of  Cato,  related  at 
length  in  the  Ninth  Book. 

4  The  ranks  of  Emathia)  ver.  688.     They  are  called  Emathian  from  the 
circumstance  of  their  then  recent  defeat  in  Emathia  or  Thessaly. 

8  The  aerial  Pyrenees)  ver.  689.    She  alludes  to  the  war  in  Spain  waped  by 
Caesar  against  the  sons  of  Pompey,  whom  he  defeated  at  the  battle  of  Wunda. 

7  Impious  warfare)  ver.  691.     Allusion   is  made  to  the  death  of  Caesar 
by  the  hands  of  Brutus  and  Cassius  and  the  other  assassins  in  the  Senate- 
house. 

8  Factions  again  arise}  ver.  692.     The  Civil  "Wars  waged  between  Au- 
gustus and  Antony  on  one  side  against  Brutus  and  Cassius  on  the  other, 
and  afterwards  between  Augustus  and  Antony. 

*  Fresh  shores  of  the  sea)  ver.  693.     By  the  use  of  the  word  "  Pontus  "  he 
seems  vaguely  to  refer  to  the  Euxine  Sea  lying  off  the  coast  of  Thrace,  in 
which  Philippi  was  situate. 


BOOK  THE  SECOND. 

CONTENTS. 

Reflections  on  the  Prodigies,  1-15.  The  alarm  at  Borne  described.  The 
complaints  of  the  matrons,  16-42.  The  complaints  of  the  men,  43-66.  A 
long  speech  is  spoken  by  an  aged  man  in  reference  to  the  Civil  Wars  carried 
on  between  Sulla  and  Marins,  67-233.  Brutus  repairs  to  Cato  at  night, 
and  asks  his  advice,  234-285.  Cato  answers  that  he  shall  follow  Pompey, 
and  advises  Brutus  to  do  the  same,  286-325.  While  they  are  conversing, 
Harcia  appears,  whom,  formerly  his  own  wife,  Cato  bad  given  to  his  friend; 
Hortensias,  since  whose  death  she  has  sought  him  again  as  her  husband,  326 
-349.  In  the  presence  of  Brutus  they  renew  the  nuptial  vow,  350- 
391.  Pompcy  has  in  the  meantime  retired  to  Campania.  The  Apen- 
nines, with  their  streams,  are  described,  392—438.  Caesar  takes  posses- 
sion of  the  whole  of  Italy.  The  flight  of  Libo,  Thermns,  Sulla,  Tarns, 
Lentulns,  and  Scipio,  from  the  cities  which  they  hold,  439—477.  Domitius 
Ahenobarbus,  by  breaking  down  the  bridge,  endeavours  to  impede  the  course 
of  Caesar  at  Corfinium.  Caesar  crosses  the  river,  and  while  he  is  preparing 
to  lay  siege  to  Corfinium,  the  citizens  deliver  Domitius  to  him.  Caesar 
gives  him  his  liberty  against  his  wish,  478-525.  Pompey  addresses  his 
troops,  and  promises  to  lead  them  to  battle,  526-595.  He  retreats  to 
Brnndisium,  596-609.  The  situation  of  that  place  is  described,  610-627. 
Pompey  sends  his  son  to  Asia  to  request  the  assistance  of  the  eastern  Kings, 
He  himself  prepares  to  cross  over  to  E pirns,  628-649.  Caesar  follow! 
Pompey,  and  endeavours  to  cut  him  off  from  the  sea.  650-679.  Pompey 
leaves  Italy,  680-703.  Caesar  enters  Brundisinm,  704-736. 

AND  now  was  the  wrath  of  the  Deities  displayed,  and  the 
universe  gave  manifest  signs  of  war;  foreknowing  nature 
by  her  monster-bearing  confusion  overthrew  the  laws  and 
the  compacts  of  things,  and  proclaimed,  the  fkiality.  Why. 
ruler  of  Olympus,  has  it  seemed  good  to  thee  to  add  this 
care  to  anxious  mortals,  that  by  means  of  direful  omens 
they  should  know  of  misfortunes  about  to  come?  Whether 
it  is  that,  when  first  the  parent  of  the  world,  the  flame  re 
ceding,  set  apart  the  shapeless  realms  and  unformed  matter, 
he  established  causes  to  endless  time,  by  which  he  rules  all 
tilings,  binding  himself  as  well  by  a  law,  and,  with  the  im- 
movable boundaries  of  fate,  allotted  the  world  to  endure  its 
destined  ages  ;  or  whether  it  is  that  nothing  is  preordained, 
but  Chance  wanders  in  uncertainty,  and  brings  and  brings 
round  again  events,  and  accident  rules  the  affairs  of  mortals : 
may  that  be  instantaneous,  whatever  thou  dost  intend; 


B.  n.  15-34.]  PHARSALIA.  47 

may  the  mind  of  man  be  blind  to  his  future  fate ;  to  him 
who  dreads  may  it  be  allowed  to  hope. 

Therefore  when  they  perceived  at  the  price  of  how  vast 
calamity  to  the  world  the  truthfulness  of  the  Gods  of  heaven 
was  about  to  be  realized,  there  was  a  general  mourning1  in 
token  of  woe  throughout  the  City ;  clad  in  the  plebeian  garb  2 
all  honors  lay  concealed ;  the  purple  accompanied  no  fasces. 
Then  did  they  withhold  expression  of  their  griefs,  and  great 
anguish  without  a  voice  pervaded  all.  Thus  at  the  moment 
of  death  the  astounded  house  is  silent  while  the  body  is 
lying  not  yet  called  upon  by  name  3,  nor  as  yet  does  the  mother 
with  her  dishevelled  locks  prompt  the  arms  of  the  female 
domestics  to  the  cruel  beatings  on  their  breasts  ;  but  when, 
life  fled,  she  presses  the  stiffened  limbs  and  the  lifeless 
features,  and  the  eyes  swimming  in  death,  no  longer  is  it 
anguish,  but  now  it  is  dread  ;  distractedly  she  throws  herself 
down,  and  is  astounded  at  her  woes.  The  matron  has  laid 
aside  her  former  habit,  and  sorrowing  throngs  occupy  the 
shrines.  These  sprinkle  the  Gods  with  tears ;  these  dash 
then-  breasts  against  the  hard  ground,  and,  awe-stricken, 
throw  their  torn-out  hair  upon  the  sacred  threshold,  and 
with  repeated  bowlings  strike  upon  the  ears  accustomed 
to  be  addressed  in  prayer. 

And  not  all  lay  in  the  Temple  of  the  Supreme  Thunderer ; 

1  There  was  a  general  mourning)  ver.  18.  "  Justitium."  This  term 
doubtless  originally  signified  a  cessation  of  judicial  business,  but  came  after- 
wards to  denote  a  time  when  public  business  of  every  kind  was  suspended. 
At  this  period  the  courts  of  law  and  the  treasury  were  closed,  and  no  am- 
bassadors were  received  by  the  Senate.  The  justitium  was  formally  pro- 
claimed by  the  Senate  and  the  magistrates  in  times  of  public  alarm  and 
danger.  In  the  lapse  of  time,  a  justitium  was  usually  ordered  as  a  mark 
of  public  mourning,  and  under  the  Empire  it  was  only  employed  under 
such  circumstances. 

a  Clad  in  the  plebeian  garb)  ver.  19.  By  this  expression  he  means  that 
the  Consuls  forbore  to  wear  the  purple,  which  was  one  of  the  insignia  of 
their  office.  Their  being  attended  by  lictors,  with  the  fasces,  was  another 
of  their  badges  of  office. 

3  Called  upon  by  name)  ver.  23.  "  Conclamata."  After  a  person  was 
dead,  those  who  were  present  lamented  aloud,  and  called  on  the  party  by 
name,  to  ascertain  if  he  was  only  in  a  trance.  According  to  some  autho- 
rities this  was  repeated  daily  for  seven  days,  and  was  done  for  the  last 
time  when  the  body  was  placed  on  the  funeral  pile,  on  which  occasion 
it  was  finally  said  "  conclamatum  est,"  signifying  that  no  hope  of  life  now 
remained. 


48  PHAESALIA.  [B.  n.  35-50. 

Ahey  made  division  of  the  Deities,  and  at  no  altar  was  there 
wanting  a  parent  to  create  discontent1 ;  one  of  whom, 
tearing  her  bedewed  cheeks,  and  blackened  with  blows, 
upon  her  livid  arms,  exclaimed,  "  Now,  0  wretched  matrons, 
beat  your  breasts,  now  tear  your  locks,  nor  defer  this  grief 
and  preserve  it  for  our  crowning  woes.  Now  have  you 
the  power  to  weep,  while  the  fortune  of  the  chieftains  is 
undecided;  when  one  shall  have  proved  the  conqueror, 
you  must  rejoice."  With  these  incentives  did  grief  en- 
courage itself. 

The  men  likewise,  repairing  to  the  hostile  camps,  are  pour- 
ing forth  well-grounded  complaints  against  the  relentless 
Divinities.  "  Oh  luckless  lot,  that  we  were  not  born  for  the 
Punic  days  of  Cannse  2  and  of  Trebia :J,  a  youthful  race !  Gods 
of  heaven,  we  do  not  ask  for  peace;  inspire  with  anger  foreu/n 
nations ;  at  once  arouse  the  enraged  cities ;  let  the  world 
conspire  in  arms ;  let  the  Median  ranks  descend  from 
Acheemenian4  Susas;  let  the  Scythian  Ister6  not  confine 


1  To  create  discontent)  ver.  36.  "  Invidiam  factura."  By  addressing 
prayers  to  the  Gods  which  were  not  likely  to  be  fulfilled,  and  thus  causing  the 
Deities  to  be  censured  for  their  inattention  to  the  wishes  of  their  worshippers. 

a  Punic  days  of  Cannce)  ver.  46.  Cannae  was  a  village  of  Apulia, 
situate  in  a  plain  near  the  rivers  Aufidus  and  Vergellus.  It  was  famed 
for  the  memorable  defeat  there  of  the  Romans  under  L.  JKmilius  Paulus 
and  C.  Terentius  Varro,  the  Consuls,  by  Hannibal,  the  Carthaginian  general, 
B.C.  216.  From  forty  to  fifty  thousand  Romans  are  said  to  have  perished 
in  this  battle. 

3  And  of  Trebia)  ver.  46.     Trebia  was  a  small  river  in  Gallia  Cisalpina, 
falling  into  the  Padus,  or  Fo,  near  Placcntia.     Hannibal  gained  a  victory 
there  over  the  Ramans,  B.C.  218. 

4  Achamenian)  ver.  49.     This  epithet  refers  to  Achremenes,  the  founder 
of  the  race  of  the  Achaemenidae,  and  the  ancestor  of  the  Fenian  kings.     He 
was  said  to  have  been  nurtured  by  an  eagle.     The  epithet  in  the  present 
instance,  and,  in  general,  as  used  by  the  Latin  Poets,  has  the  signification  of 
"  Persian." 

*  (Sfaso)  ver.  49.  Susa  (which  is  called  Shushan  in  the  Old  Testament) 
was  the  winter  residence  of  the  Persian  kings,  and  was  situate  in  the 
province  of  Susiana,  on  the  banks  of  the  rirer  Choaspes.  The  climate  was 
very  hot  here,  and  hence  the  choice  of  it  for  a  winter  palace.  Its  site 
is  now  marked  by  huge  mounds,  in  which  are  found  fragments  of  bricks 
and  pottery. 

8  The  Scythian  Ister)  ver.  50.  The  river,  the  whole  whereof  is  now  called 
the  Danube,  was,  from  its  source  as  far  as  Vienna,  called  "  Danubius"  by  the 
Romans;  from  there  to  the  Black  Sea  it  received  the  name  of  "'  Ister." 


B.  n.  50-56.]  PHAESALIA.  49 

the  Massagetan1;  let  the  Albis2  pour  forth  the  yellow- 
haired  Suevi3  from  the  extreme  north  and  the  unsubdued 
sources  of  the  Rhine  * ;  make  us  the  foes  of  all  nations ; 
but  avert  civil  warfare.  On  the  one  side  let  the  Dacian 
press- wpow  us6,  the  Getan  on  the  other0;  let  the  one  meet 
the  Iberians7,  the  other  turn  his  standards  against  the 
eastern  quivers.  Let  no  hand,  Rome,  of  thine8,  enjoy 

1  The  Massagetan)  ver.  50.  The  Massagetse  were  a  warlike  race  of 
Scythia,  to  the  north  of  the  Araxes,  and  the  present  Sea  of  Aral.  Their 
country  corresponds  to  that  of  the  Kirghiz  Tartars  at  the  present  day,  in 
the  north  of  Independent  Tartary.  Herodotus  appears  to  include  under  this 
name  all  the  Nomadic  tribes  of  Asia  east  of  the  Caspian.  It  was  said  that 
it  was  their  custom  to  kill  and  eat  their  aged  people. 

a  Let  the  Albis)  ver.  52.  The  Albis,  now  the  Elbe,  was  the  most  easterly 
river  of  Germany  with  which  the  Romans  became  acquainted.  According 
to  Tacitus  it  rose  in  the  country  of  the  Hermunduri.  The  Romans  first 
reached  this  river  B.O.  9,  and  crossed  it  for  the  first  time  B.C.  3,  under 
Domitius  Ahenobarbus. 

3  The  yellow-haired  Suevi)  ver.  51.     The  term  "  Suevi "  is  supposed  to 
have  been  the  collective  name  of  a  large  number  of  German  tribes,  who 
were  remarkable  for  a  migratory  mode  of  life.     Their  locality  has  not  been 
with  any  exactness  ascertained.      In  the  third  century  a  race  of  people 
called  "  Suevi  "  settled  in  and  gave  the  name  to  the  present  Suabia. 

4  Sources  of  the  Rhine)  ver.  52.     The  lllucti  lived  about  the  sources  of 
the  Rhine.      Suetonius  says  *hat  Augustus  crippled,  but  did  not  subdue, 
them. 

5  Let  the  Dacian  press  upon  us)  ver.  54.     The  Daci  inhabited  Dacia, 
which  lay  to  the  north  of  the  Danube,  and  comprehended  the  present  coun- 
tries of  Transylvania,  Moldavia,  Wallachia,  and  part  of  Hungary.     They 
were  of  similar   race  with  the  Getae,  and  spoke  the  same  language.     In 
the  reign  of  Augustus,  this  warlike  people  crossed  the  Danube,  and,  after 
plundering  the  allies  of  Rome,  were  repulsed  by  the  generals  of  Augustus. 
In  the  reign  of  Domitian  they  obliged  the  Romans  to  purchase  peace  by 
the  payment  of  a  tribute.     They  were  finally  conquered  by  Trajan. 

6  The  Getan  on  the  other)  ver.  54.     The  Getae  are  said  to  have  been  the 
same  people  as  the  Daci.     In  the  later  periods  of  the  Roman  Empire  their 
country  was  occupied  by  the  Goths,  who  had  migrated  from  the  southern 
shores  of  the  Baltic,  from  which  circumstance  the  Getae  and  the  Goths  have 
often  been  erroneously  looked  upon  as  the  same  people.     The  Getae  fur- 
nished slaves"  to  Greece  and  Italy;  and  Geta  figures  as  a  crafty  servant  in 
the  Plays  of  Terence.     Davus  similarly  means  a  Dacian  slave ;  he,  too,  is 
introduced  in  the  Latin  Comedy. 

7  Meet  the  Iberians)  ver.  54.     The  Iberi  were  the  nations  of  Spain,  who 
dwelt  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Iberus,  now  called  the  Ebro,  in  the  north-east 
of  that  country. 

8  Let  no  hand,  Rome,  of  thine)  ver.  56.     That  is,  "  Let  every  hand  be 
engaged  in  war  against  a  foreign  enemy." 

E 


50  PHAESALIA.  [B.  n.  56-72. 

leisure.  Or  if,  ye  Gods  of  heaven,  it  is  your  pleasure  to 
blot  out  the  Hesperian  name,  gathered  into  fires  let  the 
entire  aether l  descend  in  lightnings  upon  the  earth.  En- 
raged Parent,  at  the  same  instant  smite  both  partisans  and 
leaders,  while  not  as  yet  they  have  deserved  it.  Do  they  with 
an  extent  so  great  of  unheard  of  crimes,  seek  to  know  which 
of  the  two  is  to  rule  the  City?  Hardly  would  it  have 
been  worth  the  while  to  levy  civil  war,  that  neither  might." 
Such  complaints  did  piety,  doomed  to  be  bootless,  pour 
forth  ;  but  a  care  their  own  afflicted  wretched  parents,  and 
they  detested  the  long-lived  destiny  of  a  sorrowing  old  age, 
and  years  reserved  for  civil  warfare  a  second  time.  And 
one,  seeking  precedents  for  their  great  alarm,  exclaimed, 
"  Not  other  commotions  did  the  Fates  intend  at  the  time 
when.victorious  afterthe  Teutonic 2  and  the  Libyan  triumphs3, 
the  exiled  Marius  concealed  his  head  amid  the  slimy  sedge  4. 
The  pools  of  the  plashy  soil  and  the  fenny  marshes  con- 
cealed, Fortune,  thy  deposit ;  next  did  the  chains  of  iron 5 

1  Let  the  entire  cether)  ver.  58.     Probably  by  the  term  "  aether,"  he  means 
the  fiery  element  which  was  supposed  to  range  in  the  firmament,  above  the 
regions  of  the  air. 

2  After  the  Teutonic)  ver.  69.     The  speaker  probably  alludes  to  the  vic- 
tory which   Marius,  the  Consul,  gained  at  Aquas  Sextiae  (now  Aix)  against 
the  combined  forces  of  the  Teutones  and  Ambrones.     According  to  some 
accounts  there  were   200,000  slain  and  80,000   taken   prisoners   at   this 
battle. 

6  And  the  Libyan  triumphs)  ver.  69.  He  alludes  to  the  conquest  of 
Jugurtha,  king  of  Numidia,  by  Marius ;  which,  however,  was  effected  by 
the  treachery  of  Bocchus,  king  of  Mauritania,  as  much  as  by  the  general- 
ship of  either  Marias  or  his  predecessor  Metcllus. 

4  Amid  the  slimy  sedge)  ver.  70.     Allusion  is  made  to  the  circumstance 
of  Marius  hiding  in  the  sedge  and  mud  of  the  marshes  of  Minturna-,  in 
Latium.  when  pursued  by  the  vengeance  of  Sulla.     He  was,  however,  dis- 
covered, dragged  from  his  retreat,  and,  with  a  rope  round  his  neck,  deli- 
vered up  to  the  authorities  of  Minturna?. 

5  The  chains  of  iron)   ver.  72.     Marius,  when  taken  captive,  was  not, 
as  the  present  passage  would  seem  to  imply,  thrown  into  a  dungeon,  but 
placed  in  the  charge  of  a  woman  named  Fannia,  who  was  supposed  to  be 
his  personal  enemy,  but  was  secretly  his  friend.     It  was  while  he  was  here 
that  a  Gallic  or  a  Cimbrian  soldier  was  sent  into  his  apartment  to  put  him 
to  death.       The  part  of  the  room  where  the  aged  Marius  lay  was  in  the 
shade,  and  with  a  terrible  voice  he  exclaimed — "  Man,  dost  thou  dare  to 
murder  C.  Marius  1"     The  barbarian,  imagining  that  fire  flashed  from  his 
eyes,  dropped  his  sword,  and  rushed  out  of  the  house,  exclaiming  "  I  cannot 
murder  C.  Marius  ! " 


B.  n.  73-92.]  PHARSALIA.  51 

eat  into  the  aged  man,  and  prolonged  squalor  in  prison.  A 
Consul,  and  fated  to  die  successful  *  in  the  subdued  City, 
beforehand  did  he  pay  the  penalty  of  his  crimes.  Death 
herself  fled  full  oft  from  the  hero,  and  in  vain  was  power 
granted  to  his  enemy2  over  the  hated  blood;  who,  at  the 
very  stroke  of  death  stood  riveted  and  from  his  faltering 
hand  let  fall  the  sword.  He  had  beheld  an  intense  light 
in  the  darkened  cell,  and  the  dread  Goddesses  of  crime,  and 
the  Marius  of  a  future  day,  and  in  alarm  he  had  heard, 
'  It  is  not  right  for  thee  to  touch  this  neck  ;  to  the  laws  of 
fate  does  he  owe  many  deaths  before  his  own ;  lay  aside 
thy  vain  fury.  If  it  is  your  wish  to  avenge  the  destruction 
of  your  extinct  race,  Cimbrians,  do  you  preserve  this  aged 
man ! '  Not  by  the  favour  of  the  Deity,  but  by  the  mighty 
anger  of  the  Gods  of  heaven  was  this  cruel  man  pro- 
tected, and  he  sufficed  for  Fate  when  desiring  to  ruin 
Eome. 

"  He,  too,  borne  over  the  stormy  main3  to  a  hostile  land, 
and  driven  among  the  deserted  cottages4,  lay  amid  the 
spoiled  realms  of  the  conquered  Jugurtha5,  and  trod 
upon  the  Punic  ashes c.  Carthage  and  Marius  exchanged 
consolation  for  their  fates,  and  equally  prostrate,  patiently 

1  Fated  to  die  successful)  ver.  74.     Being  afterwards  restored  to  power 
at  Rome,  he  died  in  the  71st  year  of  his  age,  and  on  the  18th  day  of  his 
seventh  Consulship. 

2  Power  granted  to  his  enemy)  ver.  76.     The  Chnbrian  or  Gallic  soldier 
referred  to  in  the  Note  to  1.  72. 

3  Borne  over  the  stormy  main)  ver.  88.     He  allndes  to  the  departure  of 
Marius  from  Minturnae,  where  he  was  furnished  with  a  small  ship,  and, 
after  touching  at  the  isle  of  2Enaria  (now  Ischia)  and  Eryx,  in  Sicily,  he 
landed  in  Africa,  the  country  of  his  former  enemy,  Jugurtha. 

4  Among  the  deserted  cottages)  ver.  89.     "Mapalia"  were  moveabls  huts 
or  cottages,  which  the  Numidians  carried  on  waggons  when  they  moved 
from  place  to  place,  seeking  new  pastures  for  their  flocks. 

s  Of  the  conquered  Jugurtha)  ver.  90.  Jugurtha,  the  king  of  Numidia, 
an  illegitimate  son  of  Mastanabal,  despite  of  numerous  defeats,  long  made 
head  against  Metellus,  the  Roman  general,  but  was  finally  conquered  by 
Marius,  who  enjoyed  the  honour  of  a  triumph  on  the  occasion,  and  Jugur- 
tha was  finally  thrown  into  a  dungeon  and  starved  to  death. 

*  Trod  upon  the  Punic  ashes)  ver.  91.  Landing  near  Carthage,  Marius 
was  forbidden,  by  the  lictor  of  Sextilius,  the  Praetor,  to  set  foot  on  the 
African  shore  ;  on  which  he  exclaimed,  "  Go  tell  thy  master  that  thou  hast 
seen  Caius  Marius  sitting  amid  the  ruins  of  Carthage  ;"  not  inaptly  com- 
paring the  downfall  of  that  great  city  to  his  own  ruined  fortunes. 

E  a 


52  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  93-104. 

submitted  to  the  Gods.  There  did  he  collect  together  the 
resentfulness  of  Libya 1.  When  first,  his  fortune  returning, 
he  set  free  troops  of  slaves2,  the  iron  wrought  up3  into 
swords,  the  slaves'  dungeons4  sent  forth  the  ruthless 
bands.  To  no  one  were  entrusted  the  ensigns  of  their  leader 
to  be  carried,  except  to  him  who  had  now  gained  expe- 
rience in  wickedness,  and  had  brought  crime  into  the  camp. 
Oh  ye  Fates !  what  a  day,  what  a  day  was  that,  on  which 
the  victorious  Marius  seized  the  walls !  and  with  strides  how 
vast  did  cruel  Death  hurry  on  !  With  the  commonalty  the 
nobles  fall;  and  far  and  wide  stalks  the  sword,  and  the 
weapon  is  withdrawn  from  the  breast  of  none.  Gore  stands 
in  the  temples,  and  red  with  plenteous  slaughter  the  slippery 
stones  are  wet.  To  no  one  was  his  age*  a  protection. 

1  The  resentfulness  of  Libya)  ver.  93.     By  "  Libycas  irag,"  he  perhaps 
means  such  a  thirst  for  vengeance  as  Libyans  or  Africans  alone  usually 
display.     It  has  been  suggested  that  there  is  an  intended  reference  here  to 
the  giant  Antaeus,  who  (as  Lucan  says  in  the  Fourth  Book,  1.  597)  was 
born  in  the  caves  of  Libya  and  of  whom  it  was  fabled  that  every  time  he 
touched  the  earth  he  received  additional  strength,  and  that  similarly  Marius 
always  rose  from  the  most   depressed   state   superior   to    his   misfortunes. 
The  serpents  of  Africa  were  said  to  gain  fresh  fury  and  venom  from  their 
contact  with  the  earth. 

2  lie  set  free  troops  of  slaves)  ver.  94.     He  alludes  to  the  circumstance  of 
Marius  landing  in  Etruria  from  Africa,  and,  by  proclaiming  freedom  to  the 
slaves,  collecting  a  large  army,  with  which  he  joined  L.  Cornelius  Cinna,  the 
Consul,  who  had  been  driven  from  Rome  by  his  colleague,  Cn.  Octavius.     Ma- 
rius, with  Cinna  and  Carbo,  shortly  afterwards  entered  Rome,  and,  in  their 
thirst  for  vengeance,  were  guilty  of  the  most  dreadful  atrocities. 

3  The  iron  icroug/ti  up)  ver.   95.     "  Conflato  ferro,"  probably  means,  as 
one  of  the  Scholiasts  suggests,  that  the  iron  chains  and  fetters  with  which 
the  slaves  were  bound,  were  used  to   make  swords  and  other  weapons. 
Another  suggestion  is,  that   "  ferro  "  means  the  spades  and  mattocks  which 
were  used  in  cultivating  the  fields. 

4  The  slaves'  dungeons)  ver.  95.     The  "  ergastula  "  were  private  prisons 
attached  to  most  of  the  country  residences  of  the  more  wealthy  Romans,  for 
the  confinement  and  punishment  of  their  refractory  slaves.     They  were  pro- 
bably underground,  as  appears  from  passages  in  Columella,  and  in   the  Au- 
lularia  of  Flautus,  1L  301.  319,  where  the  dungeon  is  called  by  the  name  of 
"  puteus."  Columella  also  says,  that  the  "ergastulum"  was  lighted  by  narrow 
windows,  too  high  to  be  touched  by  the  hand.     Plutarch  says  that  these 
prisons  became  necessary  throughout   Italy  by   reason   of  the  numerous 
conquests  of  the  Romans,  and  the  great  number  of  foreign  slaves  intro- 
duced to  cultivate  the  lands. 

8  To  no  one  was  his  age)  ver.  104.     He  alludes  to  the  dreadful  butcheries 
perpetrated  by  the  body-guard  of  Marius,  which  he  had  formed  out  of  the 


B.  n.  105-122.]  PHAESALIA.  53 

There  was  no  shame  at  having  hurried  on  the  closing  day 
of  the  aged  man  hi  his  declining  years;  nor  in  the  very 
threshold  of  life  at  cutting  short  the  rising  destiny  of  the 
wretched  infant.  By  what  criminality  could  little  chil- 
dren be  deserving  of  slaughter?  But  now  enough  is  it 
to  be  able  to  die.  The  very  impetuosity  of  frenzy  hurries 
them  on,  and  it  seems  like  sluggishness  to  be  in  search 
of  the  guilty.  To  swell  the  number  a  large  portion  falls ; 
and  the  blood-stained  victor  seizes  the  head  cut  off  from 
an  unknown  neck,  as  he  is  ashamed  to  go  with  an  empty 
hand.  The  only  hope  of  safety  is  to  imprint  trembling 
kisses '  on  the  polluted  right  hand.  Although  a  thousand 
swords  attended  the  unheard-of  signals  for  death,  0  de- 
generate people,  hardly  would  it  be  becoming  for  men 
thus  to  earn  lengthened  ages  of  existence,  much  less 
the  short-lived  disgrace  of  surviving,  and  life  until  Sulla 
returns  2. 

"  Who  has  the  leisure  to  bewail  the  deaths  of  the  multitude  ? 
Hardly  thee,  Baebius  3,  rent  asunder  by  thine  entrails,  and 
how  that  the  countless  hands  of  the  dismembering  throng 
tore  thy  limbs  to  pieces;  or  thee,  Antonius,  foreteller  of 
woes,  whose  features,  hanging  by  the  torn  white  hah-4, 

slaves  attending  him,  who  slew  indiscriminately  all  of  the  aristocratic  party 
they  could  lay  hands  upon. 

1  To  imprint  trembling  kisses)  ver.  114.  Marius  had  given  instruc- 
tions to  his  guards  that  all  in  the  streets  whom  he  did  not  salute,  or  to 
whom  he  did  not  extend  his  hands  to  be  kissed,  were  to  be  put  to  death 
indiscriminately.  Under  these  circumstances  Q.  Ancharius  was  killed ;  and 
one  of  the  Scholiasts  mentions  Euanthius,  a  former  friend  of  Marius,  who 
was  thus  slain. 

1  Until  Sulla  returns)  ver.  118.  Who  dealt  equal  vengeance  on  the 
Marian  party. 

3  Hardly  thee,   Bcelius)   ver.  120.      He  alludes  to   the  death  of  M. 
Baebius,  who  was  torn  to  pieces  by  the  hands  of  the  Marian  faction.     Con- 
nected with  his  fate  one  of  the  Scholiasts  relates  a  story  not  to  the  credit  of 
Terence,  the  Comic  Poet     He  says  that  Terence,  being  surrounded  by  the 
partisans  of  Marius,  promised,  probably  as  the  price  of  his  own  safety,  that 
he  would  discover  to  them  an  enemy  of  Marius,  who  had  used  his  influence 
in  the  Senate  to  his  prejudice,  and  thereupon  informed  them  where  they 
would  find  Baebius. 

4  Hanging  by  the  torn  white  hair)  ver.  122.     M.  Antonius,  who  is  spoken 
of  by  Cicero  as  one  of  the  greatest  of  the  Roman  Orators,  having  belonged 
to  the  party  of  Sulla,  was  marked  out  for  destruction  by  Marius,  on  his 
return  to  the  City.     Touched  by  his  eloquence,  the  soldiers  who  were  sent 


04  PHABSALLL  [B.  n.  123-133: 

dripping  with  blood,  the  soldier  carrying  placed  upon  the 
festive  table.  Fimbia  mangled l  the  beheaded  Crassi 2.  The 
relentless  prison  was  steeped  with  Tribunitial  gore.  Thee 
also,  Scsevola :t,  neglected  by  the  unscrupulous  right  hand, 
before  the  very  shrine  of  the  Goddess  and  her  ever-burning 
hearths  they  slew ;  but  exhausted  old  age  poured  forth  little 
blood  from  thy  throat,  and  spared  the  flames.  These  things 
his  seventh  Consular  year  followed4,  the  fasces  regained. 
That  was  the  closing  period  of  the  life  of  Marius,  who  had 
endured  all  things  which  evil  fortune  is  able  to  effect,  and 
who  had  enjoyed  all  things  which  a  better  fortune  can  bring, 
and  had  experienced  what  fortune  can  destine  for  man. 

refused  to  execute  their  commands,  on  which  P.  Annius,  the  Tribune,  their 
commander,  cut  off  his  head,  and  carried  it  to  Marina,  while  he  was  at  table. 
After  he  had  handled  it  with  scorn  and  derision,  he  ordered  it  to  be  placed 
on  the  Rostra. 

1  Fimbria  mangled)  ver.  124.  C.  Flavius  Fimbria  was  one  of  the  most 
violent  partisans  of  the  Marian  faction.  Cicero  styles  him — "  homo  auda- 
cissimus  et  insanissimus,"  "  a  most  audacious  and  most  insane  man." 
Being  finally  defeated  by  Sulla,  he  fell  by  the  hands  of  one  of  his  own  slaves, 
whom  he  commanded  to  slay  him.  His  career  seems  to  have  been  that  of  a 
madman. 

a  The  beheaded  Crassi)  ver.  124.  According  to  some  accounts  P.  Lici- 
nius  Crassus,  the  father,  and  his  son  of  the  same  name,  were  slain  in  each 
other's  sight  by  Fimbria.  It  is,  however,  more  generally  stated  that 
the  son  was  put  to  death  before  his  father's  eyes,  who  afterwards  stabbed 
himself  to  escape  a  more  ignominious  death  at  the  hands  of  the  Marian  fac- 
tion. Appian  relates  the  story  in  a  different  manner.  He  says  that  the 
father,  after  slaying  the  son,  was  himself  slain  by  the  partisans  of  Marius. 
Crassus,  the  Triumvir,  was  a  younger  son  of  the  elder  of  these  Crassi. 

s  Thee  also,  Scctvola)  ver.  126.  Mucius  Sczevola,  the  Pontifex  Maximum, 
notwithstanding  his  virtuous  character,  was  proscribed  by  the  Marian 
faction,  on  which  he  fled  for  refuge  to  the  temple  of  Vesta,  He  was,  how- 
ever, slain  by  the  younger  Marius,  and  the  altars  were  drenched  with  hi» 
blood.  "  Neglectum  violatae  dextrae  "  has  been  supposed  by  some  to  refer 
to  the  story  of  his  ancestor,  Mucins  Scsevola,  having  thrust  his  hand  into  the 
flames  to  show  his  firmness  when  taken  prisoner  by  Porsenna.  Weisse, 
however,  thinks  that  it  refers  to  the  right  hand  of  Marius,  which  was  ex- 
tended to  be  kissed  by  those  whom  he  intended  to  save,  and  that  (certainly 
by  a  forced  construction)  it  means  "  unregarded  by  the  unscrupulous  right 
hand."  "Neglectu  violatse  Vestoe,"  "with  heedlessness  of  the  outraged 
Vesta,"  is  another  reading,  and  perhaps  a  preferable  one,  as  Scaevola  was 
not  put  to  death  till  some  years  after  the  de^th  of  the  elder  Marius. 

*  Seventh  Consular  year  followed)  ver.  130.  Thirteen  years  intervened 
between  the  sixth  and  seventh  Consulship  of  Marius.  He  died  at  the  com- 
mencement of  his  seventh  Consulship. 


B.  n.  134-149.]  PHARSALIA.  55 

"  Now  at  Sacriportus l  how  many  dead  bodies  fell  pros- 
trate, or  how  many  slaughtered  troops  did  the  Collinian 
Gate2  endure,  at  the  time  when  the  sovereignty  of 
the  world  and  the  sway  of  power,  transferred,  had  almost 
changed  its  site 3,  and  the  Samnite  hoped  for  Roman, 
wounds  exceeding  the  Caudine  Forks 4 !  Sulla,  too,  added 
as  an  avenger  to  the  boundless  slaughter.  He  shed  the 
little  blood  that  was  remaining  to  the  City,  and  while  he 
amputated  the  limbs  now  too  corrupt,  the  healing  art  ex- 
ceeded its  limits,  and  the  hand  followed  too  far  where  the 
malady  led  it.  The  guilty  perished ;  but  when  now  the 
guilty  alone  could  possibly  be  surviving.  Then  was  scope 
given  to  hatred,  and,  let  loose  from  the  rein  of  the  laws, 
anger  rushed  on.  Not  for  one  crime  were  all  sacrificed,  but 
each  one  framed  a  criminality  of  his  own.  Once  for  all  had 
the  victor  given  his  commands.  Through  the  entrails  of  his 
master 5  did  the  servant  plunge  the  accursed  sword ;  sons 

1  Now  at  Sacriportus)  ver.  134.     Marins  baring  died,  and  Cinna  being 
slain,  Sulla  returned  from  Asia,  where  he  had  been  carrying  on  the  war 
against  Mithridates,  and  after  landing  at  Brundisium,  defeated  the  younger 
Marina  with  great  slaughter  at  Sacriportus,  in  Latium,  B.C.  82. 

2  Did  the  Collinian  Gate)  ver.  135.     The-Samnites  and  Lucanians,  who 
favoured  the  cause  of  the  younger  Marius,  under  Pontius  Telesinus  and  L. 
Lamponius,  marched  towards  Rome,  which,  on   Marins  being  shut  up  in 
Praeneste,  was   left  by  Sulla   without  any  protection.       Sulla,   however, 
came  up  with  them  at  the  Colline  Gate,  and  a  battle  was  fought,  which  was 
most  obstinately  contested,  as   Telesinus  had  vowed  that  he  would  level 
Eome  to  the  ground,  and  transfer  the  dominion  to  his  own  native  place. 
The  victory  was  gained  by  Sulla,  but  50,000  men  are  said  to  have  fallen 
on  each  side.     Telesinus  was  among  the  slain.     The  Porta  Collina  was  the 
most  northernly  of  the  gates  of  Rome ;  it  was  situate  near  the  Quirinal 
Esquinal  and  Viminal  Hills  (Colles),  from  which  it  took  its  name. 

3  Had  almost  changed  its  site)  ver.  136.     He  alludes  to  the  resolution 
abovementioned,  which    had   been  formed  by  Pontins   Telesinus  and  the 
younger  Marius,  to  remove  the  seat  of  government  from  Rome  to  Samnium. 

4  Exceeding  the  Caudine  Forks)  ver.  138.     The  "  Furcse  Caudinae,"  or 
"  Caudine  Forks,"  were  narrow  passes  in  the  mountains  near  Caudium,  a 
town  of  Samnium.     Here  the  Roman  array  had  been  defeated  by  the  Sam- 
mies, and  were  sent  under  the  yoke,  B.C.  321. 

s  Through  the  entrails  of  his  master)  ver.  149.  One  of  the  Scholiasts 
suggests  that  this  is  said  particularly  in  allusion  to  the  fate  of  the  younger 
Marius,  who,  being  shut  up  in  Praeneste,  and,  despairing  of  holding  out  any 
longer,  endeavoured,  with  the  brother  of  Telesrnug,  to  make  his  escape  by  a 
subterranean  passage,  but  was  betrayed  by  a  slave ;  on  which,  finding  their 


£6  PHAESALIA.  [B.  n.  149-171 

were  steeped  in  a  father's  blood.  The  contention  was,  to 
whom  the  severed  head  of  the  parent  belonged  ;  brothers  fell 
as  a  reward  to  brothers.  The  tombs  were  filled  by  flight, 
and  living  bodies  were  intermingled  with  the  buried,  and 
the  dens  of  wild  beasts  received  the  throng.  This  one 
broke  his  neck  and  his  compressed  throat  with  the  halter ; 
another  hulling  himself,  with  weight  falling  headlong, 
dashed  against  the  hard  ground,  burst  asunder ;  and  from 
the  blood-stained  victor  they  snatched  away  their  own 
slaughter ;  this  one  himself  heaped  up  the  oaken  fabric  of 
his  own  funeral  pile,  and,  all  his  blood  not  yet  poured  forth, 
leaped  down  into  the  flames,  and,  while  yet  he  might,  took 
possession  of  the  fires.  The  heads  of  chieftains  are  carried 
on  javelins  throughout  the  trembling  City,  and  heaped  up 
in  the  midst  of  the  Forum.  Whatever  crime  there  is  any- 
where existing  is  then  known.  Not  Thrace  beheld  so  many 
hanging  in  the  stables l  of  the  Bistonian  tyrant,  nor  Libya 
upon  the  posts  of  Antseus  ;  nor  did  lamenting  Greece  weep 
for  torn  limbs  so  many  in  the  halls  of  Pisa8.  When  now 
they  had  mouldered  away  in  corruption,  and  confused,  in 
length  of  time  lost  their  marks,  the  right  hand  of  the 
wretched  parents  collected  them,  and,  recognized,  stealthily 
removed  them  with  timid  theft.  I  remember,  too,  that  I 
myself,  anxious  to  place  the  disfigured  features  of  my  slain 
brother  upon  the  pile  and  the  forbidden  flames,  searched 
about  among  all  the  carcases  of  this  Sullanian  peace,  and 
amid  all  the  trunks  sought  for  one  with  which  the  head 
lopped  from  the  neck  would  correspond. 

flight  discovered,  they  slew  each  other.  According  to  other  accounts  Marius 
killed  himself,  or,  at  his  own  request,  was  stabbed  by  his  own  slave. 

1  Hanging  in  the  stalled)  ver.  163.  Diomedes,  king  of  Thrace  (which 
was  also  called  Bistonia),  was  said  to  have  fed  his  mares  upon  the  flesh  of 
strangers,  and  to  have  fixed  their  heads  on  his  doors.  Antaeus,  the  Libyan 
giant,  who  was  slain  by  Hercules,  was  also  said  to  have  perpetrated  similar 
cruelties. 

8  In  the  /Milt  of  Pisa)  ver.  165.  He  alludes  to  the  practice  of  (Enomaiis, 
king  of  Pisa  in  Elis,  who  made  it  a  condition  that  those  who  came  forward 
as  suitors  for  the  hand  of  his  daughter,  Hippodamia,  should  contend  with 
himself  in  a  chariot  race  ;  and  that  those  who  were  conquered  should  be 
put  to  death.  After  many  had  been  sacrificed  in  the  attempt,  Pelops, 
through  bribing  Myrtilus,  the  charioteer  of  (Enomaiis,  won  the  hand  of 
Hippodamia. 


B.  n.  173-194.]  PHARSALIA.  57 

"  Why  shall  I  make  mention  of  the  shades  of  Catulus  ap- 
peased l  ?  When  Marius  the  victim 2  made,  a  sad  sacrifice 
to  perhaps  an  unwilling  shade,  an  unutterable  atonement 
to  an  insatiate  tomb 3 ;  when  we  beheld  the  mangled  limbs, 
and  the  wounds  equal  in  number  with  the  members,  and 
no  one  given  fatal  to  life,  although  upon  a  body  mangled 
all  over,  and  the  ruthless  usage  of  an  accursed  cruelty  to 
forego  the  death  of  him  who  was  thus  perishing.  Hands 
torn  off  fell  down,  and  the  tongue  cut  out  still  quivered,  and 
with  noiseless  movement  beat  the  vacant  air.  This  one 
cuts  off  the  ears,  another  the  nostrils  of  the  aquiline 
nose ;  that  one  gouges  out  the  eye-balls  from  their  hollow 
sockets,  and,  his  mangled  limbs  viewed  by  himself,  put  out  his 
eyes  the  last.  Hardly  will  there  be  any  believing  that  one 
person  could  have  endured  the  punishments  thus  numerous 
of  a  crime  so  dreadful.  Thus  under  the  mass  of  ruins  limbs 
are  broken  beneath  the  vast  weight ;  nor  more  disfigured 
do  the  headless  carcases  come  to  shore  which  have  pe- 
rished in  the  midst  of  the  ocean. 

"  Why  has  it  pleased  you  to  lose  your  pains,  and  to  dis- 
figure the  features  of  Marius,  as  though  an  ignoble  person  ? 
That  this  criminality  and  slaughter  on  being  made  known 
might  please  Sulla,  he  ought  to  have  been  able  to  be  recog- 
nized. Praenestine  Fortune  beheld4  all  her  citizens  cut  off 

1  The  shades  of  Catulus  appeased)  ver.  174.  Q.  Lutatius  Catulus,  who 
had  formerly  been  the  colleague  of  Marius  in  the  Consulship,  in  his  expe- 
dition against  the  Cimbri,  having  espoused  the  cause  of  Sulla,  his  name  was 
included  among  the  rest  of  victims  in  the  Marian  proscription  of  B.C.  87. 
Finding  escape  impossible,  he  shut  himself  in  a  room,  and,  kindling  a  char- 
coal fire,  died  of  suffocation. 

J  When  Marius  the  victim)  ver.  175.  He  alludes  to  the  cruel  death  of 
M.  Marius  Gratidianus,  the  friend  and  fellow-townsman  of  Cicero.  He  was 
the  son  of  M.  Gratidius,  but  was  adopted  by  one  of  the  Marii,  probably 
a  brother  of  the  elder  Marius.  In  revenge  for  the  death  of  Catulus,  his 
brother,  or,  according  to  some,  his  son,  obtained  of  Sulla  the  proscription  of 
Gratidianus,  on  account  of  his  connexion  with  the  family  of  the  Marii.  He 
was  butchered  by  the  infamous  Catiline,  according  to  some  accounts,  at  the 
tomb  of  Catulus.  His  tongue,  nose,  and  ears  were  cut  off,  and  his  eyes  dug 
out,  and  his  head  was  then  carried  in  triumph  through  the  City. 

3  To  an  insatiate  tomb)  ver.  176.     "  Inexpleto  busto."     "  A  tomb  that 
would  be  content  with  no  propitiatory  sacrifice." 

4  Prasnestine  Fortune  beheld)  ver.  194.     By  the  direction  of  Sulla,  Lu- 
cretius Ofella  laid  siege  to  the  town  of  Praeneste,  and,  after  it  was  taken, 
5000  of  the  inhabitants  were  put  to  the  sword,  although  they  had  thrown 


58  PHARSALI  A.  [B.  n.  194-213. 

together  by  the  sword — a  people  perishing  at  a  moment  by  a 
single  death.  Then  fell  the  flower  of  Italy,  now  the  solje  youth 
of  Latium,  and  stained  the  sheepfolds  of  wretched  Rome 1. 
So  many  youths  at  the  same  instant  to  fall  by  a  hostile 
death,  fall  oft  has  famine,  the  rage  too  of  the  ocean,  and  -u<l- 
den  earthquake  caused,  or  pestilence  of  climate  and  locality, 
or  slaughter  in  warfare,  vengeance  it  never  was  that  did  so. 
Hardly,  amid  the  masses  of  the  dense  multitude,  and  the 
pallid  throngs,  could  the  victors,  death  inflicted,  move 
their  hands.  Hardly,  the  slaughter  completed,  do  they 
fall,  and  with  neck  still  dubious 2  they  totter ;  but  the  vast 
carnage  bears  them  down,  and  the  carcases  perform  the  part 
of  slaughter ;  the  trunks  falling  heavily  smother  the  living  *. 
Unconcerned  he  sat  above,  a  careless  spectator  of  wicked- 
ness so  great;  he  repented  not  that  he  had  ordered  so 
many  thousands  of  the  hapless  multitude  to  die. 

"The  Etrurian  stream  received4  all  the  Sullanian 
corpses  heaped  together.  Into  the  river  the  first  ones  foil, 
upon  the  bodies  the  last.  Ships  sailing  with  the  tide  stuck 
fast,  and,  choked  up  in  its  waters  by  the  bloody  carnage,  the 

themselves  upon  the  mercy  of  the  conquerors.  The  Goddess  Fortuna  had 
a  temple  at  Praeneste,  where  her  prophecies  were  highly  esteemed,  under 
the  name  of  "  Praenestinae  Sortes."  The  town  was  situate  about  twenty 
miles  to  the  south-east  of  Rome,  and,  from  its  cool  situation,  was  much  fre- 
quented by  the  Romans  in  the  summer  season.  It  is  now  called  Palestrina. 

1  The  skeepfolds  of  welched  Rome)  ver.  197.  "  Ovilia."  By  this  name, 
which  properly  signifies  "  the  sheepfolds,"  the  enclosures  on  the  Campus 
Martins  were  called,  in  which  the  centuries  were  enclosed  on  the  occasion 
of  giving  their  votes  for  the  magistrates  of  Rome.  On  the  third  day  after 
the  battle  at  the  Colline  Gate,  in  which  he  had  conquered  Pontius  Telesinus, 
Sulla  directed  all  the  Samnite  and  Lucanian  prisoners  to  be  collected  in  the 
ovilia  of  the  Campus  Martius,  and  ordered  his  soldiers  to  slaughter  them. 
Their  shrieks  alarming  the  Senators,  who  had  been  convened  by  Sulla  in 
the  Temple  of  Bellona,  he  requested  them  to  take  no  notice  of  what  was 
going  on,  as  he  was  only  inflicting  due  chastisement  on  some  rebels. 

a  With  neck  still  dubious)  ver.  204.  It  is  doubtful  what  "  dubia  cervice" 
exactly  means.  Cortius  thinks  that  it  signifies  that  the  head  is  still  remain- 
ing attached  to  the  body,  not  being  cut  clean  off.  It  seems  more  likely, 
however,  to  mean  those  who  have  received  wounds  in  the  throat,  and  have 
not  fallen  but  are  only  staggering,  and  who  are  borne  down  by  the  weight  of 
others  who  are  slain  outright. 

3  Smotiter  the  living)  ver.  206.     By  suffocating  the  others,  who  are  not  as 
yet  dead  or  mortally  wounded. 

4  The  Etrurian  stream  received)  ver.  210.     The  bodies  were  generally 
thrown  into  the  Tiber  and  thus  carried  down  to  the  sea. 


B.  n.  213-236.]  PHARSALIA.  59 

mouth  of  the  river  flowed  out  into  the  sea.  The  following 
waves  stood  still  at  the  mass,  until  the  stream  of  deep 
blood  made  a  passage  for  itself,  and,  pouring  forth  over  all 
the  plain  and  rushing  with  headlong  stream  down  to  the 
floods  of  Tiber,  aided  the  impeded  waters ;  and  now  no 
longer  does  its  bed  nor  yet  its  banks,  contain  the  river,  and 
it  throws  back  the  corpses  on  the  plain.  At  length  having 
struggled  with  difficulty  down  to  the  Etrurian  waves, 
with  the  flowing  blood  it  divided  the  azure  sea.  For  this 
did  Sulla  merit  to  be  styled  the  saviour  of  the  state ;  for 
this  to  be  called  the  Fortunate 1 ;  for  this  to  raise  for  him- 
self a  tomb  in  the  middle  of  the  Plain  of  Mars  ? 

"  These  wrongs  await  us  to  be  again  endured ;  in  this 
order  of  warfare  will  they  proceed ;  this  conclusion  will 
await  the  civil  strife.  Although  still  greater  calamities  do 
our  alarms  anticipate,  and  they  rush  to  battle  with  much 
greater  detriment  to  the  human  race.  Rome  recovered  was 
the  greatest  reward  of  war  to  the  exiled  Marii,  nor  more  did 
victory  afford  to  Sulla  than  utterly  to  destroy  the  hated  fac- 
tion. These,  Fortune  2,  on  other  grounds  thou  dost  invite, 
and,  raised  to  power  already,  they  meet  in  combat.  Neither 
would  be  commencing  civil  war,  if  content  with  that  with 
which  Sulla  was."  Thus  did  old  age  lament,  sorrowing  and 
mindful  of  the  past,  and  fearful  of  the  future. 

But  terror  did  not  strike  the  breast  of  the  noble  Brutus :;, 
nor  was  he  a  portion  of  the  trembling  populace  weeping 
in  alarm  so  great  at  the  commotion ;  but  in  the  drowsy 

1  To  le  called  the  Fortunate)  ver.  221.  After  the  death  of  the  younger 
Marias,  on  the  occasion  of  his  triumph  over  Mithridates,  B.C.  81,  SulTa 
claimed  for  himself  the  title  of  Felix,  or  "  Fortunate,"  as  being  the  especial 
favourite  of  the  Gods.  He  believed  himself  to  be  especially  under  the  pro- 
tection of  Venus  and  Hercules.  His  son  and  daughter  were  also  named 
Faustus  and  Fausta,  on  account  of  the  good  fortune  of  their  father. 

3  These  Fortune)  ver.  230.     Namely,  Caesar  and  Pompey. 

3  Of  tlie  nolle  Jirutus)  ver.  234.  M.  Junius  Brutus,  professing  to  follow 
M.  Porcius  Cato  as  his  political  model,  sided  with  Pompey.  After  the  battle 
of  Pharaalia  he  fled  to  Larissa,  whence  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Caesar,  soliciting 
pardon,  which  was  not  only  granted,  but  the  conqueror  even  requested  Brutus 
to  come  to  him.  According  to  Plutarch,  it  was  Brutus  who  informed  Caesar 
of  Pompey's  flight  into  Egypt.  Notwithstanding  the  favours  which  he  had 
received  from  Caesar,  he  joined  Cassius  and  the  band  of  conspirators  who 
murdered  Caesar  in  the  Senate-Louse.  Being  defeated  at  Philippi  by  Antony 
and  Augustus,  he  fell  upon  his  own  sword. 


60  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  236-267. 

night,  when  the  Parrhasian  Helice 1  was  turning  her  cha- 
riot obliquely,  he  knocked  at  the  not  extensive  halls  of  his 
kinsman  Cato 2.  He  found  him  with  sleepless  anxiety  re- 
flecting on  the  public  affairs,  the  fates  of  men,  and  the 
fortunes  of  the  City,  both  fearful  for  all  and  regardless  for 
himself ;  and  in  these  words  he  began  to  address  him : — 

"  Do  thou,  now  the  sole  refuge  for  virtue  expelled  and  long 
since  banished  from  all  lands,  whom  by  no  tempestuous 
shock  Fortune  shall  tear  away  from  thee,  direct  me  waver- 
ing in  mind,  do  thou  confirm  me  in  doubt  with  assured 
strength ;  for  let  others  follow  Magnus  or  the  arms  of 
Caesar,  Cato  shall  be  the  sole  leader  of  Brutus.  Dost  thou 
adhere  to  peace,  keeping  thy  footsteps  unshaken  while  the 
world  is  in  doubt  ?  Or  has  it  been  thy  pleasure,  mingling 
in  slaughter  with  the  leaders  of  crime  and  of  the  maddened 
populace,  to  forgive  the  civic  strife  ?  Each  one  do  his  own 
reasons  hurry  away  to  the  accursed  combat :  these  a  pol- 
luted house 3,  and  laws  to  be  dreaded  in  peace ;  these  hunger 
to  be  driven  away  by  means  of  the  sword,  and  plighted  faith 
to  be  lost  sight  of4  amid  the  rums  of  the  world.  Fury  has 
impelled  no  one  to  arms;  overcome  by  a  vast  reward, 
they  are  repairing  to  the  camps :  for  its  own  sake  is  the 
warfare  pleasing  to  thee  alone  ?  What  has  it  availed  thee 
so  many  years  to  have  remained  untouched  by  the  man- 

1  Parrhasian  Helice)  ver.  237.  The  constellation  of  the  Greater  Bear 
was  called  Helice,  from  the  Greek  word  fair**,  to  revolve,  because  it  re- 
volves round  the  Pole.  It  was  fabled  that  Calisto,  of  whom  Jupiter  waa 
enamoured,  was  changed  by  the  vengeful  Juno  into  the  Greater  Bear.  See 
her  story  related  in  the  Second  Book  of  Ovid's  Fasti,  1.  153,  et  seq.  She 
was  a  daughter  of  Lycaon,  king  of  Arcadia,  in  which  country  there  was  a 
town  and  a  mountain  called  by  the  name  of  Parrhasia,  which  waa  said  to 
Lave  been  derived  from  Parrhasus,  a  son  of  Lycaon. 

3  Of  his  kinsman,  Cato)  ver.  238.  Servilia,  the  mother  of  Brutus,  was 
the  half-sister  of  Cato,  they  being  the  children  of  Livia,  by  different  mar- 
riages. Brutus  also  married  Porcia,  the  daughter  of  Cato. 

3  A  polluted  house)  ver.  252.     Sulpitius  supposes  "pollute,  domus"  to 
refer  to  acts  of  violation  committed  against  the  females  of  the  families  of 
those  who  consequently  thirsted  for  vengeance.     It  may  also  mean,  as  sug- 
gested by  one  of  the  Scholiasts,  that  members  of  a  family,  having  murdered 
the  others,  had  become  desperate,  and  resorted  to  civil  war  to  screen  their 
own  offences. 

4  To  be  lost  sight  of)  ver.  253.     "  Permiscenda."    Literally,  to  be  "  min- 
gled," or  "  involved  in ; "  he  here  alludes  to  the  debts  of  the  extravagant 
and  unprincipled. 


B.  n.  258-281.]  PHARSALIA.  61 

ners  of  a  corrupt  age  ?  This  sole  reward  of  thy  long-prac- 
tised virtues  shalt  thou  receive ;  others  the  wars  shall  find 
thyself  they  shall  make,  guilty.  O  Gods  of  heaven,  let 
not  so  much  be  allowed  to  the  fatal  arms  as  even  to  have 
moved  these  hands  ;  and  let  no  javelins  hurled  by  thy  arms 
be  borne  in  the  dense  cloud  of  weapons;  nor  let  valour 
so  great  be  thrown  away  on  chance1.  All  the  fortune  of 
the  war  will  rest  itself  on  thee.  Who  shall  be  unwilling, 
although  falling  by  the  wound  from  another,  to  die  by  this 
sword,  and  for  the  crime  to  be  thine  own  ?  Better  alone 
without  arms  wilt  thou  live  in  tranquil  inactivity,  just  as  the 
stars  of  heaven  ever  unmoved  roll  onward  in  their  course. 
The  air  nearer  to  the  earth  is  inflamed  with  the  lightnings, 
and  the  lowermost  regions  of  earth  receive  the  winds  and 
the  flashing  streaks  of  flame ;  Olympus,  by  the  will  of  the 
Gods,  stands  above  the  clouds.  The  least  of  things  does 
discord  disturb ;  the  highest  enjoy  peace. 

"  How  joyously  will  the  ears  of  Caesar  learn  that  a  citizen 
so  great  has  come  forth  to  battle  !  For  that  the  rival  camp 
of  the  chieftain  Magnus  has  been  preferred  to  his  own  he 
will  never  grieve.  Too  much  does  he  please  himself2,  if 
civil  war  is  pleasing  to  Cato.  A  large  portion  of  the  Senate 
and  a  Consul,  about  to  wage  war  under  a  general  a  private 
person a,  and  other  nobles  as  weh1,  cause  me  anguish;  to 
whom  add  Cato  under  the  yoke  of  Pompey,  then  through- 
out the  whole  world  Csesar  alone  will  be  free4.  But  if  for 

1  Be  thrown  away  on  chance)  ver.  263.   "  Nee  tanta  in  casum  virtus  eat." 
There  have  been  some  doubts  about  the  readings  and  meaning  of  this  pas- 
sage.    It  probably  means  that  Cato  is  not  to  throw  away  his  wisdom  and 
valour  in  a  cause  where  the  successful  result  will  be  sure  to  be  solely  attri- 
buted to  the  chances  of  war. 

2  Too  much  does  he  please  himself)  ver.  276.     "  Nimium  placet  ipse."     It 
is  a  matter  of  doubt  to  whom  "  ipse  "  refers,  whether  to  Cato  or  to  Caesar. 
It  most  probably  relates  to  Caesar,  and  if  so,  the  meaning  may  be  that 
Caesar  will  be  extremely  pleased  with  himself,  if  the  Civil  War  which  he  has 
caused  shall  be  pleasing  to  Cato ;  if  it  refers  to  Cato,  it  may  mean  that 
Caesar  will  be  receiving  too  high  a  compliment  at  the  hands  of  Cato,  if  the 
latter  takes  part  in  the  Civil  War. 

3  Under  a  general  a  private  person)  ver.  279.     The  meaning  is,  "  It 
grieves  me  to  see  the  Senate  and  the  Consul  under  the  command  of  a  general, 
merely  a  private  person ;"  it  being  the  duty  of  the  Consuls  to  wage  war,  and 
lead  the  armies  of  the  state. 

4  Caesar  alone  will  be  free)  ver.  281.     Because  Pompey,  though  general, 
would,  in  some  degree,  be  under  the  control  of  the  Senate. 


82  PHAESALIA.  [B.  n.  281-309. 

the  laws  of  thy  country  it  pleases  thee  to  take  up  arms,  and 
to  defend  liberty,  already  diou  dost  have  Brutus  the 
enemy  neither  of  Pompey  nor  of  Caesar,  but  after  the  war, 
of  die  conqueror." 

Thus  he  speaks.  But  Cato  utters  to  him  from  his 
secret  breast  these  hallowed  words : — "  Brutus,  I  confess  that 
civil  warfare  is  wickedness  in  the  extreme;  but  whither 
the  fates  lead,  virtue  with  clear  conscience  shall  follow.  It 
shall  be  the  crime  of  the  Gods  of  heaven  to  have  made  even 
me  guilty.  ^Vho  is  able  to  look  upon  the  stars  and  the 
world  falling  to  ruin,  void  of  fear  himself  ?  Who,  when 
the  lofty  sky  is  rushing  downwards,  the  earth  is  quaking, 
the  weight  of  the  confused  universe  mingling  together, 
can  keep  his  hands  folded  in  inactivity?  Shall  stranger 
nations  follow  the  frenzy  of  Hesperia  and  the  Bx>man 
•wars,  and  Kings  be  led  over  the  seas  beneath  other 
climes,  and  shall  I  alone  live  in  inactivity?  Far  hence 
avert,  O  Gods  of  heaven,  die  frantic  notion  that  Rome 
may  fall,  in  its  ruin  to  affect  the  Dahans 1  and  the  Getans, 
while  I  am  free  from  care.  As  grief  itself  bids  the  parent 
bereaved  by  the  death  of  his  sons,  to  head  the  long  fu- 
nereal procession  to  the  tomb ;  it  gives  him  satisfaction  to 
have  thrust  his  hands  amidst  the  blackening  flames,  and 
himself  to  have  held  the  swarthy  torches  -  in  die  heaped-up 
structure  of  die  pile ;  I  will  not  be  torn  away,  before,  Bx>me, 
I  shall  have  embraced  thee  lifeless,  and  Liberty,  thy  name, 
and  shall  have  followed  thy  unsubstantial  shade.  So  let  it 
be ;  let  the  unappeased  Gods  receive  a  full  expiatory  sacri- 
fice, of  no  blood  let  us  defraud  die  warfare.  And  would  diat 
it  were  possible  for  die  Gods  of  heaven  and  of  Erebus  to  ex- 
pose this  head  of  mine  condemned  to  every  punishment ! 

"  The  hostile  troops  bore  down  die  devoted  Decius:1;  me 

1  To  */ect  ike  Dahans)  ver.  296.  The  Dahae  were  a  great  nation  of 
Scythia,  who  roamed  at  large  in  the  country  to  the  east  of  the  Caspian  (which 
from  them  still  bears  the  name  of  Daghesan),  on  the  banks  of  the  Axus  and 
the  Jaxartes.  They  were  famed  for  their  skill  as  archers  on  horseback. 

*  To  have  held  the  svmrthy  torches)  ver.  301.  He  alludes  to  the  custom 
of  the  nearest  relative  of  the  deceased  setting  fire  to  the  pile. 

3  Bore  down  the  devoted  Decius)  ver.  308.  It  is  impossible  to  say  to 
which  of  the  Decii  he  here  refers,  as  two  individuals  of  the  name  of  P.  De- 
cius Mus,  father  and  son,  devoted  themselves  to  death  for  the  Roman  cause. 
The  elder  was  commander  jointly  with  T.  Manlius  Torquatus  in  the  Latin 


B.  n.  309-328.]  PHABSALIA.  63 

let  two  armies  assail,  me  let  the  barbarian  multitude  from 
the  Rhine  aim  at  with  their  darts  ;  may  I,  accessible,  in  the 
midst,  receive  from  all  the  lances  the  wounds  of  the  entire 
warfare.  May  this  blood  redeem  the  people;  by  my  fate 
may  it  be  atoned  for,  whatever  the  Roman  manners  have 
deserved  to  pay  the  penalty  for.  Why  should  the  people 
ready  for  the  yoke — why  should  those  desirous  to  endure  a 
harsh  sway,  perish?  Myself  alone  attack  with  the  sword — 
myself  who  in  vain  maintain  our  laws  and  empty  rights ;  this 
throat,  this,  will  provide  peace,  and  an  end  of  their  hard- 
ships for  the  nations  of  Hesperia ;  after  I  am  gone  there  is 
no  need  of  war  for  him  who  wishes  to  reign.  Why  do  we 
not  then  follow  the  standards  of  the  state  and  Pompey  as 
our  leader  ?  And  yet,  if  Fortune  shall  favour,  it  has  been 
well  ascertained  that  he  as  well  promises  himself  the  sway 
over  the  whole  world.  Let  him  conquer  therefore,  myself 
his  soldier,  that  he  may  not  suppose  that  for  himself  he 
has  conquered."  Thus  he  spoke,  and  he  applied  sharp 
incentives  to  his  indignation  and  aroused  the  warm  blood 
of  the  youth  to  too  great  fondness  for  civil  war. 

In  the  meantime,  Phoebus  dispelling  the  chilly  shades  of 
night,  the  door,  being  knocked  at,  sent  forth  a  sound;  and 
the  hallowed  Marcia1  entered  in  grief,  having  left  the  tomb 

War.  Learning  from  a  vision  that  the  general  of  the  one  eide  and  the  army 
of  the  other,  were  devoted  to  the  Gods  of  the  dead,  he  rushed  into  the 
thickest  of  the  enemy,  wearing  the  sacrificial  dress,  and  was  slain.  Zonaras, 
however,  says  that  he  was  slain,  as  a  devoted  victim,  by  a  Iloman  soldier. 
His  son,  who  commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  Iloman  army  at  the  battle  of 
Sentinum  against  the  Gauls,  resolved  to  imitate  the  example  of  his  father, 
and  dedicating  himself  and  the  army  of  the  enemy  to  the  Gods  of  the  dead, 
he  fell  a  sacrifice  for  his  country. 

1  The  hallowed  Marcia)  ver.  328.  Marcia  was  the  daughter  of  L.  Mar- 
cius  1'hilippus,  and  wag  the  second  wife  of  Cato.  After  she  had  borne  him 
three  children,  he  ceded  her  to  hia  friend  Hortensius,  with  the  sanction  of 
her  father.  After  the  death  of  Hortensius  she  returned  to  Cato,  and  it  was 
aneeringly  remarked  that  Cato  was  not  a  loser,  in  a  pecuniary  way,  by  the 
transaction.  In  Dr.  Smith's  Dictionary  of  Greek  and  Roman  Biography,  we 
find  the  following  remarks  on  this  transaction.  "  Heineccius  infers,  from 
the  words  of  Plutarch,  that  Cato  did  not,  according  to  the  common  belief, 
lend  his  wife,  but  that  she  was  divorced  from  him  by  the  ceremony  of  sale, 
and  married  to  Hortensius.  Heineccius  quotes  the  case  as  an  instance  of  a 
marriage  contracted  by  '  coemptio,'  and  dissolved  by  '  remancipatio.'  But 
it  does  not  seem  that  Cato  formally  married  her  again  after  the  death  of  Hor- 
tensius, though  it  appears  that  she  returned  to  her  former  relation  of  wife." 


64  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  328-355. 

of  Hortensius l ;  once,  a  virgin,  joined  in  wedlock  to  a  better 
husband ;  afterwards  when,  the  price  and  the  reward  of  wed- 
lock, her  third  progeny  was  bom,  she  in  her  pregnancy  was 
given  to  fill  another  home  with  her  offspring,  destined  to 
unite  two  houses  by  a  mother's  blood.  But  after  she  had 
enclosed  hi  the  urn  the  last  ashes,  hurrying  with  tearful 
countenance,  tearing  her  dishevelled  hair,  and  beating  her 
breast  with  repeated  blows,  and  bearing  the  ashes  of  the 
tomb,  not  destined  to  please  her  husband  in  other  guise, 
thus  in  sadness  did  she  speak : — 

"  While  I  had  in  me  the  strengthening  blood,  while  strength 
to  endure  a  mother's  pains,  Cato,  I  performed  thy  com- 
mands, and  pregnant,  two  husbands  did  I  receive*.  My 
vitals  wearied  and  exhausted  by  child-bearing  I  now  return, 
to  no  other  husband  to  be  handed  over.  Grant  the  unenjoyed 
ties  of  our  former  union;  grant  only  the  empty  name  of 
wedlock ;  let  it  be  allowed  to  inscribe  on  my  tomb,  '  Marcia, 
the  wife  of  Cato ; '  nor  let  it  be  enquired  as  doubtful  in 
remote  posterity  whether  I  abandoned  my  first  marriage 
torch,  repudiated  or  only  transferred.  Thou  dost  not  receive 
me  as  a  partner  hi  joyous  circumstances :  amid  thy 
cares  and  to  share  thy  griefs,  do  I  come.  Allow  me  to 
attend  the  camp.  Why  shall  I  be  left  hi  the  safety  of 
peace,  and  Cornelia  be  near  to  the  civic  strife?" 

These  words  influenced  the  hero,  and  though  the  times 
were  unsuited  for  wedlock,  Fate  now  summoning  him  to 
the  war,  still  a  solitary  union  pleased  him,  and  nuptials 
devoid  of  empty  pomp,  and  the  admission  of  the  Gods 
alone3  as  witnesses  of  the  solemnities.  No  festive  garlands 
hang  from  the  wreath-bound  threshold,  and  no  white  fillet4 

1  The  tomb  of  Hortensius)  ver.  328.     Q.  Hortensius  was  one  of  the  most 
famous  of  the  Roman  Orators,  and,  for  many  years,  the  rival  of  Cicero.     He 
had  the  adroitness  to  escape  being  enrolled  on  the  lists  of  either  the  Marian 
or  the  Sullane  faction,  and  died  a  natural  death,  B.C.  50,  in  his  sixty -fourth 
year.     He  was  noted  for  his  luxurious  habits,  and  at  his  death  left  10,000 
casks  of  Chian  wine  to  his  heir.     At  the  time  when  he  took  Marcia  as  his 
wife  she  was  pregnant  by  Cato,  her  first  husband. 

2  Pregnant,  two  husbands  did  I  receive)  ver.   339.     In  allusion  to  her 
pregnancy  when  married  to  Hortensius. 

8  Admission  of  the  Gods  alone)  ver.  353.  The  Deities  thus  adjured  as 
witnesses  would  probably  be  Jupiter,  Juno,  Venus,  Suada,  and  Diana. 

4  No  white  fillet)  ver.  355.  "  Infulae,"  or  "  fillets"  of  wool,  were  hung  by 
the  bride  on  the  doorposts  of  the  house  of  the  bridegroom. 


B.  II.  355-364.]  PHARSALIA.  65 

runs  along  the  two  doorposts,  nor  are  there  the  usual 
torches1,  nor  does  the  couch  stand  on  high2  with  its  ivory 
steps :i,  or  variegate  its  coverings  with  embroidered  gold : 
and  no  matron,  pressing  her  forehead  with  the  turreted 
crown4,  forbids  her,  with  foot  lifted  over5,  to  touch  the 
threshold.  No  saffron-coloured  veil6  lightly  to  hide  the  timid 
blushes  of  the  bride,  concealed  her  downcast  features ;  the 
girdle  with  its  gems  did  not  encircle  her  flowing  robes7,  no 
necklace  her  graceful  neck8;  and  no  scanty  under-tunic9, 

1  The  usual  torches)  ver.  356.  He  alludes  to  the  torches  which  were 
carried  before  the  bride  by  boys  dressed  in  the  praetexta,  when  she  was 
conducted  to  her  husband's  house. 

*  Couch  stand  on  high)  ver.  357.  He  alludes  to  the  "  torus  genialis,"  or 
marriage  bed,  which  was  generally  placed  in  the  "  atrium,"  or  great  room 
on  the  ground  floor  of  the  Roman  houses. 

3  With  its  ivory  steps)  ver.  357.     The  bedsteads  used  by  the  Romans 
were,  in  general,  rather  high,  so  that  persons  were  in  the  habit  of  entering 
the  bed  by  means  of  steps  placed  beside  it,  which  Varro  calls  by  the  name 
of  "  scamnum."     The  bedsteads  were  sometimes  made  of  metal  or  of  costly 
wood,  or  else  veneered  with  tortoise-shell  or  ivory.   We  find,  from  the  present 
passage,  that  the  "  scamnum  "  was  similarly  ornamented. 

4  With  the  turreted  crown)  ver.  358.     One  of  the  Scholiasts  states  that  a 
turreted  crown  was  generally  worn  by  the  bride  during  the  nuptial  cere- 
monies. 

s  With  foot  lifted  over)  ver.  359.  When  the  procession  arrived  at  the 
house  of  the  bridegroom,  the  door  of  which  was  adorned  with  garlands  and 
flowers,  the  bride  was  carried  across  the  threshold  by  "  pronubi,"  or  men 
who  had  been  married  to  but  one  woman,  that  she  might  not  strike  against 
it  with  her  foot,  which  would  be  an  evil  omen.  See  the  Casina  of  Plautus, 
Act  iv.  Sc.  iv.  1. 1,  2. 

9  No  saffron-coloured  veil)  ver.  361.  The  bridal  veil  which  the  bride 
wore  was  called  "  flammeum,"  and  was  of  a  bright  yellow  colour,  which  was 
also  the  colour  of  her  shoes. 

7  Her  flowing  roles)  ver.  362.     The  bride  was  dressed  in  a  long  white 
robe  with  a  purple  fringe,  or  adorned  with  ribands.     This  dress  was  called 
"  tunica  recta,"  and  was  bound  round  the  waist  with  a  girdle  or  zone. 

8  Jfo  necklace  her  graceful  neck)  ver.  363.    Necklaces  were  much  worn  in  an- 
cient times  by  the  Indians,  Persians,  and  Egyptians.  They  were  more  especially 
used  (as  mentioned  in  the  present  instance)  by  the  Greek  and  Roman  females 
as  bridal  ornaments.     The  "monile  baccatum,"  or  "  bead  necklice,"  was  the 
most  common,  being  made  of  berries,  glass,  or  other  materials  strung  toge- 
ther, with  thread,  silk,  wire,  or  hooks  of  gold.     Emeralds  were  used  for  a 
similar  purpose,  and  amber  was  much  employed.     Thus  Ovid  says  in  the 
second  Book  of  the  Metamorphoses,  1.  366,  that  the  amber  distilled  from 
the  trees,  into  which  the  sisters  of  Phaeton  were  changed,  was  sent  to  be 
worn  by  the  Latian  matrons. 

9  No  scanty  under-tunic)  ver.  364.     The  "  supparus,"  or  "  supparum,"  is 

F 


66  THABSALIA.  [u.  n.  364-383. 

clinging  to  the  lower  part  of  the  shoulders,  enveloped  her 
bared  arms.  Even  so,  just  as  she  was,  she  preserved  the 
mournful  ensign*  of  the  garb  of  woe,  and  in  the  way  in 
which  hor  sons,  in  the  same  her  husband,  did  she  embrace. 
Covered  by  the  funereal  wool  the  purple  was  concealed.  None 
of  the  wonted  jests1  acted  their  merry  part,  nor  after  the 
Sabine  usage ''  did  the  sorrowing  husband  receive  the  festive 
taunts.  No  pledges  of  the  house3,  no  relations  met  to- 
gether. They  were  united  in  silence,  and  contented  with 
the  auspices  of  Brutus.  Nor  did  Cato  remove  the  grim  long 
hair  from  his  hallowed  face,  or  admit  of  joyousness  on  his 
rigid  features. 

Since  first  he  had  beheld  the  deadly  arms  upraised,  he 
had  allowed  the  unshorn  white  hair  to  descend  upon  his 
rugged  brow  and  the  woeful  beard  to  grow  upon  his  cheeks. 
Because,  forsooth,  he  had  leisure  for  one  thing  alone — free 
from  factions  and  from  hate — to  weep  for  mankind.  Nor 
were  the  ties  of  their  former  connexion  renewed ;  his  con- 
tinence4 withheld  from  even  lawful  love.  These  were  the 
manners,  this  was  the  unswerving  rule  of  the  rigid  Cato ;  to 
observe  moderation,  and  to  adhere  to  his  end ;  to  follow  the 
guidance  of  nature,  and  to  lay  down  his  life  for  his  country; 
and  not  "to  believe  himself  born  for  himself,  but  for  the 

said  by  Fcstus  to  have  been  made  of  linen,  and  to  have  been  the  same  as 
the  "  sulmcula,"  or  under  tunic ;  but  Varro  says  that  it  was  an  outer  gar- 
ment, and  contrasts  it  with  the  "  subucula,"  which  he  derives  from  "  subter," 
"under,'  while  "supparus"  he  derives  from  "supra,"  "over."  Judging  from 
the  present  passage,  it  appears  to  have  been  an  outer  garment,  which  left  the 
arms  and  shoulders  bare.  It  was,  perhaps,  peculiar  to  the  nuptial  cere- 
mony. 

1  None  of  (he  wonted  jests)  ver.  368.  He  alludes  to  the  Fescennine  verses 
which,  full  of  broad  jests  and  railleries,  were  sung  at  the  door  of  the  bridal 
apartment,  by  girls,  when  the  other  persons  had  left.  These  verses  were 
also  called  epithalamia.  Ovid  relates  a  curious  story,  by  way  of 
accounting  for  the  origin  of  this  custom.  See  the  Fasti,  B.  iii.  1.  675, 
(t  .<•'/. 

*  Nor  after  the  Sabine  usage)  ver.  369.     The  custom  of  singing  these 
songs,  and  of  joking  the  bridegroom  on  this  occasion,  was  laid  to  have  been 
derived  from  the  Sabines. 

*  No  pledges  of  the  home)  ver.  370.     "Pignora,"  "pledges,"  or  "ties," 
meaning  relations  or  children. 

4  His  continence  withheld)  ver.  378.  Shortly  after  his  reunion  with 
Marcia  Cato  fled  from  Koine,  but  left  her  there  to  protect  his  property  and 
interests. 


B.  n.  383-405.]  PHARSALIA.  67 

whole  world.  To  subdue  hunger  was  a  banquet  to  him,  and 
to  keep  away  by  a  mere  roof  the  winter's  cold,  an  opulent 
abode ;  to  wrap  a  shaggy  toga  around  his  limbs,  after  the 
manner  of  the  Koman  follower  of  Quirinus1,  was  a  costly 
robe ;  to  him,  too,  the  especial  object  of  sexual  desire  was 
offspring ;  he  was  the  City's  husband 2,  and  the  City's  sire ; 
a  worshipper  of  justice,  an  observer  of  strict  honor ;  he  was 
a  good  man  for  the  common  weal:  and  upon  none  of  Gate's 
deeds  did  pleasure,  born  but  for  herself,  make  inroad  and 
exact  her  share. 

In  the  mean  tune,  Magnus  departing  with  the  hastening 
throng,  took  possession  of  the  Campanian  walls  of  the  Dar- 
danian  colonist3.  This  seat  of  war  was  to  his  mind,  for 
him,  exerting  all  his  might,  thence  to  spread  abroad  his 
scattered  party  to  meet  the  foe,  where  with  its  shady  hills 
Apennine  raises  on  high  the  mid  part  of  Italy,  than  which 
no  land  swells  with  its  peaks  to  a  loftier  height,  or  approaches 
more  nigh  to  Olympus.  The  mountain  hi  the  midst  ex- 
tends itself  between  the  two  waters  of  the  Lower  and  the 
Upper  sea4;  and  on  the  one  side  does  Pisa,  that,  with  its 
shallows,  breaks  the  Etrurian  waves,  on  the  other,  Ancona, 
opposed  to  the  Dalmatian  billows,  bound  the  mountain 
ridges. 

From  vast  sources  does  it  produce  boundless  streams, 
and  extend  its  rivers  along  the  space  that  separates  the  two 
seas.  On  the  left  side  descend  both  the  swift  Metaurus 5, 

1  Follower  of  Quirinus)  ver.  386.  "Quiritis"  here  means  one  of  the 
lower  classes  of  the  people  in  the  city  which  had  been  founded  by  Quirinus 
or  Romulus,  and  not,  as  some  have  supposed,  one  of  the  ancient  Romans  in 
contradistinction  to  those  of  the  more  modern  Rome. 

3  He  -was  the  City's  husband)  ver.  388.  The  whole  state  received  from  him 
the  affections  of  a  father  and  a  husband. 

3  Campanian  -walls  of  the  Dardanian  colonist)  ver.  393.     Capua,  the 
capital  of  Campania,  was  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Capys,  one  of  the 
Trojans  who  accompanied  JJneas    from  Troy.     See  Virgil's  JEneid,  B.  z. 
1. 145. 

4  The  Lower  and  the  Upper  sea)  ver.  400.     The  Adriatic,  or  the  Lower, 
and  the  Etrurian,  or  the  Higher,  Sea.     He  is  speaking  of  that  part  of  Italy 
where  Pisa  is  on  the  coast  on  the  Etrurian  side,  and  Ancona,  which  is 
somewhat  more  southerly,  on  the  Adriatic.     Ancona  is  opposite  the  coast 
of  Dalmatia,  whence  the  expression  "  obnoxia  fluctibus  Dalmaticis." 

*  The  swift  Metaurus)  ver.  405.  This  was  the  name  of  two  rivers  of 
Italy,  one  of  which  was  a  small  river  of  Umbria,  now  called  the  Metaro, 
flowing  into  the  Adriatic  Sea,  and  rendered  memorable  by  the  defeat  and 

F    2 


68  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  406-422. 

and  the  rapid  Crustumium1,  and  the  Sapis2  uniting  with 
the  Isaurus  ',  and  the  Sena4,  the  Aufidus*,  too,  that  beats 
the  Adriatic  waves ;  and,  (into  a  river  more  vast  than  which 
no  region  dissolves  itself,)  the  Eridanus  rolls  down  °  disman- 
tled forests  into  the  main,  and  by  its  waters  empties  Hesperia 
of  streams.  The  story  is,  that  this  river7  was  the  first  to 
shade  its  banks  with  a  poplar  crown ;  and  that,  when 
Phaeton,  his  bounds  overstepped,  bringing  headlong  down- 
wards the  light  of  day,  set  the  skies  on  fire  with  his  blazing 
reins,  the  streams  throughout  the  scorched  earth  being 
swept  away,  this  one  had  waves  equal  to  quenching  the  fires 
of  Phoebus.  Not  less  is  it  than  the  Nile,  if  the  Nile  did 
not  lie  stagnant  far  and  wide  over  the  flat  surface  of  level 
Egypt,  the  Libyan  sands.  Nor  less  is  it  than  the  Ister,  except 
that  while  the  Ister  flows  through  the  globe,  it  receives 
streams  that  might  have  fallen  as  rivers  into  any  seas  what- 
ever, and  not  by  itself  is  discharged  into  the  Scythian  waves. 
The  waters  that  seek  the  right-hand  declivities  of  the 
mountain  range  form  the  Tiber,  and  the  Kutuba8  in  its 

death  of  Hasdrubal,  the  brother  of  Hannibal,  on  its  banks,  B.C.  207.  The 
second,  now  called  the  Marro,  was  .1  stream  on  the  east  coast  of  Bruttium. 
The  "  laevum  latus,"  or  "  left  side,"  here  mentioned,  is  the  Adriatic. 

1  Rapid  Crustumium)  ver.  406.  The  Crustumium  was  a  river  falling 
into  the  Adriatic,  near  the  town  of  Aiiimnum. 

*  And  the  Sapis)  ver.  406.  The  Sapis,  now  called  the  Savio,  was  a  small 
river  of  Gallia  Cisalpina,  rising  in  the  Apennines,  and  flowing  into  the 
Adriatic,  south  of  Ravenna. 

3  With,  the  Isaurus)  ver.  406.     This  river  was  also  called  the  Fisaurus, 
and,  flowing  through  Umbria,  falls  into  the  Adriatic.     It  is  now  called  La 
Foglia. 

4  And  the  Send)  ver.  407.    The  Sena  was  a  small  river  of  Umbria,  which 
flowed  past  the  town  of  Senogallia,  founded  by  the  Galli  Senones.     It  it  now 
called  La  Nevola. 

4  The  A  ufidus)  ver.  407.  The  Aufidus,  now  called  the  Ofanto,  was  the 
principal  river  of  Apulia.  It  rose  in  the  territory  of  the  Hirpini  in  Samnium, 
flowing  at  first  with  a  rapid  current,  and  then  more  slowly  into  the  Adriatic. 

'  The  Eridanus  rolls  down)  ver.  409.  Eridanus,  also  called  the  Padus, 
now  the  Po,  flows  into  the  Adriatic  near  the  city  of  Ravenna. 

7  The  story  is,  that  this  river)  ver.  410.    He  refers  to  the  tradition  which 
stated  that,  when  Phaeton  was  smitten  by  the  thunderbolts  of  Jupiter,  he 
fell  into  the  river  Eridanus  or  Padus,  and  his  sisters  Phaethusa,  Lampetie, 
and  Phoebe,  the  Naiads  of  Italy,  were  changed  into  poplars  on  its  banks. 
See  the  story  in  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  ii.  1.  325,  el  seq. 

8  And  the  Rutuba)  ver.  422.     The   Rutuba,  now  the  Roya,  is   a  small 
river  on  the  coaat  of  Liguria,  which  flows  between  very  high  banks. 


B.  n.  422-430.]  PHARSALIA  69 

cavities.  Thence  downward  glide  both  the  swift  Vulturnus  ', 
and  the  Sarnus 2,  the  producer  of  night-like  mists,  and  the 
Liris :i  impelled  by  the  Vestine  waters4  through  the 
realms  of  shady  Marica5,  and  the  Siler0,  skimming  along 
the  cultivated  fields  of  Salernum 7 ;  the  Macra 8,  too,  which 
in  its  shallows  admits  of  no  barks,  runs  into  the  sea  of 
neighbouring  Luna.  Where,  extending  still  beyond,  it  rises 
with  its  ridges  elevated  in  the  air,  it  beholds  the  Gallic 
fields,  and  looks  down  upon  the  declining  Alps.  Then,  fer- 
tile for  the  Umbrians9  and  the  Marsians10,  and  subdued  by 

1  The  swift  Vultiimus)  ver.  423.  The  Vulturnus,  now  called  Volturno,  was 
the  chief  river  of  Campania,  rising  in  the  Apennines  in  Samnium,  and  falling 
into  the  Etrurian  sea. 

2  And  Ike  Sarnus)  ver.  424.     The  Sarnus,  now  called  Sarno,  is  a  river 
of  Campania,  flowing   by  Nuceria,  and    falling   into  the   sea    at    Puteoli 
near  Pompeii.     Being  in  the  vicinity  of  Mount  Vesuvius,  its  mephitic  va- 
pours here  alluded  to  were  probably  owing  to  the  action  of  that  volcano. 

3  And  the  Liris)  ver.  424.     The  Liris,  more  anciently  called  the  Clanis, 
and  now  the  Garigliano,  is  one  of  the  principal  rivers  of  Central  Italy,  rising 
in  the  Apennines  and  flowing  into  the  bay  of  Caieta  near  Minturnae,  at  the 
boundary  between  Latium  and  Campania.     Horace  speaks  of  the  "  quieta 
aqua,"  "  the  placid  waters  "  of  the  Liris. 

4  Impelled  by  the  Vestine  waters)  ver.  425.     The  Vestini  were  a  Sabellian 
race  of  Central  Italy,  lying  between  the  Apennines,  and  the  Adriatic  Sea. 

5  Of  shady  Marica)  ver.  424.     Marica  was  a  nymph  of  Latium,  who 
was  worshipped  at  Minturnse,  and  had  a  sacred  grove  on  the  banks  of 
the  river  Liris.     Virgil  mentions  her  as  being  the  mother  of  Latinus  by 
Faunus.     Servius  remarks,  that  some  considered  her  identical  with  Aphro- 
dite, and  others  with  Circe. 

*  And  the  Siler)  ver.  426.  The  Siler,  now  called  the  Silaro,  was  a  river  of 
lower  Italy,  forming  the  boundary  between  Lucania  and  Campania.  Rising 
in  the  Apennines  it  falls  into  the  Etrurian  Sea,  north  of  Paestum. 

7  Fields  of  Salernum)  ver.  425.     Salernum,  now  called  Salerno,  was  an 
ancient  town  of  Campania,  on  the  bay  of  Paestum.     It  was  made  a  Roman 
colony  B.C.  194,  but  attained  a  greater  prosperity  in  the  middle  ages,  when 
a  College  of  Health  was  established  there. 

8  The  Macra)  ver.  426.     The    Macra,    now  called  the  Magra,  was    a 
small  river  rising  in  the  Apennines,  and  discharging  itself  into  the  Ligurian 
Sea,  near  Luna.     As  here  stated  by  the  Poet,  it  was  unnavigable  for  ships. 

9  Fertile  for  tlie  Umbrians)  ver.  430.     He  speaks  of  a  former  time,  when, 
before  the  rise  of  Rome,  Italy  was  inhabited  by  the  Umbri,  the  Marsi,  and 
the  Sabines.     The  Umbri  were  one  of  the  most  ancient  nations  of  Italy, 
and  at  the  same  time  very  powerful ;  their  country,  which  was  afterwards 
that  called  Etruria,  extending  across  the  peninsula  from  the  Adriatic  to  the 
Etrurian  Sea.     The  Umbrians  were  subdued  by  the  Romans  B.C.  307. 

10  And  the  Marsians)  ver.  430.     The  Marsi  were  a  brave  and  warlike 
people  of  Central  Italy,  in  the  high  lands  surrounded  by  the  Apennines,  near 


TO  PHARSALIA.  f>  n.  430-440. 

the  Sabine  ploughshare ',  embracing  with  its  pine-clad  rocks 
all  the  native  races  of  Latium,  it  deserts  not  Hesperia 
before  it  is  cut  short  by  the  waves  of  Scylla2,  and  extends 
its  rocks  to  the  Lacinian  temples11;  longer  than  Italy,  until4 
the  sea  pressing  on  cut  short  its  boundaries,  and  the  ocean 
forced  back  the  land.  But  after  the  earth  was  separated  by 
the  two  seas,  the  extremity  of  the  range  ended  in  Sicilian 
Pelorus  \ 

Caesar,  furious  for  war,  is  not  pleased  at 6  having  a  way 

Lake  Fucinus.  Marruvium  was  their  chief  town.  Being  probably  acquainted 
with  the  medicinal  qualities  of  many  plants,  they  acquired  the  reputation 
among  their  Italian  neighbours  of  being  magicians,  and  were  said  to  have 
descended  from  Circe,  the  enchantress. 

1  By  the  Sabine  ploughshare)  ver.  430.  The  Sabini  were  an  ancient  and 
powerful  race  in  Central  Italy,  situate  at  the  foot  of  the  Apennines,  and 
extending  to  the  confines  of  Lucania  and  Apulia.  The  term  "  Sabellas,"  at 
in  the  present  instance,  is  often  applied  to  the  Sabines,  though  properly  this 
race  was  divided  into  three  classes,  the  Sabini,  the  Sabelli,  and  the  Sam- 
nites.  The  Marsi  were,  properly  speaking,  a  tribe  of  the  Sabelli. 

4  Waves  of  Scylla)  ver.  433.  Scylla  was  a  dangerous  whirlpool  lying 
between  the  coasts  of  Italy  and  Sicily. 

*  To  the  Lacinian  temples)  ver.  434.     Lacinium,  or  Lacinia,  was  a  Pro- 
montory on  the  eastern  coast  of  Bruttium,  a  few  miles  south  of  Croton,  and 
forming  the  western  boundary  of  the  Tarentine  Gulf.     It  had  a  celebrated 
Temple  of  Juno,  who  was  worshipped  here  under  the  surname  of  Lacinia. 
The  Temple  was  situate  on  the  Promontory,  and  the  remains  of  it  are  still 
extant.     The  spot  is  said,  by  one  of  the  Scholiasts,  to  have  taken  iU  name 
from  Lacinius,  a  robber,  who  was  slain  there  by  Hercules. 

4  Longer  than  Italy,  until)  ver.  435.  He  means  that  the  Apennines  were 
•nee  longer  in  extent  than  the  present  Italy,  at  the  time  when  Sicily  was 
not  broken  off  from  Italy  by  the  intervening  sea,  and  these  mountains  ran 
through  it  as  far  as  Pelorus. 

*  Sicilian  Pelonu)  ver.  438.     Pelorus  was  a  Promontory,  or  mountain, 
forming  the  north-east  angle  of  Sicily.     The  common  story  was,  that  it 
received  its  name  from  the  pilot  of  Hannibal,  who  was  slain  and  buried 
there ;  but,  unfortunately  for  the  truth  of  the  story,  it  is  called  by  this  name 
by  Thucydides  long  before  the  time  of  Hannibal. 

"  /*  not  pleased  at)  ver.  439.  Owing  to  the  peculiar  manner  in  which 
Lucan  makes  use  of  the  conjunctions  copulative  and  negative,  this  passage 
may  be  translated  in  two  different  ways,  of  exactly  opposite  meaning : 
"  Caesar,  most  anxious  for  civil  war,  is  not  pleased  at  making  his  way  with- 
out effusion  of  blood,  and  is  not  pleased  at  marching  through  the  Italian 
territories  free  from  an  enemy,  and  at  not  being  able  to  sally  forth  against 
the  fields  in  hostile  form."  This  is  the  translation  suggested  by  Sulpitius, 
Ascensius,  and  Farnabius,  and  approved  of  by  Weise,  Grotius,  &c.  Cortius, 
however,  would  render  it, — "  Caesar,  most  anxious  for  civil  war,  is  pleased  at 
Dot  making  his  way,  except  with'  effusion  of  blood,  and  at  not  marching 


B.  ii.  440-459.]  PHAESALIA.  71 

otherwise  than  by  the  shedding  of  blood,  and  that  he  cannot 
lay  waste  the  limits  of  Hesperia  now  free  from  an  enemy, 
and  rush  down  upon  the  deserted  fields,  and  he  would  not 
lose  the  advantage  of  his  march1,  and  would  be  leading  on 
force  hand  to  hand  with  force.  It  delights  him  not  so 
much  to  enter  the  opening  gates,  as  to  have  broken  them 
down ;  nor  so  much  for  the  fields  to  be  ploughed  by  the 
submitting  husbandman,  as  if  the  land  were  laid  waste  with 
fire  and  sword.  By  paths  permitted  he  is  reluctant  to  pro- 
ceed, and  to  appear  to  be  a  fellow-citizen.  Then  the  cities 
of  Latium,  hi  doubt,  and  wavering  with  varying  party  feel- 
ings, although  about  to  yield  at  the  first  alarm  of  the 
approaching  warfare,  still  with  stout  ramparts  strengthen 
their  walls,  and  surround  them  on  every  side  with  the  deep 
trench.  Round  masses  of  stone,  too,  and  darts  which  may 
be  hurled  from  above  against  the  foe,  they  provide  upon  the 
lofty  towers  of  the  walls. 

The  multitude  is  more  favourable  to  Magnus,  and  attach- 
ment struggles  with  threatening  terror ;  just  as  when  the 
south  wind,  with  his  dread-sounding  blasts,  possesses  the 
sea,  him  do  all  the  billows  follow :  if  again  the  earth 2, 
loosened  by  the  stroke  of  the  JSolian  trident,  sends  forth 
the  eastern  gales  over  the  swelling  waves,  although  swept 
by  this  fresh  one,  the  billows  still  retain  the  effects  of  the 
former  wind,  and  while  the  heavens  give  way  to  the  eastern 

through  the  Italian  territories  free  from  an  enemy,  and  at  being  able  to  sally 
forth  tigainst  the  fields  in  hostile  form,"  The  first  is  probably  the  correct 
translation,  for  Weise  very  justly  asks,  where  were  the  persons  to  defend  the 
fields'?  It  is  notorious,  on  the  other  hand,  that  the  only  partizans  of  Pompey 
and  the  Senate  were  shut  up  in  the  fortified  towns  of  Italy.  Besides,  the 
first  mode  of  translation  would  tend  to  blacken  the  character  of  Caesar,  as 
making  him(though  contrary  to  the  real  fact),  gratuitously  a  lover  of  bloodshed, 
which  is  quite  consistent  with  the  design  of  Lucan  throughout  the  work. 
This  is  the  more  clear,  as  we  find  that  the  march  of  Caesar  through  the 
boundaries  of  Italy  was  unimpeded,  for  Pompey  had  withdrawn  his  forces 
to  the  south,  and  awaited  him  in  Campania. 

1  Would  not  lose  the  advantage  of  his  march)  ver.  442.  "Non  perdat  iter." 
"  Would  not  wish  to  lose  the  benefit  of  a  march,  as  though  through  an  enemy's 
country,  and  thereupon  gaining  the  opportunity  of  gathering  spoil  as  he 
proceeds." 

*  If  again  the  earth)  ver.  456.  He  probably  means  the  land  of  Strongyle, 
now  Stromboli,  one  of  the  Liparian  or  jEolian  Islands,  off  the  coast  of  Italy, 
where  /Kolus,  the  God  of  the  Winds,  was  said  to  have  his  abode.  See  the 
JEneid  of  Virgil,  B.  i.  1.  51,  et  seq. 


72  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  453-467. 

winds  sweeping  along  the  clouds,  the  waves  still  obey  the 
southern  gales.  But  terror  was  able  readily  to  change  their 
feelings,  and  fortune  swayed  their  wavering  attachment. 

The  Etrurian  race  was  left  defenceless  by  the  flight  of 
frightened  Libo ',  and  now,  Thermus  repulsed  a,  Umbria 
lost  the  disposal  of  itself.  Nor  with  his  father's  auspices 
did  Sulla  wage  the  civic  warfare :1,  turning  his  back,  on 
hearing  the  name  of  Caesar.  Varus,  when4  the  approach- 
ing troops  attacked  Auximum5,  rushing  through  the 

1  Flight  of  frightened  Lilo)  ver.  462.     Scribonius  Libo  was  the  father-in- 
law  of  Sextus  Pompeius,  the  son  of  Pompey  the  Great     He  was  entrusted 
with  the  command  of  Etruria,  but  on  the  rapid  approach  of  Caesar,  forsook 
his  charge  and  hastened  to  join  the  Consuls  in  Campania.     Augustus  after- 
wards married  his  sister,  Scribonia,  and  he  was  Consul  with  M.  Antony  in 
the  year  B.C.  34.     It  is  not  known  at  what  time  he  died. 

2  Now,  Thermus  repulsed)  ver.  463.     Caesar  says,  in  his  History  of  the 
Civil  War,  B.  i.  ch.  12: — "In  the  meantime,  being  informed  that  Thermus, 
the  Praetor,  was  in  possession  of  Iguvium  [an  important  city  of  Umbria],  with 
five  cohorts,  and  was  fortifying  the  town,  but  that  the  feelings  of  all  the  in- 
habitants were  very  well  inclined  towards  himself,  be  detached  Curio,  with 
three  cohorts,  which  he  had  at  Ariminum  and  Pisaurus.     Upon  notice  of 
his  approach,  Thermus,  distrusting  the  affections  of  the  townsmen,  drew  his 
cohorts  out  of  it,  and  made  his  escape ;  his  soldiers  deserted  him  on  the 
road,  and  returned  home."     This  was  Q.  Minutius  Thermus,  formerly  Pro- 
praetor in  Asia.     After  the  death  of  Pompey,  he  followed  the  fortunes  of 
his  son  Sextus,  but  finally  deserted  him,  B.C.  35,  and  went  over  to  M. 
Antony. 

3  Did  Sulla  wage  the  civic  warfare)  ver.  465.  This  was  Faustus  Cornelius 
Sulla,  a  son  of  the  Dictator,  by  his  fourth  wife,  Caecilia  Metella.     He  was 
the  son-in-law  of  Pompey,  and,  joining  his  party,  crossed  over  into  Greece, 
on  the  approach  of  Caesar.     Being  taken  prisoner  by  Caesar  after  the  battle 
of  Thapsus,  he  was  murdered  in  a  tumult  of  the  soldiers,  in  the  victor's  camp. 

4  Varus,  when)  ver.  46ti.  This  was  P.  Attius  Varus,  a  zealoas  partizan  of 
Pompey  in  the  Civil  War.     When  Pompey  left  Italy,   he  crossed  over  to 
Africa,  which,  with  the  assistance  of  Juba,  he  subdued  for  the  Pompeian 
party.     He  afterwards  burnt  several  of  Caesar's  ships  at  Adrumetum.     Join- 
ing Cneius  Pompeius  in  Spain,  he  was  defeated  in  a  naval  battle  by  C.  Didius. 
He  fell  at  the  battle  of  Munda,  and  his  head,  with  that  of  Labienus,  was 
carried  to  Caesar. 

*  Attacked  Auximum)  ver.  466.  Auximum  was  a  large  town  of  Picenum, 
and  a  Roman  colony.  Caesar  thus  relates  the  present  circumstance  in  his 
Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  13 : — "On  news  of  Caesar's  approach,  the  senate  of  Auxi- 
mum went  in  a  body  to  Attius  Varus,  and  told  him  that  it  was  not  a  subject 
for  them  to  determine  upon,  yet  neither  they  nor  the  rest  of  the  freemen 
were  willing  that  Caius  Caesar,  a  general  who  had  merited  so  well  of  the 
state,  after  performing  such  great  achievements,  should  be  excluded  from  their 
town  and  walls ;  wherefore  he  ought  to  pay  some  regard  to  the  opinion  of 


B.  ii.  467-477.]  PHAKSALIA.  73 

walls J  on  the  opposite  side,  his  rear  neglected,  flies  where  are 
the  woods,  where  are  the  rocks.  Lentulus  is  driven  2  from 
the  citadel  of  Asculum 3.  The  victor  presses  upon  them  re- 
treating, and  draws  over  the  troops ;  and  alone  out  of  a  force 
so  great  the  commander  escapes,  and  standards  that  escort 
no  cohorts4.  Thou,  too,  Scipio,  dost  forsake  the  deserted 
citadel  of  Nuceria3,  entrusted  to  thy  charge;  although  a 
most  hardy  youthful  band  is  posted  in  this  camp,  some 
time  before  withdrawn  from  Ceesar's  arms  by  reason  of  the 
Parthian  panic ;  with  which  Magnus  reinstated  the  Gallic 
losses,  and,  whilst  he  himself  summoned  them  to  the  war- 
fare, gave  to  his  father-in-law  the  loan  of  Eoman  blood. 

posterity,  and  his  own  danger.  Alarmed  at  this  declaration,  Attius  Varus 
drew  out  of  the  town  the  garrison  he  had  placed  there,  and  fled.  A  few  of 
Caesar's  front  rank  having  pursued  him,  obliged  him  to  halt,  and  when  the 
battle  began,  Varus  was  deserted  by  his  troops,  some  of  whom  dispersed  to 
their  homes,  and  the  rest  came  over  to  Caesar." 

1  Rushing  through  the  walls}  ver.  467.     By  the  mention  of  his  mode  of 
escape,  it  is  not  improbable  that  Lucan  has  confounded  Attius  Varus  with  C. 
Attius  the  Pelignian,  who,  on  the  approach  of  Caesar,  leaped  from  the  walls 
of  Sulmo  with  the  intention  of-escaping. 

2  Lentulus  is  driven)  ver.  469.     This  was  P.  Cornelius  Lentulus  Spinther, 
the  Consul,  who  afterwards  joined  Pompey  in  Greece,  and  fled  with  him  to 
the  isle  of  Rhodes.     His  subsequent  fate  is  not  known. 

3  Citadel  of  Asculum)  ver.  469.     This  was  Asculum,  a  town  of  Picenum ; 
it  was  a  Roman  municipium.     There  was  another  town  in  Apulia  of  the 
same  name.     Caesar  thus  mentions  this  circumstance  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  i. 
c.  15: — "  In  the  meantime,  the  twelfth  legion  came  to  join  Caesar;  with 
these  two  he  marched  to  Asculum,  the  chief  town  of  Picenum.     Lentulus 
Spinther  occupied  that  town  with  ten  cohorts ;  but  on  being  informed  of 
Csesar's  approach,  he  fled  from  the  town,  and  in  attempting  to  bring  off  his 
cohorts  with  him,  was  deserted  by  a  great  part  of  his  men." 

4  That  escort  no  cohorts)  ver.  471.     This  was  not  the  case,  as  some  of  his 
men  still  remained  with  him,  whom  he  added  shortly  afterwards  to  the  forces 
of  Vibullius  Rufus,  the  Pompeian  partizan. 

8  The  citadel  of  Nuceria)  ver.  473.  Nuceria,  sometimes  called  "  Luceria," 
was  a  town  of  Apulia,  on  the  borders  of  Samnium.  It  was  situate  on  a 
steep  hill,  and  had  a  Temple  of  Minerva.  This  was  now  held  by  L.  Scipio, 
the  father-in-law  of  Pompey.  In  reference  to  the  preceding  passage,  Mar- 
cellus,  for  the  purpose  probably  of  weakening  Ccesar,  had  prevailed  on  the 
Senate  to  make  a  decree  that  Csesar  should  give  up  one  legion  and  Pompey 
another,  which  they  pretended  to  be  about  to  send  to  the  Parthian  war.  In 
obedience  to  this  decree,  Caesar  delivered  to  Bibulus  one  legion  as  his  own, 
and  another  which  had  formerly  been  raised  and  lent  to  him  by  Pompey,  to 
supply  the  great  loss  which  he  had  sustained  by  the  defeat  of  his  legates,  Titurius 
and  Cotta.  These  legions  were  now  with  Scipio  in  the  town  of  Nuceria. 


74  PHABSALIA.  [B.  n.  478-499. 

But  thee,  valiant  Domitius1,  the  abodes  of  Corfinium2, 
surrounded  by  strong  walls,  receive ;  those  recruits,  which 
once  were  placed  around  the  polluted  Milo,  obey  thy 
trumpet's  call.  When  he  beheld  afar  an  immense  cloud 
arising  on  the  plain,  and  the  ranks  shining  with  weapons 
glittering  in  the  glistening  sun,  "  Run  down,  my  comrades," 
said  he,  "  to  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  sink  the  bridge 
under  water ;  and  thou,  stream,  now  come  forth,  in  all  thy 
strength,  from  thy  mountain  sources,  and  collect  together 
all  the  waters,  that  with  thy  foaming  tide,  thou  mayst,  the 
structure  broken,  bear  off  the  alder  timbers.  At  this  line 
let  the  war  come  to  a  stand ;  upon  these  banks  let  the  foe  at 
his  leisure  take  his  ease.  Put  a  check  upon  the  headlong 
leader ;  Caesar  first  coming  to  a  stop  at  this  spot  shall  be 
to  us  a  victory." 

No  more  having  said,  he  leads  down  from  the  walls  his 
active  band,  in  vain.  For  when  first,  from  the  plains,  the 
river  set  at  liberty3,  Caesar  beheld  his  passage  being  cut  off, 
excited  by  boiling  indignation,  lie  said,  "Is  it  not  enough 
to  have  sought  a  lurking-place  for  your  cowardice  within 
walls?  Do  you  close  up  the  plains,  ye  cowards,  and  attempt 
to  keep  me  hi  check  with  streams?  Not,  if  Ganges  with 
his  swelling  tide  were  to  separate  me,  should  Ccesar  now 
come  to  a  stand  at  any  river,  after  the  waters  of  Rubicon. 
Hasten  on,  ye  squadrons  of  horse ;  onward,  too,  ye  foot ; 

1  Thee,  valiant  Domitius)  ver.  479.  L.  Domitius  Ahenobarbus  was  one  of 
the  most  active  opponents  of  Pompey  and  Caesar  on  their  coalition,  and  fol- 
lowed the  opinions  of  Cato,  whose  sister  Forcia  he  had  married.  He  after- 
ward* became  more  closely  allied  with  Fompey.  Being  abandoned  by  Pompey, 
he  was  obliged  by  his  soldiers  to  surrender  Corfinium ;  on  which,  offended  at 
the  remissness  of  his  leader,  he  retired  to  Massilia,  which  he  defended 
against  Caesar.  He  afterwards  joined  Pompey  in  Thessaly,  and  was  slain  at 
the  battle  of  Pharsalia,  where  he  commanded  the  left  wing.  Cicero  asserts 
in  his  Second  Philippic,  that  he  fell  by  the  hand  of  M.  Antony. 

3  The  abodes  of  Corfinium)  ver.  478.  Corfinium  was  the  chief  town  of 
the  Peligni  in  Samnium :  it  is  now  called  Popolo.  Ahenobarbus  had  gar- 
risoned it  with  twenty  cohorts,  among  which  were  those  soldiers  who  had 
enclosed  the  Forum  when  Milo  was  arraigned  for  the  death  of  Clodius.  He 
sent  five  cohorts  to  break  down  the  bridge  of  the  river,  which  was  three 
miles  from  the  town,  but  these,  meeting  the  advance-guard  of  Caesar's  army, 
were  repulsed.  See  the  Civil  War  of  Caesar,  B.  L  c.  16. 

3  The  river  set  at  liberty)  rer.  492.  "  Amne  solute."  "  The  river  being 
about  to  be  let  loose,"  or  "  set  free,"  as  it  were,  by  reason  of  the  bridge 
being  in  the  act  of  being  broken  down. 


B.  n.  499-512.]  PHARSALIA.  75 

ascend  the  bridge  about  to  fall ! "  When  this  had  been 
said,  the  light  horsemen  gave  full  rein  along  the  plain, 
and  their  stalwart  arms  hurled  the  darts  to  the  opposite 
bank,  much  like  a  shower  thickly  falling.  Caesar  enters 
upon  1  the  stream  left  vacant,  its  guard  being  put  to  flight, 
and  is  brought  safe  to  the  citadel  of  the  enemy. 

And  now  he  was  erecting  towers  to  discharge  vast  masses, 
and  the  mantelet2  had  moved  on  beneath  the  midst  of  the 
walls ;  when  lo !  a  crime  in  warfare 3,  the  gates  being  opened, 
the  troops  dragged  forth  their  captive  chief,  and  before 
the  feet  of  his  haughty  fellow-citizen  he  stood.  Still,  his 
features  contemptuously  scowling,  with  undaunted  neck  did 
his  high-born  courage  demand  the  sword.  Csesar  was  aware 
both  that  punishment  was  wished  for  and  that  pardon  was 
dreaded4.  "  Live  on,"  said  he5,  "  although  thou  art  unwill- 

1  Caesar  enters  upon)  ver.  503.     It  is  hard  to  say  whether  "ingreditur" 
here  means  that  he  crossed  the  river  by  the  bridge,  or  that,  disdaining 
the  bridge,  he  forded  it  with  his  troops.      Caesar,  however,  in  the  Civil 
War,  B.  i.  c.  16,  speaks  of  marching  his  legions   "  over,"  so  that  a  passage 
by  the  bridge  is  probably  meant. 

2  And  the  mantelet)  ver.  506.     The  "  vinese,"  which  were  similar  to  what 
are  called   "  mantelets "  in  modern  warfare,  were  roofs  or  sheds,   under 
which  the  besiegers  protected  themselves  from  the  darts,  stones,  and  fires 
hurled  from  the  walls  of  the  besieged  town  on  the  assailants.     The  roof 
and  sides  were  formed  of  wicker-work,  while  planks,  covered  with  wet  cloth 
or  raw  hides,  also  supported  the  sides.    They  were  on  light  frames,  and  were 
either  carried  or  wheeled  by  the  soldiers  to  the  walls.     They  received  their 
name  from  their  resemblance  to  a  leafy  bower,  formed  by  the  branches  of  vines. 

3  A  crime  in  warfare)  ver.  507.   According  to  Caesar  (Civil  War,  B.  i. 

C.  19,  20),  the  facts  were  these  : — Domitius,  having  sent  to  Pompey  for  aid, 
received  an  answer  that  Pompey  would  not  encounter  the  risk  of  relieving 
him,  as  he  had  retreated  to  Corfinium  without  his  own  advice  or  consent,  and 
that  if  any  opportunity  should  offer,  he,  Domitius,  was  to  come  to  Pompey 
•with  his  whole  force.     On  this,  Domitius  determined  on  escaping  from  the 
town,  imparting  his  design  to  a  few  of  his  friends.    His  intentions  becoming 
suspected,  his  troops  mutinied,  and,  seizing  him,  sent  dispatches  to  Cassar,  to 
say  that  they  were  ready  to  deliver  the  town  and  Domitius  into  his  hands. 

*  That  pardon  was  dreaded)  ver.  511.  According  to  some  accounts,  Domi- 
tius had  endeavoured  to  poison  himself  on  being  about  to  fall  in  the  hands  of 
Caesar,  but  his  physician  only  gave  him  a  sleeping  potion. 

8  Live  on,  said  he)  ver.  512.  Caesar  says  that  Lentulus  Spinther  inter- 
ceded with  him  for  the  lives  of  Domitius  and  the  other  nobles  taken  at  Cor- 
tinium,  on  which  the  conqueror  replied  that  he  had  not  left  his  Province  to 
injure  any  one,  but  to  protect  himself  against  the  malice  of  his  enemies,  and 
to  restore  the  Tribunes  of  the  people,  who  had  been  expelled  from  the  City. 
He  not  only  dismissed  Domitius,  but  even  returned  him  sixty  sestertia, 


76  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  512-640. 

ing ;  and  by  my  bounty  behold  the  light  of  day.  To  the 
conquered  faction  now  let  there  be  bright  hopes,  and  the 
example  of  myself;  even  if  it  pleases  thee  try  arms  once 
more ;  and  nothing  for  this  pardon  do  I  stipulate,  if  thou 
shalt  be  overcome." 

He  thus  speaks,  and  orders  the  chains  to  be  loosened  on 
his  tightened  hands.  Alas!  even  his  murder  perpetrated, 
how  much  more  becomingly  might  Fortune  have  spared  a 
Roman's  shame ;  to  whom  it  is  the  very  greatest  of  punish- 
ments, to  be  pardoned  because  he  has  followed  the  camp  of 
his  country  and  Magnus  for  his  leader,  and  the  whole  of  the 
Senate.  He,  undismayed,  checks  his  heavy  wrath,  and  to 
himself  he  says,  "  And  wilt  thou  repair,  degenerate  man,  to 
Rome,  and  the  retreats  of  peace?  Dost  thou  not  prepare 
to  go  into  the  midst  of  the  frenzy  of  war,  destined  soon  to 
die  ?  Rush  on  assured,  and  burst  asunder  all  delay  to 
losing  thy  life,  and  thus  be  rid  of  Caesar's  gift." 

In  the  meantime,  not  aware  of  the  chieftain  being  taken, 
Magnus  was  preparing  arms,  that,  with  strength  inter- 
mingled, he  might  recruit  his  party.  And  now,  on  the 
ensuing  day,  about  to  order  the  trumpet  to  sound,  and 
thinking  that  the  resentment  of  the  soldiers  about  to  move 
might  be  ascertained,  with  a  voice  moving  veneration  he 
addressed  the  silent  cohorts :  "0  avengers  of  crimes,  and 
who  have  followed  the  preferable  standards,  O  truly  Roman 
band,  to  whom  the  Senate  has  given  arms  in  no  private 
cause  ',  in  your  aspirations  demand  the  fight.  With  ruthless 
ravages  the  fields  of  Hesperia  glow  ;  along  the  icy  Alps  is 
poured  forth  the  Gallic  rage '-' ;  already  has  blood  touched 
the  polluted  swords  of  Caesar.  Well  have  the  Gods  provided, 
that  we  were  the  first  to  endure  the  casualties  of  war  On 
their  side  let  the  criminality  commence. 

"Now,  e'en  now,  myself  the  umpire,  let  Rome  seek 
punishment  and  vengeance.  Nor  indeed  is  it  right  for 
these  to  be  called  real  battles,  but  j  atJier  the  wrath  of  an 

though  he  knew  that  it  was  a  sum  originally  provided  to  pay  the  adherents  of 
Pompey.  See  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  22,  23. 

1  In  no  private  cause)  ver.  533.  "  Non  privata,"  "  in  no  private  cause," 
lie  having  been  enjoined  to  undertake  the  war  against  Caesar  on  behalf  of 
the  state. 

1  The  Gallic  rage)  yer.  535.  In  allusion  to  the  Gallic  forces  who  accom- 
panied Caesar. 


B.  n.  540-548.]  PHARSALIA.  77 

avenging  country.  No  more  is  this  a  war  than  when 
Catiline  prepared x  the  torches  to  blaze  amid  the  houses, 
and  Lentulus  the  partner  in  his  fury,  and  the  frantic  band 
of  Cethegus,  with  his  naked  shoulders  ~.  O  frenzy  of  the 
leader  greatly  to  be  pitied  !  When,  Caesar,  the  Fates  could 
wish  to  enrol  thee  among  the  Camilli3  and  the  great  Me- 
telli 4,  among  the  Cinnse 5  and  the  Marii  dost  thou  come. 
Assuredly  thou  shalt  be  laid  prostrate,  as  by  Catulus  Le- 
pidus  fell6,  and  Carbo,  who,  submitting 7  to  my  axe,  is  buried 

1  When  Catiline  prepared)  ver.  541.     He  alludes  to  the  intended  rebel- 
lion of  L.  Sergins  Catilina,  when,  in  conjunction  with  P.  Cornelius  Lentulus 
Sura,  who  had  lost  his  seat  in  the  Senate,   and  other  conspirators,  he  had 
destined  the  City  of  Rome  to  the  flames.    Information  of  the  conspiracy  was 
given  to  Cicero,  who  took  instant  measures  to  quell  it ;  on  which,  Catiline 
and  others  left  the  City,  and,  raising  an  army,  waged  open  war  against  the 
state.     He  was  defeated  by  M.  Petreius,  and  was  slain  in  battle  fighting 
with  desperate  courage. 

2  Cethegus,  with  his  naked  shoulders)  ver.  543.    He  alludes  to  an  ancient 
fashion  which  seems  to  have  prevailed  among  the  Cethegi,  of  wearing  the 
arms  bare.    Horace,  in  his  Art  of  Poetry,  1.  50,  refers  to  the  same  custom. 
The  person  here  mentioned  was  C.  Cornelius  Cethegus,  one  of  the  most  aban- 
doned of  the  associates  of  Catiline.    It  was  to  have  been  his  part  to  murder 
the  leading  Senators.    He  was,  however,  arrested,  and  put  to  death,  the  evi- 
dence against  him  being  the  swords  and  daggers  which  he  had  collected  in 
his  house. 

a  Among  the  Camilli)  ver.  544.  He,  no  doubt,  though  using  the  plural 
number,  refers  more  especially  to  M.  Furius  Camillus,  the  patriotic  Dictator, 
and  the  deliverer  of  Rome  from  Gallic  bondage. 

*  And  the  great  Metelli)  ver.  545.     He  probably  alludes  in  particular  to 
L.  Caecilius  Metellus,  who,  when  Consul,  successfully  opposed  the  Carthagi- 
nians in  the  first  Punic  war.     When  high  priest,  he  rescued  the  Palladium 
from  the  Temple  of  Vesta  when  on  fire,  but  lost  his  sight  in  consequence  ;  he 
was  therefore  allowed  the  privilege,  previously  granted  to  no  one,  of  riding 
to  the  Senate-house  in  a  chariot,  and  was  rewarded  with  a  statue  in  the 
Capitol. 

*  Among  the  Cinnce)  ver.  546.     He  alludes  to  L.   Cornelius  Cinna,  the 
partizan  of  Marius,  who  endeavoured  to  recall  Marius  to  Rome  when  in  ba- 
nishment in  Africa.    He  at  length  succeeded  in  regaining  power,  and  became 
Consul  jointly  with  Marius,  when  he  distinguished  himself  by   his  cruelty. 
He  was  finally  slain  by  his  own  troops  when  marching  against  Sulla. 

6  By  Catulus  Lepidus  fell)  ver.  547.     M.  ^iniilius  Lepidus,  the  father  of 
the  Triumvir,  being  declared  by  the  Senate  an  enemy  to  the  state,  collected 
an  army  in  Etruria,  and  marched  against  Rome.     Here  he   was  defeated  in 
the  Campus  Martius  by  Pompey  and  Catulus,  and  fled  with  the  remainder  of 
his  troops  to  Sardinia,  where  he  was  again  repulsed,  and  is  supposed  to  have 
died  of  grief. 

7  Carbo,  who,  submitting)  ver.  548.  Cn.  Papirius  Carbo  was  one  of  the  leaders 


78  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  n.  548-561. 

in  a  Sicilian  sepulchre,  Sertorius,  too1,  who,  an  exixe, 
aroused  the  fierce  Iberians.  And  yet,  if  there  is  any 
belief  in  me,  I  grudge,  Csesar,  to  add  thee  as  well  to 
these,  and  that  Rome  has  opposed  my  hands  to  thee  in  thy 
madness. 

"  Would  that  Crassus  had  returned  safe  after  the  battles 
of  the  Parthians,  and  victorious  from  the  regions  of  Scythia, 
that  thou  mightst  fall  by  a  like  cause  to  that  by  which 
the  foeman  Spartacus  fell-.  If  the  Gods  of  heaven  have 
ordained  that  thou  as  well  shalt  be  added  to  my  titles  of 
triumph,  mighty  is  my  right  arm  at  hurling  the  javelin ;  this 
glowing  blood  has  again  waxed  warm  around  my  heart; 
thou  shalt  learn,  that  not  all  who  could  submit  to  peace  are 
cowards  in  war.  Although  he  styles  me  enfeebled  and  worn 
out,  let  not  my  age  alarm  you.  In  this  camp  let  the  chief 
be  more  aged :<,  so  long  as  the  soldier  is  more  aged  in  that. 

of  the  Marian  faction.  He  conducted  the  war  in  Cisalpine  Gaul  and  Spain 
against  the  generals  of  Sulla,  and  with  Norbanus  was  finally  defeated  near 
Faventia,  in  Italy,  by  Metellns.  He  fled  first  to  Africa  and  thence  to  Sicily. 
Going  thence  to  the  isle  of  Cossyra,  near  Malta,  he  was  taken  prisoner  by 
the  emissaries  of  Pompey.  He  was  brought  in  chains  to  Pompey  at  Lily- 
bseum,  in  Sicily,  who,  after  rebuking  him,  had  his  head  struck  off,  which  he 
gent  to  Sulla. 

1  Sertorius,  too)  ver.  549.  Q.  Sertorins,  one  of  the  most  gallant 
of  the  Romans,  though  fully  sensible  of  the  faults  of  Marins,  his  old  com- 
mander, espoused  his  cause  against  the  aristocratic  party.  Though  he  com- 
manded one  of  the  four  armies  which  besieged  Rome  under  Marius  and 
Ginna,  he  was  entirely  averse  to  the  bloodshed  which  ensued.  Long  after 
the  death  of  Marius  he  asserted  his  own  independence  in  Spain,  and  for 
many  years  kept  the  forces  of  Pompey  and  Metellus  at  bay,  and  destroyed  a 
great  portion  of  their  troops.  He  was  assassinated,  B.C.  72,  by  Perperna  and 
some  others  of  his  officers,  who  had  long  been  jealous  of  him.  Regardless 
of  his  merits,  Lucan  unjustly  quotes  him  as  an  instance  of  the  prowess  of 
Pompey  having  dealt  retribution  against  rebellion. 

*  The  foeman  Spartacut  felt)  ver.  554.  Spartacus  was  a  Thracian  by  birth, 
and  originally  a  shepherd,  then  a  soldier,  and  afterwards  a  leader  of  banditti. 
Being  taken  prisoner,  he  was  sold  to  a  trainer  of  gladiators.  Regaining  his 
freedom,  he  headed  his  fellow  slaves,  and  defeated  several  of  the  Roman 
armies.  After  a  successful  career,  M.  Licinius  Crassus,  the  Roman  Praetor, 
was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  war  against  him,  and,  after  gaining 
several  advantages,  defeated  him  at  the  river  Silarus  in  a  decisive  battle,  in 
which  Spartacus  was  skin. 

3  Let  the  chief  be  more  aged)  ver.  561.  Alluding  to  his  being  the 
senior  of  Caesar,  while  Caesar  had  the  veterans  in  his  camp,  and  he  himself 
a  larger  number  of  young  recruits. 


B.  n.  562-586.]  PHARSALIA.  7* 

To  whatever  height  a  free  people  could  elevate  a  citizen, 
thither  have  I  ascended,  and  nothing  have  I  left  above 
me  hut  the  sovereignty.  No  private  station  does  he  desire, 
whoever  in  the  Boman  City  attempts  to  be  higher  than 
Pompey.  Here  on  our  side  either  Consul  is,  here  on  our 
side  are  the  ranks  of  our  nobles  to  take  their  stand.  Shall 
Csesar  be  the  conqueror  of  the  Senate  ?  Not  to  that  degree, 
O  Fortune  !  dost  thou  drag  onward  all  things  in  thy  blind 
career  and  feel  ashamed  at  nothing. 

"  Does  Gaul,  rebellious  now  for  many  a  year1,  and  an  age 
spent  in  labours,  impart  courage  ?  Is  it,  because  he 
fled  from  the  cold  waves2  of  the  Ehine,  and,  calling  the 
shallows3  of  a  fluctuating  sea  the  ocean,  he  showed  his 
frightened  back  to  the  Britons  he  had  sought  out  ?  Or  do 
.  vain  menaces  swell,  because  the  rumour  of  his  frenzy  has 
driven  the  City  in  arms  from  its  paternal  abodes  ?  Alas ! 
madman,  they  fly  not  from  thee ;  all  are  following  me !  who, 
when  I  raised  my  standards  gleaming  over  the  whole  ocean, 
before  Cynthia  had  twice  filled  her  completed  orb,  the  pirate 
abandoned  every  ford  of  the  sea,  and  asked  for  a  home* 
in  a  narrow  allotment  of  land.  I  too,  more  fortunate  than 
Sulla5,  pursued  to  the  death,  the  monarch  hitherto  unsub- 
dued6 and  who  stayed  the  destinies  of  Eome,  flying  in  exile 
through  the  retreats  of  Scythian  Pontus. 

"  No  portion  of  the  world  is  unconnected  with  me,  but 
the  whole  earth  is  occupied  by  my  trophies,  under  whatever 
sun  it  lies.  Hence  do  the  Arctic  regions  own  me  as  a  victor 
at  the  cold  waves  of  Phasis7;  a  meridian  clime  is  known  to 

1  For  many   a  year)  ver.   568,  69.      "  Multis  lustris,"  literally   "  for 
many  '  lustra,' "  or  periods  of  four  or  five  years. 

2  Fled  from  the  cold  -waves)  ver.  570.     He  alludes  to  the  return  of  Caesar 
from  Germany  into  Gaul,  and  for  the  sake  of  a  rhetorical  artifice,  pretends  to 
call  it  a  flight. 

3  Calling  the  shallows)  ver.  571.     See  B.  i.  1.  410. 

4  And  asked  for  a  home)  ver.  579.  Alluding  to  his  conquest  of  the  Cilician 
pirates  and  their  subsequent  settlements. 

*  More  fortunate  than  Sulla)  ver.  512.     This  is  said  antithetically,  and 
the  words  "  although  he  was  called  fortunate  (felix),"  must  be  supposed  to 
be  supplied.     Sulla  had  previously  gained  some  victories  over  Mithridates. 

*  The  monarch  hitherto  unsubdued)  ver.  581.     In  allusion  to  his  victories 
over  Mithridates. 

7  The  cold  traves  of  Phasis)  ver.  585.  Phasis,  now  the  Faz  or  Rioni, 
was  a  famous  river  of  Colchis.  In  ancient  times  it  was  crossed  by  120 


80  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  686-596. 

me  in  hot  Egypt1,  and  in  Syeiie2,  which  on  no  side  diverts 
its  shades.  The  west  obeys  my  laws,  and  the  Hesperian 
Bsetis',  that  beyond  all  rivers  dashes  into  the  retreating 
Tethys.  The  subdued  Arab 4  has  known  me ;  me  the  He- 
niochi,  fierce  in  wars,  and  the  Colchians,  famed  for  the  fleece 
borne  away.  My  standards  do  the  Cappadocians  dread,  and 
Judaea,  devoted  to  the  rites  of  an  unknown  God0,  and  the 
luxurious  Sophene7.  The  Armenians,  and  the  fierce  Cili- 
cians,  and  the  Taurians8  have  I  subdued.  What  war  but  a 
civil  one  to  my  father-in-law  have  I  left  ?  " 

His  partizans  followed  the  words  of  the  chieftain  with  no 

bridges,  and  had  many  towns  on  its  banks.  When  conquered  by  Pompey, 
Hithridates  took  refuge  in  the  wild  and  inaccessible  regions  beyond  the 
Phasis,  whither  Pompey  found  himself  unable  to  pursue  him. 

1  Known  to  me  in  hot  Egypt)  ver.  587.     He  had  been  sent  by  the  Roman 
Senate  to  Egypt  to  be  the  guardian  of  Ptolemy,  the  youthful  king  of  that ' 
country. 

*  And  in  Syene)  ver.  587.     Syene  was  a  city  of  Upper  Egypt,  on  the 
eastern  bank  of  the  Nile,  just  below  the  first  Cataract,  and  was  considered 
the  southern  frontier  city  of  Egypt  against  Ethiopia.     It  was  an  important 
point  in  the  geography  and  astronomy  of  the  ancients,  as  appears  from  the 
expression  used  in  the  present  instance.     It  lay  just  under  the  tropic  of 
Cancer,  and  was  therefore  chosen  as  the  place  through  which  they  drew  their 
chief  parallel  of  latitude.     The  sun  was  vertical  to  Syene  at  the  time  of  the 
summer  solstice,  and  a  well  was  shown  there  where  the  face  of  the  sun  was 
seen  at  noon  at  that  time. 

*  The  Hesperian  Badis)  ver.  589.     The  Baetis,  now  the  Guadalquivir,  a 
river  in  the  south  of  Spain,  was  also  called  Tartessus  and  Certis.     It  falls 
into  the  Atlantic  to  the  north  of  Gades,  now  Cadiz.     Pompey  refers  most 
probably  to  his  campaigns  against  Sertorius,  which,  however,  certainly  did  not 
redound  to  his  credit  as  a  general. 

*  The  subdued  Arab)  ver.  590.     In  his  campaign  in  Syria  and  Palestine, 
where  he  replaced  Hyrcanus  in  possession  of  the  government  in  opposition  to 
his  brother  Aristobulus. 

8  The  Heniochi,  fierce  in  war)  ver.  591.  The  Heniochi  were  a  people  of 
Colchis  famed  for  their  piratical  habits. 

8  Rites  of  an  unknown  God)  ver.  593.  "  Incerti  Dei,"  a  God  unknown 
to  other  nations.  It  was  at  this  period  that  Pompey  restored  Ariobarzanes, 
king  of  Cappadocia,  to  his  kingdom. 

f  The  luxurious  Sophene)  ver.  593.  Sophene  was  a  district  of  Greater 
Armenia,  lying  between  the  ranges  of  Antitaurus  and  Masius,  near  the  banks 
of  the  Euphrates.  According  to  one  of  the  Scholiasts  it  is  here  called 
"mollis  "  from  the  heat  of  the  sun  in  those  regions,  but  more  probably  it  is 
»o  termed  by  reason  of  the  effeminacy  of  its  inhabitants. 

*  And  the  Tauriant)  ver.  594.     "  Tauros."     By  this  term  he  probably 
means  the  inhabitants  of  the  country  adjoining  the  great  mountain  range  of 
Taurus  in  Central  Asia. 


B.  ii.  596-622.]  PHARSALIA.  81 

applause,  nor  did  they  demand  the  speedy  trumpet  signal 
for  the  promised  fight.  Magnus  too  himself  perceived 
their  fears,  and  it  pleased  him  that  his  standards  should  he 
borne  back,  and  not  to  expose  to  the  risks  of  a  combat  so 
decisive  troops  already  vanquished  by  the  fame  of  Csesar 
not  yet  seen  by  them.  Just  as  among  the  herds  a  bull, 
worsted  in  the  first  combat,  seeks  the  recesses  of  the 
woods,  and,  exiled  amid  the  vacant  fields,  tries  his  horns 
upon  the  opposing  trunks ;  and  returns  not  to  the  pastures, 
but  when,  his  neck  reinvigorated,  his  muscles  exercised 
give  him  confidence ;  then,  soon  victorious,  the  bulls  accom- 
panying, he  leads  the  recovered  herds,  maugre  the  shepherd, 
to  any  pastures  he  lists ;  so,  unequal  in  strength,  Magnus 
surrendered  Hesperia,  and  taking  to  flight  over  the  Apu- 
lian  fields  ascended  the  secure  towers  of  Brundisium1. 

This  is  a  city  once  possessed  by  Dictsean  colonists2, 
whom,  flying  from  Crete,  the  Cecropian  ships  bore  along 
the  seas,  with  sails  that  falsely  tolda  that  Theseus  was  con- 
quered. In  this  region,  the  coast  of  Hesperia,  which  now 
contracts  itself  into  a  narrow  arch,  extends  into  the  sea 
a  small  tongue,  which,  with  its  curving  horns,  shuts  in  the 
waves  of  the  Adriatic.  Nor  yet  would  this  water  inclosed 
hi  the  narrowed  inlet  form  a  harbour,  if  an  island  did  not 
receive  upon  its  rocks  the  violent  north-west  gales,  and 
turn  back  the  dashing  waves.  On  the  one  side  and  on  the 
other  nature  has  opposed  mountains  with  craggy  cliffs  to 
the  open  main,  and  has  warded  off  the  blasts,  so  that,  held 
fast  by  the  shaking  cables,  ships  can  stand  there.  Hence 
far  and  wide  extends  all  the  ocean,  whether  the  sails  are 

1  Secure  towers  of  Brundisium)  ver.  609.  Caesar  says,  in  his  "  Civil  War," 
B.  i.  c.  84,  "  Pompey,  being  informed  of  what  had  passed  at  Corfinium, 
marched  from  Luceria  to  Canusium,  and  thence  to  Brundisium."  This  was 
a  town  of  Calabria,  on  a  small  bay  of  the  Adriatic,  forming  an  excellent 
harbour,  to  which  the  place  owed  its  importance. 

*  Dictcecm  colonists)  ver.  610.  Or  Cretan  colonists,  so  called  from 
Dicte,  a  mountain  in  the  eastern  part  of  Crete,  where  Jupiter  is  said  to  have 
been  reared. 

9  With  sails  lliat  falsely  told)  ver.  612.  He  alludes  to  the  story  of 
Theseus  having  returned  from  Crete,  by  inadvertence,  with  black  sails,  when 
they  ought,  according  to  the  arrangement  previously  made,  to  have  been 
•white ;  on  which  JEgeus,  his  father,  threw  himself  into  the  sea.  He 
means  that  Brundisium  was  colonized  by  the  Cretans  who  had  escaped 
from  Crete  with  Theseus  in  the  Cecropian  or  Athenian  ships. 

G 


82  PHABSALIA.  [B.  IL  622-638. 

borne,  Corcyra,  to  thy  harbours',  or  whether  on  the  left 
Illyrian  Epidamnus s  is  sought,  bordering  upon  the  Ionian 
waves.  Hither  is  the  flight  of  mariners,  when  the  Adriatic 
has  put  forth  all  its  strength,  and  the  Ceraunia '  have  dis- 
appeared in  clouds,  and  when  the  Calabrian  Sason4  is 
washed  by  the  foaming  main. 

Therefore,  when  there  is  no  hope  in  the  affairs  that  have 
been  left  behind,  and  there  is  no  means  of  turning  the 
warfare  to  the  hardy  Iberians,  since  the  Alps,  with  their 
immense  tracts,  lie  extended  between,  then  that  son5,  one 
of  a  progeny  so  great,  whose  age  M  more  advanced,  he 
thus  addresses : — 

"I  bid  you  try  the  distant  regions  of  the  world. 
Arouse  the  Euphrates  and  the  Nile 6,  even  as  far  as  the  fame 
of  my  name  has  reached,  cities  through  which  the  fame  of 
Home  has  been  spread  abroad  after  myself  as  her  general. 
Bring  back  to  the  seas  the  Cilician  colonists  scattered  amid 
the  fields.  On  the  one  side  arouse  the  Pharian  kings7  and 
my  friend  Tigranes.  And  neglect  not,  I  advise  thee,  the 
arms  of  Pharnaces8,  nor  yet  do  thou  the  tribes  that  wander 

1  Corcyra,  to  thy  harbours)  ver.  623.  Corcyra,  now  Corfu,  was  an  island 
in  the  Ionian  Sea,  off  the  coast  of  Epirus,  long  famed  for  the  naval  enter- 
prise of  its  inhabitants. 

a  Illyrian  Epidamnus)  ver.  624.  Epidamnus  was  a  town  in  Greek  Illy- 
ria,  on  the  Adriatic  Sea.  It  was  founded  by  the  Corcyreans,  and  received 
from  them  the  name  of  Epidamnus ;  but  when  the  Romans  became  masters 
of  the  country,  they  changed  the  name  to  Dyrrhacbium,  as  it  reminded  them 
of  their  word  "  damnum,"  signifying  "  loss,"  or  "  misfortune."  It  was  the 
usual  place  of  landing  for  those  who  crossed  over  from  Brundisium. 

3  And  the  Ceraunia)  ver.  626.     The  Ceraunia,  or   Acroceraunia,  were 
immense  rocks  on  the  coast  of  Epirus. 

4  When  the  Calabrian  Sason)  ver.  627.     Sason,  or  Saso,  was  a  small 
rocky  island  off  the  coast  of  Illyria,  to  the   north  of  the   promontory   of 
Acroceraunia,  much  frequented  by  pirates.     It  is  now  called  Sasseno,  or 
Sassa. 

s  Then  that  son)  ver.  631.     His  son  Cneius  Pompeius. 

8  Arouse  the  Euphrates  and  the  Jfile)  ver.  633.  He  is  to  repair  to  the 
Euphrates  and  the  Nile  to  invoke  the  aid  of  the  kings  of  Parthia  and  Egypt. 

7  Arouse  the  Pharian  kings)  ver.  636.  Lucan  frequently  calls  the  Egyp- 
tians "  Pharii,"  "  Pharians,"  from  the  island  of  Pharos,  situate  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Nile.  Tigranes  was  king  of  Armenia,  and  was  indebted  to  Pompey 
for  his  kingdom. 

*  The  arms  of  Pharnaces)  ver.  637.  Pharnaces,  king  of  Pontus  or,  more 
properly,  of  the  Bosporus,  was  a  son  of  Mitbridates  the  Great.  He  com- 


B.  ii.  638-661.]  PHAESALIA.  83 

in  either  Armenia,  and  the  fierce  nations  along  the  shores 
of  Pontus,  and  the  Rhipoean  bands ',  and  those  whom  on 
its  frozen  waves  the  sluggish  swamp  of  Mi«otis  2,  enduring  the 
Scythian  waggon,  bears.  But  why  do  I  any  further  delay  ? 
Throughout  the  entire  East,  my  son,  thou  wilt  carry 
the  warfare,  and  awaken  all  the  cities  that  have  been 
subdued  throughout  the  entire  world ;  let  all  my  triumphs 
repair  once  again  to  my  camp.  You  too,  who  mark  the 
Latian  annals  with  your  names,  let  the  first  northern 
breeze  bear  you  to  Epirus  ;  thence,  throughout  the  fields  of 
the  Greeks  and  the  Macedonians  acquire  new  strength, 
while  winter  affords  time  for  peace."  Thus  he  speaks,  and 
all  obey  his  commands,  and  unmoor  their  hollow  ships  from 
the  shore. 

But,  never  enduring  peace  and  a  long  cessation  from 
arms,  lest  it  may  be  in  the  power  of  the  Fates  to  work 
any  change,  Caesar  follows,  and  presses  hard  on  the  foot- 
steps of  his  son-in-law.  To  others  would  have  sufficed  so 
many  fortified  towns 3  captured  at  the  first  assault,  so  many 
towers  overwhelmed,  the  enemy  expelled;  thou  thyself, 
Rome,  the  Capital  of  the  world,  the  greatest  reward  of  the 
warfare,  so  easy  to  be  taken.  But  Cffisar,  precipitate  in 
everything,  thinking  nothing  done  while  anything  re- 
mains to  be  done,  fiercely  pursues ;  and  still,  although 
he  is  hi  possession  of  the  whole  of  Italy,  because  Magnus 
is  located  on  its  extreme  shores,  does  he  grieve  that  as  yet 
it  is  common  to  them ;  nor  on  the  other  hand  is  he  willing 

pclled  his  father  to  put  an  end  to  his  own  life ;  and,  to  secure  himself  on  the 
throne,  sent  offers  of  submission  with  hostages  to  Pompey  in  Syria,  and 
the  body  of  his  father  to  Sinope  to  be  at  the  disposal  of  the  Roman  general. 
Pompey  accepted  his  submission,  and  gave  him  the  kingdom  of  the  Bosporus, 
with  the  title  of  friend  and  ally  of  the  Roman  people.  Pharnaces  afterwards 
took  advantage  of  the  Civil  Wars,  and  reconquered  nearly  the  whole  of  his 
father's  dominions,  but  was  defeated  by  Csesar  at  the  battle  of  Zela,  and 
shortly  afterwards  perished. 

1  And  the  Rhipaan,  bands)  ver.  640.  Rhipacan  was  a  general  and  indefi- 
nite name  for  the  northern  nations  of  Scythia ;  but  the  Rhipaean  mountains 
are  supposed  to  have  been  a  western  branch  of  the  Uralian  chain, 

a  Swamp  of  Maotu)  ver.  641.  He  alludes  to  the  Palus  Maeotis,  or  Sea 
of  Azof,  which,  when  frozen,  was  said  to  be  crosied  by  the  Nomad  tribes 
of  Scythia  with  their  waggons. 

8  So  many  fortified  towns)  ver.  653.  Of  which  number  the  Poet  has 
already  specified  Ariminum,  Auximnm,  Asculum,  Luceria,and  Corfinium. 

o  2 


84  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  661-673. 

that  the  foe  should  wonder  on  the  open  main,  but  with 
moles  he  dams  out  the  waves1,  and  the  expansive  ocean 
with  rocks  hm*led  down. 

To  no  purpose  is  this  labour  bestowed  on  the  immense 
undertaking ;  the  voracious  sea  sucks  in  all  the  rocks,  and 
mingles  the  mountains  with  its  sands ;  just  as,  if  the  lofty 
Eryx-  were  thrown  down  into  the  midst  of  the  waves  of 
the  ^Egean  Sea,  still  no  rocky  heights  would  tower  above 
the  main ;  or  if  Gaurus ',  his  pinnacles  rooted  up,  were  to 
fall  down  to  the  very  depths  of  stagnant  Avernus.  There- 
fore, when  in  the  shoals  no  mass  retained  its  weight,  then 
it  pleased  him,  the  woods  cut  down,  to  connect  rafts,  and 
to  fasten  together  with  wide  extent  the  trunks  of  trees  by 
immense  chains. 

Fame  relates  that  exulting  Xerxes  constructed4  such  a 

1  Dams  out  the  waves)  ver.  662.     This  passage  is  best  explained  by  a  por- 
tion of  what  Caesar  himself  has  written  on  the  subject.     He  states  that  he 
was   afraid   that  if  Pompey  remained  at  Brundisium  he   might   command 
the  whole  Adriatic  Sea,  with  the  extremity  of  Italy  and  the  coast  of  Greece, 
and  be  able  to  conduct  the  war  on  either  side  of  it,  and,  fearing  that  he  would 
not  relinquish  Italy,  he  determined  to  deprive  him  of  his  means  of  communi- 
cation.    For  that  purpose  (Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  25),  "  where  the  mouth  of 
the  port  was  narrowest,  he  threw  up  a  mole  of  earth  on  either  side,  because 
in  these  places  the  sea  was  shallow.     Having  gone  out  so  far  that  the  mole 
could  not  be  continued  into  deep  water,  he  fixed  double  floats,  thirty  feet  on 
either  side,  before  the  mole.  .  These  he  fastened  with  four  anchors  at  the  four 
corners,  that  they  might  not  be  carried  away  by  the  waves.     Having  com- 
pleted and  secured  them,  he  then  joined  to  them  other  floats  of  equal  size. 
These  he  covered  over  with  earth  and  mould,  that  he  might  not  be  prevented 
from  access  to  them  to  defend  them,  and  on  the  front  and  both  sides  he  pro- 
tected them  with  a  parapet  of  wicker-work:  and  on  every  fourth  one  he 
raised  a  turret  two  stories  high,  to  secure  them  the  better  from  being  attacked 
by  shipping  and  set  on  fire." 

2  As,  \f  the  lofty  Eryx)  ver.  666.     Eryx  was  a  lofty  mountain  of  Sicily, 
on  the  summit  of  which  there  was  a  Temple  sacred  to  Venus. 

*  Or  if  Gaums)  ver.  667.  Gaurus  was  the  name  of  a  volcanic  range  of 
mountains  in  Campania.  Avernus  was  a  small  lake  seated  near  their  foot, 
filling  the  crater  of  an  extinct  volcano.  It  was  supposed  to  be  connected 
with  the  Infernal  Regions.  The  mephitic  vapours  were  so  powerful  as  to  be 
said  to  kill  the  birds  that  attempted  to-fly  over  it. 

4  Exulting  Xerxes  constructed)  ver.  672.  Xerxes,  king  of  Persia,  the 
eon  of  Darius  and  Atossa,  when  invading  Europe,  had  a  bridge  of  boats 
thrown  across  the  Hellespont  from  the  vicinity  of  Abydos  on  the  Asiatic 
aide,  to  the  coast  between  Sestos  and  Abydos  on  the  European,  where  the 
straits  are  about  a  mile  in  width.  The  first  bridge  having  been  destroyed  by 


B.  ii.  673-689.]  PHARSALIA.  85 

passage  over  the  seas,  when,  daring  great  things,  with  his 
bridges  he  joined  both  Europe  to  Asia,  and  Sestos  to  Aby- 
dos1,  and  walked  over  the  straits  of  the  rapid  Hellespont, 
not  fearing  Eurus  and  Zephyrus ;  at  the  time  when  he  would 
have  borne  his  sails  and  ships  through  the  midst  of  Athos2. 
In  such  manner  are  the  inlets  of  the  deep  narrowed  by  the 
fall  of  the  woods ;  then  with  many  a  mound  the  work 
rises  apace,  and  the  tall  towers  vibrate  over  the  seas. 

Pompey,  seeing  the  inlets  of  the  deep  choked  up  with  land 
newly-formed,  vexed  his  mind  with  carking  cares  how  to  open 
the  sea,  and  to  spread  the  warfare  over  the  main.  Full  oft, 
filled  by  the  southern  gales,  and  dragged  by  extended  cables  3 
through  the  obstructions  of  the  sea  themselves,  ships  dashed 
down  into  the  salt  tide  the  summits  of  the  mass,  and 
made  room  for  the  barks4  to  enter;  the  balista,  too,  hurled 
by  stalwart  arms  amid  the  shades  of  night,  hurled  torches 
cleft  into  many  parts.  When  at  length  the  occasion 
suited  for  a  stolen  flight,  he  first  ordered  his  followers  that 
no  sailors'  clamour  should  arouse,  or  clarion  divide3  the 

a  storm,  the  despot  caused  the  heads  of  the  chief  engineers  to  be  cut  off,  and 
commanded  the  Straits  to  be  scourged,  and  a  set  of  fetters  to  be  cast  therein. 
A  new  bridge  was  then  formed  consisting  of  a  double  line  of  ships.  (See 
Herodotus,  B.  viii.  c.  36.) 

'  And  Sestos  to  Abydos)  ver.  674.  Sestos  and  Abydos  have  been  famed 
in  story  for  the  loves  of  Hero  and  Leander.  See  their  Epistles  in  the 
Heroides  of  Ovid. 

2  Through  tfte  midst  of  Alhos)  ver.  677.     Athos  is  a  mountain  which  was 
also  called  Acte,  projecting  from  Chalcidice   in  Macedonia.     Lucan   here 
alludes  to  the  canal  which  Xerxes  ordered  to  be  cut  through  the  Isthmus  of 
Mount  Athos,  from  the  Strymonic  to  the  Toronaic   Gulf,  that  his  ships 
might  pass  through;  the  remains  of   which   work  are  to  be  seen  at  the 
present  day.  . 

3  Dragged  by  extended  cables)  ver.  683.    They  were  not  only  impelled  by 
sails,  but  were  also  dragged  on  by  means  of  ropes  from  the  shore,  on  account 
of  their  unwieldy  size. 

4  Made  room  for  the  barks)  ver.  685.     Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  L 
c.  26,  gives  the  following  account  of  these  operations  : — "  To  counteract  this, 
Pompey  fitted  out  large  merchant  ships,  which  he  found  in  the  harbour  of 
Brundisium ;  on  them  he  erected  turrets  three  stories  high,  and,  having  fur- 
nished them   with  several  engines  and  all  sorts  of  weapons,  drove  them 
amongst  Caesar's  works,  to  break  through  the  floats  and  interrupt  the  works; 
thus  there  occurred  skirmishes  every  day  with  slings,  arrows,   and  other 
weapons." 

'  Or  clarion  divide)  ver.  689.  The  "buccina"  was  properly  a  trumpet 
made  from  the  conch-shell,  and  as  such,  in  the  hands  of  Triton,  is  described 


99  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  689-703. 

hoars,  or  trumpet  lead  the  sailors,  instructed  beforehand, 
out  to  sea. 

Now  had  the  Virgin,  towards  her  close1,  begun  to  precede 
the  claws  of  the  Scorpion  that  were  to  bring  on  Phoebus,  when 
in  silence  the  ships  were  unmoored.  No  .anchor  arouses 
then*  voices2  while  from  the  dense  sands  its  hook  is  being 
dragged.  While  the  sailyards  are  being  set  to  tJic  wind,  and 
while  the  lofty  pine-tree  mast  is  being  raised,  the  anxious 
masters  of  the  fleet  are  silent;  and  the  sailors,  hanging 
by  the  ropes,  unfurl  the  tightened  sails,  nor  shake  the 
stout  shrouds,  lest  the  air  should  breathe  a  whisper. 
The  chieftain,  too,  in  his  aspirations,  Fortune,  entreats, 
thee,  that  Italy,  which  thou  dost  forbid  him  to  re- 
tain, it  may  be  at  least  allowed  him  to  quit.  Hardly 
do  the  Fates  permit  it;  for  with  a  loud  noise,  impelled 
by  beaks  of  ships,  the  sea  re-echoes,  the  waters  dash, 
and  the  billows  with  the  tracks  of  so  many  ships  tliere 
intermingled3. 

by  Ovid  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  i.  1.  335,  et  seq.  In  after  times  it  was 
made  of  metal  to  resemble  the  shell.  It  was  probably  distinct  in  form  from 
the  "  cornu  ;"  but  is  often  confounded  with  it  As  mentioned  in  the  present 
instance,  it  was  used  chiefly  to  proclaim  the  watches  of  the  night  and  day, 
which  were  hence  called  "  buccina  prima,"  "  secunda,"  &c.  The  present 
orders  were  given  that  Caesar's  troops  might  not  be  put  on  the  alert. 

1  The  Virgin,  towards  her  dote)  ver.  691.  Weise  has  the  following  Note 
here : — "  The  time  after  midnight  is  meant,  before  the  dawn  and  the  rising 
of  the  sun,  which  the  Poet  describes  as  then  being  in  Sagittarius.  For  the 
'Chelae '  are  [the  claws]  of  the  Scorpion.  By  '  Virgo  ultima'  he  means  that 
part  of  the  constellation  Virgo  in  the  Zodiac  which  is  nearest  before  the  Scor- 
pion. At  this  hour  Pompey  sets  sail  from  the  harbour,  being  aided  by  the 
darkness.  The  meaning  of  the  Poet  seems  to  be  that  this  took  place  in  au- 
tumn, although  others  write  to  a  contrary  effect." 

3  jVb  anchor  arouses  their  voices)  ver.  694.  He  alludes  to  the  "celenima," 
or  call,  with  which  sailors  keep  time  in  heaving  the  anchor. 

*  Ship*  there  intermingUd)  ver.  703.  Caesar  gives  the  following  interesting 
account  of  this  escape  of  Pompey,  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  27,  26  : — "  Pom- 
pey now  began  to  prepare  for  his  departure  on  the  arrival  of  the  ships ;  and 
the  more  effectually  to  retard  Caesar's  attack,  last  his  soldiers  should  force 
their  way  into  the  town  at  the  moment  of  his  departure,  he  stopped  up  the 
gates,  built  walls  across  the  streets  and  avenues,  sunk  trenches  across  the 
ways,  and  fixed  on  them  palisadoes  and  sharp  stakes  which  he  made  level 
with  the  ground  by  means  of  hurdles  and  clay.  But  he  barricaded  with 
large  beams,  fastened  in  the  ground  and  sharpened  at  the  ends,  two  passages 
and  roads  without  the  walls,  which  led  to  the  port.  After  making  these 
arrangements,  he  ordered  his  soldiers  to  go  on  board  without  noise,  and  dis- 


B.  IT.  704-717.]  PHARSALIA.  87 

Therefore,  the  enemy  being  received  by  the  gates,  all  of 
which  throughout  the  city  attachment  changing  with  for- 
tune has  opened,  and  within  the  walls,  winding  along  the 
piers,  with  precipitate  course  seek  the  entrance  to  the  har- 
bour, and  are  vexed  that  the  fleet  has  reached  the  sea.  O 
shame  !  a  slight  victory  is  the  flight  of  Pompey ! 

A  narrow  pass  let  the  ships  out  to  sea,  more  limited 
than  the  Euboean  tide  where  it  beats  upon  Chalcis1.  Here 
stuck  fast  two  ships,  and  received  the  grappling-irons  pre- 
pared for  the  fleet ;  and  the  warfare  being  thus  dragged  to  - 
the  shore2,  here,  for  the  first  time,  did  Nereus  grow  red  with 
the  blood  of  citizens.  The  rest  of  the  fleet  departs,  de- 
spoiled of  the  two  last  ships ;  just  as,  when  the  bark  from 
Pagasse  *  sought  the  waves  of  Phasis,  the  earth  shot  forth 
the  Cyanean  rocks 4  into  the  deep ;  less  by  its  stern  torn  off 

posed  here  and  there,  on  the  walls  and  turrets,  some  light-armed  veterans, 
archers,  and  slingers.  These  he  designed  to  call  off  by  a  certain  signal,  when 
all  the  soldiers  were  embarked,  and  left  galleys  for  them  in  a  secure  place. 
The  people  of  Brundisium,  irritated  by  the  insolence  of  Pompey's  soldiers, 
and  the  insults  received  from  Pompey  himself,  were  in  favour  of  Caesar's 
party.  Therefore,  as  soon  as  they  were  aware  of  Pompey's  departure,  whilst 
his  men  were  running  up  and  down,  and  busied  about  their  voyage,  they 
made  signs  from  the  tops  of  the  houses;  Caesar,  being  apprised  of  the  design 
by  them,  ordered  scaling-ladders  to  be  got  ready  and  his  men  to  take  arms, 
that  he  might  not  lose  any  opportunity  of  coming  to  an  action.  Pompey 
weighed  anchor  at  nightfall.  The  soldiers  who  had  been  posted  on  the  wall 
to  guard  it,  were  called  off  by  the  signal  which  had  been  agreed  on,  and, 
knowing  the  road,  ran  down  to  the  ships." 

1  Where  it  beats  upon  Chalcis)  ver.  710.  He  compares  the  narrow  pas- 
sage leading  out  of  the  harbour  to  the  Enripus  or  Straits  of  Eubffia,  now  the 
straits  of  Negropont,  which  separated  it  from  the  main  land.  Chalcis  was  a 
city  of  Eubcea. 

a  To  the  shore)  ver.  712.  Caesar,  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  28,  gives  this 
account  of  their  capture  : — "  Caesar's  soldiers  fixed  their  ladders  and  scaled 
the  walls;  but,  being  cautioned  by  the  people  to  beware  of  the  hidden  stakes 
and  covered  trenches,  they  halted,  and  being  conducted  by  the  inhabitants 
by  a  long  circuit,  they  reached  the  port  and  captured  with  their  boats  and 
small  craft  two  of  Pompey's  ships,  full  of  soldiers,  which  had  struck  against 
Caesar's  moles."  The  "  manus,"  or  "  hands,"  mentioned  by  Lucan,  were 
probably  "  harpagones,"  or  "  grappling  irons." 

*  The  bark  from  Pagasce)  ver.  715.     He  speaks  of  the  expedition  of  Jason 
to  Colchis,  to  recover  the  Golden  Fleece,  in  the  ship  Argo,  which  was  built 
at  Pagasae  in  Thessaly. 

*  The  Cyanean  rocks)  ver.  716.     The  story  was,  that  when  Jason's  ship 
passed  between  the  Symplegades,  or  Cyanean  Islands,  which  floated  at  the 


88  PHARSALIA.  [B.  n.  717-736. 

did  the  Argo  escape  from  the  mountains,  and  in  vain 
did  the  Symplegas  strike  at  the  vacant  sea,  and,  destined 
to  stand,  it  bounded  back1. 

Now,  the  complexion  of  the  eastern  sky  no  longer  the  same 
warns  that  Phoebus  is  pressing  on,  and  the  pale  light  is  not 
yet  ruddy,  and  is  withdrawing  their  flames  from  the  nearer 
stars ;  and  now  the  Pleiades  -  are  dim,  now  the  Wain  of  the 
declining  Bootes :f,  growing  faint,  returns  to  the  appearance  of 
the  serene  heavens,  and  the  larger  stars  lie  hid,  and  Lucifer 
himself  flies  from  the  warm  day.  Now,  Magnus,  thou  hadst 
gained  the  open  sea,  not  bearing  with  thee  those  destinies 
which  thou  wast  wont,  when  over  the  waves  throughout  all 
seas  thou  didst  give  chase  to  the  pirate.  Exhausted  by  thy 
triumphs,  Fortune  has  forsaken  thee.  Banished  with  wife 
and  children,  and  dragging  all  thy  household  Gods  to  the 
warfare,  still,  a  mighty  exile  thou  dost  go,  nations  ac- 
companying thee. 

A  distant  spot  is  sought  for  thy  unworthy  downfall 4.  Not 
because  the  Gods  of  heaven  prefer  to  deprive  thee  of  a 
sepulchre  in  thy  native  land  are  the  Pharian  sands  con- 
demned to  be  thy  tomb.  It  is  Hesperia  that  is  spared  ;  in 
order  that,  afar  off,  in  a  remote  region,  Fortune  may  hide 
the  horrid  deed,  and  the  Roman  land  be  preserved  un- 
spotted by  the  blood  of  her  own  Magnus. 

-mouth  of  the  Euxine  Sea,  the  isles  closed  and  struck  off  the  stern  of  the 
Argo. 

1  Destined  to  stand,  it  bounded  bacl)  ver.  719.  It  was  ordained  by  the 
Fates  that  if  any  ship  should  pass  in  safety  between  the  Symplegades,  they 
should  ever  after  remain  fixed  to  one  spot. 

*  And  now  ike  Pleiades)  ver.  722.  The  Pleiades  were  the  daughters  of 
Atlas  and  Pleione.  They  were  changed  into  stars,  of  which  six  were  visible 
and  the  seventh  invisible,  because,  as  the  story  was,  when  on  earth  she  was 
united  to  a  mortal ;  whereas  her  sisters  had  intercourse  only  with  Divinities. 
The  Romans  called  them  "  Vergiliae." 

3  The   Wain  of  the  declining  Bob'te*)  ver.  722.     The  Constellation  before 
the  Great  Bear  was  called  Bootes,  Arcturus,  or  Arctophylax.     The  name 
Bootes  was  derived  from  the  position  of  the  star  before  the  wain,  resembling 
that  of  the  driver  of  a  team. 

4  For  thy  unworthy  downfall)  ver.  731.     The  meaning  is,  that  Egypt  is 
appointed  by  the  Fates  as  the  scene  of  the  death  of  Porapey. 


89 


BOOK  THE  THIKD. 

CONTENTS. 

While  Pompey  is  crossing  to  Greece,  the  ghost  of  Julia  appears  to  him  in  a 
dream,  and  predicts  the  devastating  nature  of  the  war,  1-35.  Pompey 
arrives  in  Epirus,  36-45.  Caesar  instructs  Curio  to  procure  corn  in  Sicily, 
46-70.  He  then  marches  to  Rome,  76-97-  The  alarm  at  Rome  de- 
scribed. The  hostility  of  the  Senate  to  Caesar.  Metellus  the  Tribune 
resists  the  spoilers  of  the  public  treasury,  98-133.  Caesar  threatens 
him,  134-140.  Gotta  advises  Metellus  to  yield,  141-152.  The  Temple 
is  opened,  and  the  treasure  is  carried  off,  153-168.  In  the  meantime 
Pompey  collects  forces  in  Greece  and  Asia,  which  are  enumerated,  169- 
297.  Caesar,  on  his  way  to  Spain,  repairs  to  Massilia,  which  has  remained 
faithful  to  Pompey,  298-303.  The  people  of  Massilia  send  deputies  to 
him,  deprecating  civil  war,  304-357.  Cassar  besieges  Massilia,  358-374. 
The  works  are  described,  374-398.  Caesar  commands  a  sacred  grove  to 
be  cut  down,  and  forces  the  soldiers,  though  reluctant,  to  do  so,  399-452. 
Departing  for  Spain,  he  entrusts  the  siege  to  Trebonius,  by  whom 
it  is  continued,  453-496.  The  Massilians  sally  .forth  by  night  and 
repulse  the  enemy,  497-508.  The  attack  is  now  carried  on  by  sea. 
Brutus  arrives  with  his  fleet,  509-537.  The  sea-fight  is  described,  538- 
751.  The  Massilians  are  vanquished,  and  Brutus  is  victorious,  752-762. 

WHEN  the  south  wind  pressing  upon  the  yielding  sails  urged 
on  the  fleet,  and  the  ships  set  in  motion  the  middle  of  the 
deep,  each  sailor  looked  upon  the  Ionian  waves ;  Magnus 
alone  did  not  turn  his  eyes  from  the  Hesperian  land,  while 
he  heheld  his  country's  harbours,  and  the  shores  des- 
tined never  to  return  to  his  gaze,  and  the  peaks  hidden  in 
clouds,  and  the  dim  mountains,  vanish.  Then  did  the 
wearied  limbs  of  the  chieftain  yield  to  sopor, ferous 
slumber.  Then,  a  ghost,  full  of  dread  horror,  Julia1  seemed 
to  raise  her  sorrowing  head  through  the  yawning  earth,  and 
to  stand  like  a  Fury2  above  the  lighted  pyre. 

"Exiled,"  said  she3,  "from  the  Elysian  abodes  and  the 

1  Jidia)  ver.  10.     His  former  wife,  the  daughter  of  Caesar. 

9  To  stand  like  a  Fury)  ver.  11.  The  term  "furialis"  is  used  because  it 
was  her  errand,  as  she  states  to  him,  to  follow  him  with  vengeance  through- 
out the  Civil  Warfare. 

*  Exiled,  saidslie)  ver.  12.  "Expulsa."  This  term  does  not  mean  that 
she  is  expelled  from  the  abodes  of  the  Blessed  by  force,  but  that  she  is 
aroused  by  the  portentousness  of  the  Civil  War,  and  is  unable,  from  the  inte- 
rest she  feels  in  it,  to  remain  there  any  longer. 


90  PHAR8ALIA.  [B.  m.  12-35. 

fields  of  the  Blessed,  unto  the  Stygian  shades  and  the  guilty 
ghosts,  since  the  civil  warfare  have  I  been  dragged.  I  my- 
self have  beheld  the  Eumenides  holding  torches,  the  which 
to  brandish  against  your  arms.  The  ferryman  of  scorched 
Acheron1  is  preparing  boats  innumerable,  and  Tartarus  is 
expanding  for  manifold  punishments.  Hardly  with  plying 
right  hand  do  all  the  Sisters  suffice  for  the  work ;  those 
who  are  breaking  their  threads  quite  weary  the  Destinies. 
While  I  was  thy  Avife,  Magnus,  thou  didst  head  the  joyous 
triumphal  processions;  with  thy  marriage  Fortune  has 
changed ;  and  ever  condemned  by  fate  to  drag  her 
mighty  husbands  to  ruin,  lo !  my  funereal  pile  stitt  warm, 
the  supplanter  Cornelia2  has  manned  tlitc. 

"  Let  her,  in  war  and  upon  the  deep,  adhere  to  thy 
standards,  so  long  as  it  is  allowed  me  to  break  thy  slumbers 
not  secure  from  care,  and  let  no  time  be  left  at  leisure  for 
your  love,  but  both  let  Ctesar  occupy  thy  days  and  Julia  thy 
nights 3.  Me,  husband,  not  the  obliviousness  of  the  Lethsean 
shore  has  made  forgetful  of  thyself,  and  the  princes  of 
the  dead  have  allowed  me  to  follow  thee.  Thou  waging 
the  warfare,  I  will  come  into  the  midst  of  the  ranks. 
Never,  Magnus,  by  the  Shades  and  by  my  ghost  shall 
it  be  allowed  thee  not  to  have  been  his  son-in-law.  In 
vain  dost  thou  sever  thy  ties  with  the  sword,  the  civic 
warfare  shall  make  thee  mine."  Thus  having  said,  the 
ghost,  gliding  away  through  the  embrace  of  her  trem- 
bling husband,  fled. 

1  The  ferryman  of  scorched  Acheron)  ver.  17.    Charon,  the  ferryman  of  hell. 

*  The  supplanter  Cornelia)  ver  23.  Cornelia  was  the  daughter  of  P.  Cor- 
nelius Scipio,  sometimes  called  Q.  Caecilius  Metellus  Scipio  on  account  of  his 
adoption  by  Q.  Metellus.  She  was  first  married  to  Crawus,  the  son  of  the 
Triumvir,  who  perished  with  his  father  in  the  Parthian  expedition.  In  the 
next  year  she  was  married  to  Pompej-,  shortly  after  the  death  of  his  wife 
Julia.  After  the  death  of  Pompey  she  was  pardoned  by  Caesar,  and  return- 
ing to  Rome,  received  from  him  the  ashes  of  her  husband,  which  she  pre- 
served on  his  Alban  estate.  The  usual  period  of  mourning  among  the  Ro- 
mans for  a  husband  or  wife  was  ten  months  (see  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  i. 
1.  86),  within  which  space  of  time  it  was  doomed  infamous  to  marry ;  Corne- 
lia, having  been  married  to  Pompey  very  shortly  after  Julia's  death,  is  conse- 
quently here  called  by  the  opprobioug  name  of  "  pellex,"  "  supplanter,"  or 
"  paramour." 

3  A  nd  Julia  thy  nights)  ver.  27.  By  haunting  his  thoughts  and  his 
dreams. 


B.  m.  36-61.]  PHARSALIA.  91 

He,  although  the  Deities  and  the  Shades  threaten  de- 
struction, rushes  the  more  boldly  to  arms,  with  a  mind 
assured  of  ill.  And,  "  Why,"  says  he,  "  are  we  alarmed 
at  the  phantom  of  an  unsubstantial  dream  ?  Either  there 
is  no  sense  left  in  the  mind  after  death,  or  else  death  itself 
is  nothing."  Now  the  setting  Titan  was  sinking  in  the 
waves,  and  had  plunged  into  the  deep  as  much  of  his  fiery 
orb  as  is  wont  to  be  wanting  to  the  moon,  whether  she  is 
about  to  be  at  full,  or  whether  she  has  just  been  full ; 
then  did  the  hospitable  land  present  an  easy  access  to 
the  ships ;  they  coiled  up  the  ropes,  and,  the  masts  laid 
down,  with  oars  they  made  for  the  shore. 

Csesar,  when  the  winds  bore  off  the  ships  thus  escaping, 
and  the  seas  had  hidden  the  fleet,  and  he  stood  the  sole 
ruler  on  the  Hesperian  shore,  no  glory  hi  the  expulsion  of 
Magnus  caused  joy  to  him ;  but  he  complained  that  the 
enemy  had  turned  their  backs  in  safety  upon  the  deep. 
Nor,  indeed,  did  any  fortune  now  suffice  for  the  eager 
hero  ;  nor  was  conquest  of  such  value  that  he  should  delay 
the  warfare.  Then  did  he  expel  from  his  breast  the  care 
for  arms  and  become  intent  upon  peace,  and  in  what 
manner  he  might  conciliate  the  fickle  attachment  of  the 
populace,  fully  aware  that  both  the  causes  of  anger  and  the 
highest  grounds  of  favour  originate  in  supplies  of  corn.  For 
it  is  famine  alone  that  makes  cities  free,  and  respect  is 
purchased  when  the  powerful  are  feeding  a  sluggish  multi- 
tude. A  starving  commonalty  knows  not  how  to  fear1. 

Curio  is  ordered  to  pass  over-  into  the  Sicilian  cities,  where 
the  sea  has  either  overwhelmed  the  land  with  sudden  waves  or 
has  cut  it  asunder  and  made  the  mid-land 3  a  shore  for  itself. 

!  Knows  not  how  to  fear)  ver.  58.     Being  always  ready  for  insurrection. 

4  Ordered  to  pats  over)  ver.  59.  The  movements  of  Caesar  at  this  con- 
juncture are  thus  related  by  himself  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  80:—"  There- 
fore, for  the  present,  he  relinquished  all  intention  of  pursuing  Pompey,  and 
resolved  to  march  to  Spain,  and  commanded  the  magistrates  of  the  free 
towns  to  procure  him  ships,  and  to  have  them  conveyed  to  Brundisiiim.  He 
detached  Valerius,  his  lieutenant,  with  one  legion  to  Sardinia ;  Curio,  the 
Propraetor,  to  Sicily  with  three  legions;  and  ordered  him,  when  he  had 
recovered  Sicily,  immediately  to  transport  his  army  to  Africa."  The  object  of 
Caesar  was,  as  Lucan  states,  to  procure  supplies  of  corn  from  Sardinia  and 
Sicily,  two  of  the  great  granaries  of  Rome. 

3  Made  Hie  mid-land)  ver.  61.    Has  made  that  which  was  the  middle  of  a 


92  PHARSALIA.  [u.  ra.  62-84. 

There,  is  a  vast  conflict  of  the  main,  and  the  waves  are 
ever  struggling,  that  the  mountains,  burst  asunder,  may 
not  reunite  their  utmost  verges.  The  war,  too l,  is  extended 
even  to  the  Sardinian  coasts.  Each  island  is  famous  for  its 
corn-bearing  fields  ;  nor  more  do  any  lands  fill  Hesperia  with 
harvests  brought  from  afar,  nor  to  a  greater  extent  supply 
the  Koman  granaries.  Hardly  in  fertility  of  soil  does  it 
excel  them,  when,  the  south  winds  pausing2,  Boreas  sweep- 
ing the  clouds  downwards  to  a  southern  clime,  Libya 
bears  a  plenteous  year  from  the  falling  showers. 

When  these  things  had  been  provided  for  by  the  chief- 
tain, then,  victorious,  he  repaired  to  the  abodes  of  his 
country,  not  bringing  with  him  bands  of  armed  men, 
but  having  the  aspect  of  peace.  Oh!  if  he  had  re- 
turned to  the  City,  the  nations  of  the  Gauls  and  the 
North  only  subdued,  what  a  long  line  of  exploits  might 
he  have  paraded  before  him  in  the  lengthened  procession 
of  triumph ',  what  representations  of  the  warfare !  How 
might  he  have  placed  chains  upon  the  Rhine  and  upon 
the  ocean!  How  high-spirited  Gaul  would  have  followed 
his  lofty  chariot,  and  mingled  with  the  yellow-haired 
Britons!  Alas!  by  conquering  still  more  what  a  triumph 
was  it4  that  he  lost!  Not  with  joyous  crowds  did  the 
cities  see  him  as  he  went  along,  but  silent  they  beheld 
him  with  alarm.  Nowhere  was  there  the  multitude  coming 
forth  to  meet  the  chieftain.  Still,  he  rejoiced  that  he  was 
held  in  such  dread  by  the  people,  and  he  would  prefer 
himself  not  to  be  loved. 

And  now,  too,  he  has  passed  over  the  steep  heights  of 

continent  into  sea-shore.  He  has  mentioned  in  the  Second  Book  the 
belief  that  Sicily  once  joined  the  continent  of  Italy. 

1  The  war,  too)  ver.  64.  Weise  thinks  that  "  bella"  does  not  here  literally 
mean  war,  but  "  ships  of  war,"  sent  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  corn  in  the 
isle  of  Sardinia.     See  the  Note  to  1.  59. 

2  The  south  winds  pausing)  ver.  68.     The  "  Austri,"  or  south  winds  of 
Africa,  brought  dry  weather  and  kept  away  the  fertilizing  showers. 

*  In  the  lengthened  procession  of  triumph)  ver.  75.     Lucan,  in  his  zeal, 
overlooks   the  fact  that  a  refusal  to  allow  Caesar  to  do  this,  or,  in  other 
words,  to  have  a  triumph  for  his  Gallic  wars,  was  one  of  the  main  causes 
which  led  him  to  engage  in  the  Civil  War. 

*  What  a  triumph  was  it)  ver.  79.     No  triumphs  were  permitted  for  con- 
quests in  civil  warfare. 


B.  ra.  84-103.]  PHAESALIA.  93 

Anxur1,  and  where  the  watery  way  divides  the  Pontine 
marshes.  Where,  too,  is  the  lofty  grove,  where  the  realms  of 
Scythian  Diana2 ;  and  where  there  is  the  road  for  the  Latian 
fasces :1  to  lofty  Alba.  Afar  from  a  lofty  rock  he  now 
views  the  City,  not  beheld  by  him  during  the  whole  period 
of  his  northern  wars ;  and,  thus  speaking,  he  admires  the 
walls  of  his  Rome : — 

"  And  have  there  been  men,  forced  by  no  warfare,  to  de- 
sert thee,  the  abode  of  the  Gods !  For  what  city  will  they 
fight?  The  Gods  have  proved  more  favouring  in  that  it  is 
no  Eastern  fury  that  now  presses  upon  the  Latian  shores, 
nor  yet  the  swift  Sarmatian  in  common  with  the  Pannonian, 
and  the  Getans  mingled  with  the  Dacians.  Fortune,  Borne, 
has  spared  thee,  having  a  chief  so  cowardly4,  in  that  the 
warfare  was  a  civil  one." 

Thus  he  speaks,  and  he  enters  Rome  stupefied  with 
terror ;  for  he  is  supposed  to  be  about  to  overthrow  the 
walls  of  Rome  as  though  captured,  with  dusky  fires,  and  to 
scatter  abroad  the  Gods.  This  is  the  extent  of  their  fear ; 
they  think  that  he  is  ready  to  do  whatever  he  is  able.  No 
festive  omens  are  there,  no  pretending  feigned  applause  with 
joyous  uproar;  hardly  is  there  time  to  hate.  The  throng 


1  Steep  heights  of  Anxur)  ver.  84.     Anxur,  which  was  the  former  name 
of  Terracina,  was  an  ancient  town  of  Latiuni,  situate  58  miles  to  the  south- 
east of  Rome,  on  the  Appian  Way,  and  upon  the  coast ;  it  had  a  citadel  on  a 
high  hill,  on  which  stood  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Anxurus. 

2  Realms  of  Scythian  Diana)  ver.  86.     He  alludes  to  the  town  of  Aricia 
at  the  foot  of  the  Alban  Mount,  on  the  Appian  Way,  about  16  miles  from 
Home.     In  its  vicinity  was  a  celebrated  grove  and  temple  of  Diana  Aricina, 
on  the  borders  of  the  Lacus  Neraorensis.     Diana  was  worshipped  here  in  a 
barbarous  manner.    Her  priest,  who  was  called  "  Rex  nemorensis,"  was  always 
a  runaway  slave,  who  obtained  his  office  by  slaying  his  predecessor,  and 
he  was  obliged  to  fight  with  any  slave  who  succeeded  in  breaking  off  a 
branch  of  a  certain  tree  in  the  sacred  grove.     The  worship  of  Diana  was 
said  to  have  been  introduced  here  from  the  Tauric  Chersonesus  by  Orestes 
and  his  sister  Iphigenia,  when  flying  from  the  cruelty  of  king  Thoas.     See 
the  story  related  in  the  Pontic  Epistles  of  Ovid,  B.  iii.  Ep.  2. 

3  Road  for  the  Latian  fasces)    ver.   87.      He  alludes  to  the  "  Latinae 
Periae,"  which  were  celebrated  by  the  Roman  Consuls  on  the  Alban  Mount. 
See  the  First  Book,  1.  550,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

4  Having  a  chief  so  cowardly)  ver.  96.     A  chief  so  timid  as  Pompey  hag 
proved  himself  by  his  flight. 


94  PHAESALIA.  [B.  m.  108-114. 

of  Senators  fills  the  Palatine  halls  of  Phoebus '  drawn  forth 
from  their  concealment,  by  no  right  of  convoking  the  Senate. 
The  sacred  seats  are  not  graced  with  the  Consul,  no  Prae- 
tor is  there,  the  next  power  according  to  law;  and  the 
empty  curule  seats  2  have  been  removed  from  their  places. 
Caesar  is  everything.  The  Senate  is  present,  witness  to 
the  words  of  a  private  person.  The  Fathers  sit,  prepared  to 
give  their  sanction,  whether  he  shall  demand  a  kingdom, 
•whether  a  Temple  for  himself,  the  throats,  too,  of  the 
Senate,  and  their  exile. 

Fortunate  was  it  that  he  blushed  at  commanding,  more 
than  Rome  did  at  obeying.  Still,  liberty,  making  the  ex- 
periment in  one  man  whether  the  laws  can  possibly  with- 
stand force,  gives  rise  to  anger ;  and  the  resisting  Metellus:<, 

1  Palatine  halls  of  Phoebus)  ver.  103.     On  arriving  at  Rome  Caesar  con- 
voked the  Senate — not  in  the  Senate-house,  but  in  the  Temple  of  Apollo,  on 
the  Palatine  hill. 

2  The  empty  cut-vie    seats)    ver.  107.      The  curule  seats   were  graced 
by  neither  the  Consuls  nor  the  Praetors,  as  they  were  in  arms  with  Pom- 
pey.    In  the  account  of  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  32,  Caesar  relates  what  he 
said  on  this  occasion.     He  excused  the  war  which  he  had  undertaken  as 
he  was  compelled  in  his  own  defence  to  protect  himself  against  the  malice 
and  envy  of  a  few,  and  at  the  same  time  requested  that  they  would  send 
messengers  to  Pompey  and  the   Consuls  to  propose  a  treaty  for  adjusting 
the  present  differences.     This  proposition  of  Caesar  is  suppressed  by  Lucan, 
who  throughout  endeavours  to  place  Caesar's  conduct  in  the  most  invidious 
light.    Caesar  tells  us,  c.  33,  "  The  Senate  approved  of  sending  deputies,  but 
none  could  be  found  fit  to  execute  the  commission ;  for  every  person  by  reason 
of  his  own  private  fears  declined  the  office.     For  Pompey,  on  leaving  the 
city,  had  declared  in  the  open  Senate,  that  he  would  hold  in  the  same  degree 
of  estimation  those  who  stayed  in  Rome  and  those  in  Caesar's  camp.     Thus 
three  days  were  wasted  in  disputes  and  excuses.     Besides,  Lucius  Metellus, 
one  of  the  Tribunes,  was  suborned  by  Caesar's  enemies,  to  prevent  this,  and 
to  embarrass  everything  else  which  Caesar  should  propose." 

1  The  resisting  Metellus)  rer.  114.  This  was  L.  Caecilins  Metellus  Cre- 
ticus,  the  Tribune  of  the  people,  and  one  of  the  adherents  of  Pompey.  Re- 
maining behind  in  the  City  on  the  approach  of  Caesar,  he  did  not  fly  with 
Pompey  and  the  rest  of  his  party.  The  public  treasury  of 'Rome  was  in  the 
Temple  of  Saturn,  in  which  Appian  states  that  there  was  a  large  sum  of 
money  especially  deposited  as  a  fund  to  defray  the  expenses  of  any  war  that 
night  arise  from  the  Gauls  invading  the  Roman  territory.  Caesar  laid  hands 
on  this,  alleging  that  as  he  bad  conquered  the  Gauls  there  was  no  longer  any 
use  for  it.  Metellus  attempted  to  prevent  him,  but  he  drew  his  sword  in  an 
attitude  of  menace,  saying,  "  Young  man,  it  is  as  easy  to  do  this  as  to  say 
it.''  It  is  supposed  that  this  was  the  same  Metellus  who  fought  on  the  side 


8.  ni.  115-140.J  PHAESALIA.  -8S 

when  he  beholds  the  Temple  of  Saturn  being  forced  open 
by  vast  efforts,  hurries  his  steps,  and  bursting  through  the 
troops  of  Csesar,  takes  his  stand  before  the  doors  of  the 
Temple  not  yet  opened.  (To  such  a  degree  does  the  love 
of  gold  alone  know  not  how  to  fear  the  sword  and  death. 
Swept  away,  the  laws  perish  with  no  contest;  but  thou, 
pelf,  the  most  worthless  portion  of  things,  dost  excite  the 
contest;)  and,  forbidding  the  conqueror  the  plunder,  the 
Tribune  with  loud  voice  addresses  him  : 

"  Only  through  my  sides  shall  the  Temple  struck  by  thee 
be  opened,  and,  plunderer,  thou  shalt  carry  off  no  scattered 
wealth  except  by  shedding  sacred  blood.  Surely  this  violated 
power  will  find  the  Gods  its  avengers.  The  Tribune's  curse, 
too  \  following  Crassus  to  the  warfare,  prayed  for  the  direful 
battles.  Now  unsheathe  the  sword ;  for  the  multitude  is 
not  to  be  regarded  by  thee,  the  spectator  of  thy  crimes  :  in 
a  deserted  City  do  we  stand.  No  soldier  accursed  shall 
bear  off  his  reward  from  our  Treasury ;  nations  there  are  for 
thee  to  overthrow,  walls  for  thee  to  grant.  Want  does  not 
drive  thee  to  the  spoils  of  exhausted  peace;  Caesar,  thou 
hast  a  war  of  thy  own."2 

The  victor,  aroused  by  these  words  to  extreme  anger, 
exclaims,  "  Thou  dost  conceive  vain  hopes  of  a  glorious 
death :  my  hand,  Metellus,  shall  not  pollute  itself  with  that 
throat  of  thine.  No  honor  shall  make  thee  deserving  of  the 
resentment  of  Csesar.  Has  liberty  been  left  safe,  thee  its 
assertor?  Not  to  that  degree  has  length  of  tune  con- 
founded the  highest  with  the  lowest,  that  the  laws,  if 
they  are  to  be  preserved  by  the  voice  of  Metellus,  would 
not  prefer  by  Cffisar  to  be  uprooted." 

of  Antony  against  Augustus,  and  on  being  taken  prisoner  was  pardoned  at 
the  intercession  of  his  son,  who  had  sided  with  Augustus. 

1  The  Tribune's  curse,  too)  ver.  127.  C.  Ateius  Capito  and  Aquillius  Gallus, 
the  Tribunes  of  the  people,  were  the  opponents  of  Pompey  and  Crassus  when 
Consuls.  They  endeavoured  to  stop  the  levy  of  troops  and  to  render  the  cam- 
paigns which  they  wished  to  undertake  impossible ;  Crassus,  however,  conti- 
nuing to  make  preparation  for  an  expedition  against  the  Parthians,  Capito 
uttered  curses  against  him,  and  announced  the  appearance  of  dreadful  prodi- 
gies, which  were  disregarded  by  Crassus.  The  overthrow  and  death  of 
Crassus  were  by  many  looked  upon  as  the  result  of  his  disregard  of  the 
•warnings  of  Capito. 

*  A  war  of  tky  ovm)  ver.  133.  You  have  the  war  in  Gaul,  in  which  you 
may  gain  sufficient  spoil. 


96  PHARSALIA.  [B.  ra.  141-160. 

He  spoke,  and,  the  Tribune  not  yet  retreating  from  the 
door,  his  anger  became  more  intense;  he  looked  around 
upon  the  ruthless  swords,  forgetful  to  pretend  that  there  was 
peace l.  Then  did  Cotta-  persuade  Metellus  to  desist  from 
his  too  audacious  purpose.  "  The  liberty  of  a  people,"  said 
he,  "  which  a  tyrant's  sway  is  ruling,  perishes  through 
excess  of  liberty ;  of  it  thou  mayst  preserve  the  shadow,  if 
thou  art  ready  to  do  whatever  thou  art  commanded.  To 
so  many  unjust  things  have  we,  conquered,  submitted ;  this 
is  the  sole  excuse  for  our  shame  and  our  degenerate  fears, 
that  nothing  can  possibly  now  be  dared.  Quickly  let  him 
carry  off  the  evil  incentives  to  direful  warfare.  Injuries 
move  the  people,  if  any  there  are,  whom  then*  laws  pro- 
tect. Not  to  ourselves,  but  to  our  tyrant,  is  the  poverty 
dangerous  that  acts  the  slave." 

Forthwith,  Metellus  led  away,  the  Temple  was  opened 
wide.  Then  did  the  Tarpeian  rock  re-echo,  and  with  a  loud 
peal  attest  that  the  doors  were  opened ;  then,  stowed  away 
in  the  lower  part  of  the  Temple,  was  dragged  up,  un- 
touched for  many  a  year,  the  wealth  of  the  Roman  people, 
which  the  Punic  wars  ',  which  Perseus 4,  which  the  booty  of 
the  conquered  Philip5,  had  supplied;  that  which,  Rome, 
Pyrrhus  left  to  thee  in  his  hurrying  flight,  the  gold  for 


1  That  tfiere  was  peace)  ver.  143.     "Togam;"  literally,  the  "toga"  or 
gown,  worn  by  citizens  in  the  time  of  peace,  and  consequently  employed  aa 
the  emblem  of  peace. 

2  Then  did  Cotta)  ver.  143.     This  was  L.  Aurelius  Cotta,  a  relative  of 
Aurelia,  the  mother  of  Caesar,  to  whose  party  he  belonged  in  the  Civil  War. 
He  had  been  Consul,  Praetor,  and  Censor,  and  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Cicero, 
by  whom  he  is  much  praised  as  a  man  of  great  talent  and  extreme  prudence. 
Lucan  is  probably  in  error  in  representing  him  as  unwillingly  submitting  to 
Caesar. 

3  Which  the  Punic  tears)  ver.  157.  At  the  end  of  the  first  Punic  war  the 
Carthaginians  were  obliged  to  pay  1200  talents,  and  of  the  second  10,000. 

4  Which  Perseus)  ver.  158.     Perses,  or  Perseus,  the  last  king  of  Mace- 
don,  was  conquered  by  Paulus  .iEmilius,  B.C.  188.     The  booty  was  of  im- 
mense value,  and  was  paid  into  the  Roman  treasury,  much  to  the  chagrin  of 
the  soldiers,  who  were  so  indignant  at  their  small  share  of  the  plunder,  that 
it  was  not  without  much  opposition  that  .V.imlius  obtained  his  triumph. 

*  Of  the  conquered  Philip)  ver.  158.  Philip  the  Fifth,  king  of  Macedon, 
•was  conquered  by  Quintus  Flamininus,  who  acquired  a  large  amount  of 
booty,  and  celebrated  a  magnificent  triumph  which  lasted  three  days.  Philip 
was  the  father  of  Perseus. 


B.  m.  160-175.]  PHARSALIA.  97 

which  Fabricius  did  not  sell  himself1  to  the  king,  whatever 
you  saved,  manners  of  our  thrifty  forefathers ;  that  which,  as 
tribute,  the  wealthy  nations  of  Asia2  had  sent,  and  Mino'ian 
Crete3  had  paid  to  the  conqueror  Metellus ;  that,  too,  which 
Cato  brought  from  Cyprus 4  over  distant  seas.  Besides,  the 
wealth  of  the  East,  and  the  remote  treasures  of  captive  kings, 
which  were  borne  before  him  in  the  triumphal  processions 
of  Pompey5,  were  carried  forth;  the  Temple  was  spoiled 
with  direful  rapine ;  and  then  for  the  first  time  was  Home 
poorer  than  Csesar6. 

In  the  meantime  the  fortune  of  Magnus  throughout 
the  whole  earth  has  aroused  to  battle  the  cities  destined  to 
fall  with  him.  Greece  near  at  hand  affords  forces  for  the 
neighbouring  war.  Amphissa  sends7  Phocian  bands,  the 
rocky  Cirrha8  too,  and  Parnassus  deserted  on  either 
mountain  ridge.  The  Boeotian  leaders  assemble,  whom 
the  swift  Cephisus9  surrounds  with  its  fate-foretelling 

1  Fabricius  did  not  sell  himself)  ver.  160.  He  alludes  to  the  vain  attempt 
made  by  Pyrrhus,  king  of  Epirus,  when  he  invaded  Italy,  to  bribe  C.  Fabri- 
cius Luscinus.  The  money,  according  to  Lucan,  being  left  behind,  was  put 
in  the  public  treasury. 

8  The  wealthy  nations  of  Asia)  ver.  162.  He  probably  alludes  to  treasures 
acquired  from  Antiochus,  king  of  Syria,  and  Attalus,  king  of  Pergamus, 
the  latter  of  whom  made  the  Roman  people  his  heirs. 

3  And  Minolan  Crete)  ver.  163.  Crete,  formerly  the  kingdom  of  Minos, 
was  subdued  by  Q.  Metellus  Creticus. 

*  Cato  brought  from  Cyprus)  ver.  164.     The  island  of  Cyprus  was  made 
a  Roman  province  in  the  year  B.C.  58,  and  M.  Porcius  Cato  was  sent  to 
reduce  it  to  submission.     The  money  which  he  had  collected  there  was  put 
in  the  public  treasury,  and  afterwards  fell  into  Caesar's  hands.     It  was  said 
to  have  amounted  to  7000  talents. 

*  Triumphal  processions  of  Pompey)   ver.  166.     Those  which  he  had 
gained  from   Mithridates,  king  of  Pontus,  Tigranes,  king  of  Armenia,  and 
Aristobulus,  king  of  Judaea. 

*  Poorer  than  Caesar)  ver.  168.    Caesar,  in  consequence  of  the  large  sums 
which  he  had  expended  in  promoting  his  interests,  was  now  greatly  in  debt. 

7  Amphissa  sends)  ver.  172.  Amphissa,  now  Salona,  was  one  of  the 
chief  towns  of  the  Ozolian  Locrians,  on  the  borders  of  Phocis,  seven  miles  from 
Delphi. 

*  The  rocky  Cirrha)  ver.  172.     Cirrha  was  a  town  of  Phocis,  a  country  of 
Greece  between  .aJtolia  and  Boeotia,  in  which  was  the  mountain  of  Par- 
nassus, the  fountain  of  Hippocrene  and  Helicon,  and  the  city  of  Delphi. 

*  The  swift  Cephims)  ver.  175.     The  Cephisus  here  alluded  to  was  the 
chief  river  of  Boeotia  and  Phocis,  rising  near  Lilxa  in  the  latter  country, 

H 


98  PHARSALIA.  [B.  m.  175-182. 

waters.  Cadmean  Dirce,  too1,  and  the  bands  of  Fisae2, 
and  the  Alpheus3  that  sends  beneath  the  main  its  waters  to 
the  peoples  of  Sicily.  Then  does  the  Arcadian  leave 
Msenalus4,  and  the  Trachynian  soldier  Herculean  (Eta*. 
The  Thesprotians 6  and  the  Dryopians7  rush  on,  and  the 
ancient  Sellse8  forsake  the  silent  oaks  on  the  Chaonian 
heights.  Although  the  levy  has  exhausted9  the  whole  of 
Athens,  three  little  barks  keep  possession  of  the  Phoebean 

and  falling  into  the  lake  Copais.  Its  waters  are  called  "  fatidica  "  from  its 
rising  in  Phocis,  in  which  was  situate  Delphi,  the  oracle  of  Apollo. 

1  CAdmean  Dirce,  too)  ver.  175.  Dirce  was  a  fountain  near  Thebes,  which 
city  was  founded  by  Cadmus,  the  son  of  Agenor,  king  of  Phoenicia. 

a  The  bandt  of  Pitce)  ver.  176.  Pisa  was  a  city  of  Elis,  near  which  the 
Olympic  games  were  celebrated. 

3  And  the  AlpJteus)  ver.  177.    The  Alpheus  was  a  river  of  Arcadia,  famed 
in  story  for  his  love  for  Arethusa,  a  water  nymph  of  Sicily,  and  fabled  to 
have  passed  under  the  earth  from  Greece  to  Sicily.     See  the  story  related  in 
the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  v.  1.  487  and  576,  et  seq. 

*  Leave  Mcenalus)  ver.   177.     Maenalus  was  the  name  of  a  mountain 
and  a  wood  in  Arcadia,  in  the  Peloponnesus,  sacred  to  Pan. 

4  Herculean  (Eta)  ver.  178.    (Eta  was  the  name  given  to  a  pile  of  moun- 
tains in  the  south  of  Thessaly.     It  was  on  one  of  these,  that,  according  to 
ancient  mythology,  Hercules  put  himself  to  death,  by  burning  on  his  funeral 

S'le.     See  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  Book  z.     Tracbyn  was  also  called 
eraclea,  and  was  celebrated  as  having  been  for  a  time  the  residence  of 
Hercules.     It  was  a  town  of  Thessaly,  situate  in  the  district  Malis.     There 
was  another  of  the  same  name  in  Phocis. 

*  TJie  Thesprotians)  ver.  179.     The  Thesproti  were  a  people  on  the  coast 
of  Epirus.     They  were  said  to  have  been  the  most  ancient  race,  and  to  have 
derived  their  name  from  Thesprotus,  the  son  of  Lycaon. 

7  And  the  Dryopiant)  ver.  179.  The  Dryopes  dwelt  first  in  Thessaly, 
and  afterwards  in  Doris.  Being  driven  thence  by  the  Dorians,  they  migrated 
to  other  countries,  and  settled  in  Peloponnesus,  Euboea,  and  Asia  Minor. 

*  And  tlte  ancient  Sella)  ver.  180.     The  Sellae  were  probably  a  people  of 
Chaonia,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dodona,     The  priests  of  the  Temple  ef 
Jupiter  there  were  called  Selli  or  Helli.     The  will  of  the  Divinity  was  said 
to  be  declared  by  the  wind  rustling  through  the  oaks ;  and  in  order  to  render 
the  sounds  more  distinct,  brazen  vessels  were  suspended  on  the  branches  of 
the  trees,  which,  being  set  in  motion  by  the  wind,  came  in  contact  with  ona 
another.     The  oracle,  as  mentioned  by  Lucan,  had  now  been  long  extinct, 
for  in  the  year  B.C.  219  the  Temple  was  destroyed  by  the  JEtolians,  and  the 
•acred  oaks  cut  down. 

9  The  levy  hat  exhausted)  ver.  181.  This  passage  has  greatly  puzzled 
the  commentators,  but  the  sense  is  pretty  evidently  that  suggested  by  Cor- 
tius :  "Although  it  was  but  a  levy,  still  it  exhausted  the  resources  of 
Athens,  which  was  now  weak,  and  but  thinly  inhabited." 


B.  in.  182-190.]  PHAESALIA.  99 

dockyards1,  and  demand  Salamis  to  be  believed  as  true2. 
Now,  beloved  by  Jove:i,  ancient  Crete  with  its  hundred 
peoples  resorts  to  arms,  both  Gnossus  skilled4  at  wielding 
the  quiver,  and  Gortyna  not  inferior  to  the  arrows  of  the 
East  •'. 

Then,  too,  he  who  possesses  Dardanian  Oricum6,  and 
the  wandering  Athamanians7  dispersed  amid  the  towering 
woods,  and  the  Enchelians8  with  then*  ancient  name,  who 
witnessed  the  end  of  the  transformed  Cadmus,  the  Colchian 

1  Phcebean  dockyards)  ver.  182.     The  dockyards  of  Athens  are  probably 
called  "  Phcebea  "  from  the  circumstance  of  Minerva,  the  tutelar  Divinity  of 
Athens,  having  dedicated  the  Piraeus  to  Apollo,  as  she  did  the  Areopagus  or 
Hill  of  Justice  to  Mars. 

2  Salamis  to  be  believed  as  true)  ver.  183.     The   levy  has  so  weakened 
Athens,  that  there  are  only  three  ships  of  war  left  in  the  harbour,  to  ask 
you  to  believe  that  this  is  the  maritime  state  which  once  vanquished  the  Per- 
sians at  the  battle  of  Salamis.     These  three  ships  of  war  may  probably  have 
been  those  which  were  used  for  sacred  or  state  purposes,  namely,  the  Theoris, 
which  performed  a  yearly  voyage  to  Delos  ;  the  Paralos,  which,  according  to 
the  Scholiast  on  Aristophanes,  was  sent  to  Delphi  or  other  places  on  sacred 
missions  ;  and  the  Salaminia,  which,  according  to  Plutarch,  was  used  for  the 
conveyance  of  those  summoned  from  abroad  for  trial. 

3  Note,  beloved  by  Jove)  ver.  184.     Crete  was  said  to  have  been  the  birth- 
place of  Jupiter,  and,  according  to    some   accounts,  he  was  buried  there. 
Minos,  its  first  king  and  lawgiver,  was  the  son  of  Jupiter  by  Europa. 

4  Both  Gnossus  skilled)  ver.  185.     Gnossus  and  Gortyna  were  two  of  the 
famed  hundred  cities  of  Crete.     Its  inhabitants  were  noted  for  their  skill  in 
archery. 

5  To  the  arrows  of  Hie  East)  ver.  186.     By  the  word  "  Eoi's"  he  refers  to 
the  Parthians,  who  were  remarkable  for  their  expertness  in  the  use  of  the 
bow,  even  on  horseback. 

*  Dardanian  Oricum)  ver.  187.  Oricum  or  Oricus  was  a  Greek  town  on 
the  coast  of  Illyria,  near  the  Ceraunian  Mountains  and  the  frontiers  of  Epirus. 
According  to  the  tradition  here  followed  in  the  use  of  the  word  "  Darda- 
nium,"  it  was  founded  by  Helenus,  the  son  of  Priam,  who  had  then  become 
the  husband  of  Andromache.  Another  account  was  that  it  was  founded  by 
the  Eubceans,  who  were  cast  here  by  a  storm  on  their  return  from  Troy ;  while 
a  third  legend  stated  that  it  was  a  Colchian  colony. 

7  The  -wandering  Atfiamanians)  ver.  188.     By  the  use  of   the   word 
"  Athamas,"  he  means  the  "  Athamanes,"  a  race  living  on  the  mountains  of 
Epirus. 

8  And  the  Enchelians)  ver.  189.     The  Enchelise  were  a  people  of  Illyria, 
into  whose  country  Cadmus  and   his  wife  Harmonia  retiring,  were  changed 
into  snakes  or  dragons.     Lucan  says  that  they  received  their  name  from  this 
circumstance:   ly^tAuj  being  the  Greek  name  for  a  kind  of  serpent.    See 
Ovid's  Metamorphoses,  B.  iv.  1.  563,  et  seq. 

H  2 


100  PHARSALIA.  [B.  ra.  190-204. 

Absyrtis,  too1,  that  foams  down  to  the  Adriatic  tide,  and 
those  who  cultivate  the  fields  of  Peneus2,  and  by  whose 
labours  the  Thessalian  ploughshare  cleaves  Hsemonian 
lolcos.  From  that  spot  for  the  first  time  was  the  sea  at- 
tempted when  the  untaught  Argo:l  mingled  unknown  races 
upon  a  polluted  sea-shore4,  and  first  committed  the  mortal 
race  to  the  winds  and  the  raging  waves  of  the  ocean, 
and  through  that  bark  one  more  death  was  added  to  the 
destinies  of  man.  Then  Thracian  Hsemus  is  deserted,  and 
Pholoe'  that  feigned6  the  two-formed  race.  Strymon  is 
abandoned6,  accustomed  to  send  the  Bistonian  birds  to  the 
warm  Nile,  and  the  barbarian  Cone7,  where  one  mouth  of 
the  Ister,  divided  into  many  parts,  loses  the  Sarmatian 
waves,  and  washes  Peuce  sprinkled  by  the  main ;  Mysia, 
too 8,  and  the  Idalian  land  bedewed  by  the  cold  Caicus  °,  and 

1  The  Cotchian  Absyrtis,  too)  ver.  190.    He  alludes  to  the  two  islands  off 
the  coast  of  Illyri.i  called  Absyrtides,  where  the  Colchian  Medea  was  said 
to  have  slain  her  brother  Absyrtus.    It  was,  however,  more  generally  believed 
that  this  took  place  at  Tomi,  whither  Ovid  was  banished,  on  the  shores  of 
the  Pontus  Euzinus.     The  Absyrtis  was  probably  a  river  at  the  mouth  of 
which  these  islands  were  situate. 

2  The  fields  of  Peneus)  ver.  191.     The  Peneus  was  a  river  of  Thessaly, 
of  which  lolcos  was  a  seaport,  from  which  the  Argonauts  set  sail  for  Colchis 
in  the  ship  Argo. 

3  The  untaught  Argo)  ver.  193.     The  Argo  was  said  to  have  been  the 
first  ship  launched  on  the  sea  by  mankind. 

4  A  polluted  sea-shore)  ver.  194.     The  shore  might  be  considered  polluted 
or  guilty,  by  reason  of  Medea's  undutiful  conduct  to  her  father  and  her  other 
iniquities.     In  navigating  the  Argo,  mankind  for  the  first  time  incurred  the 
peril  of  shipwreck. 

•  And  Pholoe  that  feigned)  ver.  198.     This  was  a  mountain  forming  the 
boundary  between  Arcadia  and   Elis.     It  was  famed  as  having  been  one 
of  the  abodes  of  the  Centaurs. 

•  Strymon  is  abandoned)  ver.  199.     The  Strymon  was  a  river  of  Thrace, 
•whose  banks  were  frequented  by  large  flocks  of  cranes,  which  were  said  to 
migrate  to  Egypt  in  the  winter  season. 

'  And  the  barbarian  Cone)  ver.  200.  Cone  was  an  island  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Ister  or  Danube.  Peuce  was  also  an  island  of  Moesia,  formed  by 
the  two  southern  mouths  of  the  Danube.  It  was  inhabited  by  the  Peucini, 
a  tribe  of  the  Bastarnae.  Lucan  speaks  here  of  its  being  washed  by  only 
one  mouth  of  the  Danube. 

8  Mysia,  too)  ver.  203.  Mysia  was  an  extensive  district  of  Asia  Minor, 
in  which  Troy  was  situate. 

•  By  the  cold  Catcus)   ver.  203.     The  Caicus  was  a  river  of  Mysia 
that  flowed  past  Troy  and  the  foot  of  Mount  Ida. 


B.  m.  204-215.]  PHARSALIA.  101 

Arisbe1  very  ban-en  in  its  soil.  Those,  too,  who  inhabit 
Pitane2,  and  Celsense^,  which,  Pallas,  condemned  when 
Phoebus  was  victor,  laments  thy  gifts,  ^here,  too,  the  swift 
Marsyas "*  descending  with  his  straight  banks  approaches  the 
wandering  Mseander,  and,  mingling,  is  borne  back  again ; 
the  land,  too,  that  permits  the  Pactolus5  to  flow  forth  from 
its  gold-bearing  mines,  not  less  invaluable  than  which  the 
Hermus  divides0  the  fields.  The  bands  of  Ilium,  too,  with 
omens  their  own7,  seek  the  standards  and  the  camp  doomed 
to  fall ;  nor  does  the  story  of  Troy  restrain  them,  and  Csesar 
declaring  himself8  the  descendant  of  Phrygian  lulus. 

The  nations  of  Syria  came ;  the  deserted  Orontes 9,  and 
Kinos  so  wealthy 10  (as  the  story  is),  and  windy  Damascus11, 

1  And  Arisbe)  ver.  204.     Arisbe  was  a  small  town  situate  in  the  Troad. 

2  Who  inhabit  Pitane)  ver.  205.     Pitane  was  a  seaport  town  of  Mysia, 
on  the  shores  of  the  Elaitic  gulf,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Evenus,  or,  according 
to  some,  of  the  Cai'cus.     It  was  the  birth-place  of  the  Academic  philosopher 
Arcesilaiis. 

3  And  Celanai)  ver.  206.     Celsenae  was  a  great  city  of  southern   Phry- 
gia,  which  lay  at  the  sources  of  the  rivers  Mseander  and  Marsyas.     Near  the 
source  of  the  latter  river  there  was  a  grotto  which  was  said  to  have  been 
the  scene  of  the  punishment  of  Marsyas  by  Apollo.     After  he  had  been 
flayed  alive,  his  skin  was  hung  up  in  the  town  of  Celaenae.     The  story  of  the 
musical  contest  between  Apollo  and  Marsyas  is  told  in  Ovid's  Metamorphoses, 
B.  vi.  1.  383. 

4  The  swift  Marsyas)  ver.  207.     This  river  was  said  to  have  been  formed 
by  the  tears  which  were  shed  by  the  rural  Deities  in   sympathy  for  the 
tragical  death  of  Marsyas. 

5  Permits  the  Pactolus)  ver.  209.  The  Pactolus  was  a  river  of  Lydia  in 
Asia  Minor,  said  to  have  golden  sands.     The  word  "passa,"  "allowing"  or 
"  permitting/'  is  used,  inasmuch  as  flowing  forth  from  the  mines  it  would  tend 
to  waste  the  precious  metal. 

6  Tfa  Hermus  divides)  ver.  210.     The  Hermus  was  another  river  of 
Lydia,  which  was  also  said  to  have  golden  sands. 

7  With  omens  their  own)  ver.  212.    "  Ominibus  suis ;"  meaning  "  with  their 
usual  ill-luck,"  that  of  being  conquered,  whenever  they  had  recourse  to  arms. 

8  Caesar  declaring  himself)  ver.   213.     Julius  Caesar  boasted   of  being 
descended  from  lulus  or  Ascanius,  the  son  of  JEneas,  through  the  kings  of 
Alba  Longa. 

9  The  deserted  Orontes)  ver.  214.     He  means  the  country  about  the  river 
Orontes,  which  flowed  past  Antioch  in  Syria. 

10  And  Ninos  so  wealthy)  ver.  215.     Ninus  or  Nineveh,  according  to 
Scripture,  was  founded  by  Nimrod.     According  to  profane  historians,  it  was 
founded  by  Ninus,  the  husband  of  Semiramis. 

11  The  windy  Damascus)  ver.  215.     Damascus  in  Coele-Syria  is  probably 


102  PHAESALIA.  [B.  ra.  216-225. 

and  Gaza1,  and  Idumsea2  rich  in  its  groves  of  palms.  Un- 
stable Tyre  as  well3,  and  Sidon  precious  with  its  purple  dye. 
These  ships  did  thje  Cynosure  conduct4  to  the  warfare  by 
no  winding  track  along  the  sea,  more  certain  for  no  other 
barks.  The  Phoenicians  first,  if  belief  is  given  to  report, 
ventured  to  represent  in  rude  characters  the  voice  destined 
to  endure.  Not  yet  had  Memphis  learned  to  unite5 
the  rushes  of  the  stream;  and  only  animals  engraved 
upon  stones,  both  birds  and  wild  beasts,  kept  in  ex- 
istence the  magic  tongues".  The  forest,  too,  of  Taurus  is 

called  "  ventosa "  from  the  circumstance  of  its  being  situate  on  a  plain  and 
exposed  to  the  winds.  Notwithstanding  this  epithet,  it*  situation  it  con- 
sidered one  of  the  finest  in  the  globe. 

1  And  Gaza)  ver.  216.  There  were  two  cities  of  the  name  of  Gaza. 
One  -was  the  strongly-fortified  city  of  the  Philistines,  so  called,  on  the  sea- 
coast,  while  the  other  was  a  city  in  the  Persian  province  of  Sogdiana. 

3  And  Idumcea)  ver.  216.  Idnmaea  in  the  later  Jewish  history  and 
the  Roman  annals  means  the  southern  part  of  Judea  and  a  small  part  of  the 
northern  part  of  Arabia  Petraea,  extending  beyond  the  ancient  Edom  of 
Scriptnre. 

3  Unstable  Tyre  ax  toell)  ver.  217.      The  famous  city  of  Tyre  was  on 
the  sea-coast  of  Syria  :  at  this  period  it  had  considerably  fallen  from  its 
opulence.     According  to  some,  h  is  called  "  instabilis  "  from  its  liability  to 
earthquakes,  while  others  would  have  the  word  to  mean  "  fickle  "   or  "-de- 
ceitful."    Virgil  speaks  in  the  First  Book   of  the  JEncid   of  the  "  Tyrii 
bilingnes,"  "  the  double-tongued  Tyrians."    Sidon  was  the  neighbour  of  Tyre, 
and  the  rival  of  its  commercial  enterprise  and  opulence.     These  cities  were 
famed  for  the  production  of  the  "  mnrex  "  or  purple  dye  extracted  from  the 
•hell-fish  so  called,  which  was  extremely  valuable. 

4  Did  the  Cynomn  conduct)  ver.  219.     The  Constellation  of  the  Lesser 
Bear  was  called  Cynosnra  from  Ki/vo,-  eiaa  "  the  Dog's  tail,"  the  stars  in  their 
sequence  being  fancifully  thought  to  resemble  that  object.     According,  how- 
ever, to  another  account,  Cynosure  was  the  name  of  a  nymph  who  nursed 
Jupiter  on   Mount  Ida,  and  for  that  service  was  raised  to  the  stars.     The 
Phoenicians  of  Tyre  and  Sidon,  in  navigating  the  ocean,  took  their  observa- 
tions from  this  Constellation,  while  the  Greeks  for  that  purpose  used  Helice 
or  the  Greater  Bear.     See  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  iii.  L  107,  el  ttq. 

*  Memphis  learned  to  unite)  ver.  222.     fie  means  that  the  Phoenicians 
were  the  inventors  of  the  art  of   writing,  before  it  was  known  to  the 
Egyptians,  who  had  not  then  discovered  the  art  of  making  paper  from  the 
byblus  or  papyrus,  and  only  knew  the  use  of  hieroglyphics,  which  they 
carved  on  stone. 

•  Kept  in  existence  the  magic  tongues)  ver.  224.     By  "magicas  lingua*  " 
he  probably  means  the  secrets  known  to  the  priesthood  of  Egypt,  who  pro- 
fessed to  be  skilled  in  the  magic  art. 


B.  m.  225-237.]  PHABSALIA.  103 

deserted,  and  Persean  Tarsus1,  and  the  Corycian  cave2 
opening  with  its  rocks  worn  away.  Mallus3  and  remote 
^Egte4  resound  with  their  dockyards,  and  the  Cilician  ship5 
goes  forth  obedient  to  the  law,  no  longer  a  pirate  now. 

The  rumour,  too,  of  the  warfare  has  moved  the  corners  of 
the  East,  where  Ganges  is  worshipped,  who  alone  through- 
out all  the  world  dares  to  discharge  himself  by  a  mouth 
opposite"  to  the  rising  sun,  and  impels  Ms  waves  towards 
the  opposing  eastern  winds ;  here  it  was  that  the  chieftain 
from  Pella7,  arriving  beyond  the  seas  of  Tethys,  stopped 
short,  and  confessed  that  he  was  conquered  by  the  vast  earth. 
Where,  too,  Indus  carrying  along  his  rapid  stream  with  di- 
vided flood  is  not  sensible  of  the  Hydaspes  mingling"  with 
his  waters.  Those  also,  who  drink  the  sweet  juices 9  from  the 

1  And  Persean  Tarsus)  ver.  225.     Tarsus  was  a  very  ancient  city  of 
Syria.     According  to  the  tradition  here  alluded  to,  it  was  founded   by 
Perseus,  the  son  of  Jupiter  and  Danae,  and  was  said  to  have  been  so  called 
from  the  Greek  <ra.giro;,  "  a  hoof,"  which  the  winged  horse  Pegasus   was 
said    to  have  lost  there.      Other  accounts  ascribe   its   foundation  to   the 
Assyrian  king  Sardanapalus.     It  was  the  birth-place  of  St.  Paul. 

2  A  nd  the   Corycian  cave)  ver.  226.     Corycus  was  a  city  of   Cilieia. 
About  two  miles  from  it  there  was  a  cave  or  glen  in  the  mountains,  called 
the  "  Corycian  cave,"  celebrated  by  the  Poets,  and  famous  for  its  saffron. 
There  was  another  Corycian  cave  in  Mount  Parnassus,  also  famed  as  a  retreat 
of  the  Muses. 

'J  Mallux)  ver.  227.  Mallus  was  an  ancient  city  of  Cilieia,  said  to  have 
been  founded  at  the  time  of  the  Trojan  war  by  Mopsus  and  Amphilochus. 

4  And  remote  ASffce)  ver.  227.  .ZEgse  was  a  seaport  town  of  Cilieia. 
There  were  also  towns  of  the  same  name  in  Achaia,  Macedonia,  Euboea,  and 
Jiolia. 

4  And  the  Cilician  ship)  ver.  228.  The  Cilician  pirates,  in  return  for 
the  clemency  they  had  experienced  from  Pompey  when  conquered  by  him, 
espoused  his  cause  against  Caesar. 

6  By  a  mouth  opposite)  ver.  230.     He  probably  means  that  the  Ganges 
was  the  only  river  that  discharged  itself  into  the  Eastern  Ocean,  whence  the 
sun  was  supposed  to  rise.     This  river  is  still  an  object  of  worship  by  those 
who  live  upon  its  banks. 

7  The  chieftain  from  Pella)  ver.   233.     He  alludes  to   Alexander  the 
Great,  who  was  born  at  Pella  in  Macedonia,  and  who  paused  in  his  conquests 
at  the  Eastern  Ocean.     The  remark  is  intended  as  a  reproach  against  his 
inordinate  ambition  in  wishing  that  there  was  another  world  for  him  to 
conquer. 

8  The  Hydaspes  mingling)  ver.  236.    The  Hydaspes,  now  called  the  Jelum, 
•was  the  most  northerly  of  the  five  great  tributaries  of  the  Indus.     Thifl 
river  formed  the  limit  of  Alexander's  progress  in  Asia. 

9  Drink  the  sweet  juices)  ver.  287.     Salmasius,  rather  perversely,  thinks 


104  PHAKSALIA.  [a  ni.  237-248. 

tender  cane,  and  those,  who,  tinting  their  hair1  with  the 
yellow  drug,  bind  their  flowing  linen  garments 2  with  coloured 
gems.  Those  also,  who  build  up  their  own  funereal  pyres, 
and,  alive,  ascend  the  heated  piles3.  Oh !  how  great  a  glory 
is  it  to  this  race  to  hasten  their  fate  by  their  own  hands, 
and,  full  of  life,  to  present  to  the  Deities  what  still  remains ! 
The  fierce  Cappadocians  come;  the  people,  now  inha- 
bitants of  the  hardy  Amanus4,  and  the  Armenian  who 
possesses  the  Niphates 5  that  rolls  down  rocks ;  the  Coatrse 6 
have  quitted  the  woods  that  touch  the  skies.  You,  Arabians, 
have  come  into  a  world  to  you  unknown,  wondering  how 
the  shadows  of  the  groves  do  not  fall  on  the  left  hand7. 

that  reference  is  here  made  to  the  manna  or  aerial  honey  of  the  Arabians ; 
whereas  Yossius  and  most  others  agree  that  it  refers  to  the  extraction  of 
sugar  from  the  sugar-cane  by  the  natives  of  India.  Annan,  in  his  Feriplus 
of  the  Erythraean  Sea,  speaks  of  the  Indians  as  drinking  honey  from  canes, 
called  •'  sacchari,'  clearly  alluding  to  sugar. 

1  Tinting  their  hair)  ver.  238.  He  speaks  of  the  tribes  of  India  as  not 
only  using  dyes  for  staining  their  hair  of  a  golden  hue,  but  using  girdles  or 
zones  decked  with  precious  stones  of  various  colours. 

*  Flowing  linen  garments)  ver.  239.  Under  the  name  "carbasa"  he 
probably  alludes  to  fine  textures  of  cotton  or  linen,  or  perhaps  silk,  used 
by  the  natives  of  India. 

3  Alive,  ascend  the  heated  piles)  ver.  240.     He  alludes  to  the  Brahmins 
and  their  ceremony  of  Suttee  or  burning  alive.     Calanus,  who  is  called  by 
the  Greek  writers  one  of  the  Gymnosophists  of  India,  was  one  of  this  class, 
and  burnt  himself  on  a  pyre  in  the  presence  of  the  whole  Macedonian  army. 

4  Of  the  hardy  Amanus)  ver.  244.     Amanus  was  a  mountain  of  Cilicia. 
He  probably  speaks  of  the  natives  of  Cilicia,  being  now  the  "  cultores,"  "  in- 
habitants" or  "  tillers"  of  the  land,  in  contradistinction  to  their  former  roving 
and  piratical  habits. 

5  Possesses  the  Wiphates)  ver.  245.     Niphates  was  a  mountain  chain  of 
Armenia,  forming  a  prolongation  of  the  Taurus  from  where  it  is  crossed  by 
the  Euphrates. 

6  The  Coatrce)  ver.  246.     The  Coatrae  were  a  nation  living  in  the  moun- 
tains, probably  between  Assyria  and  Media.    Virgil,  in  the  Georgics,  B.  ii. 
1.  124,  speaks  of  the  height  of  their  trees  as  such  that  no  arrow  could 
pass  over  them. 

7  Do  not  fall  on  the  left  hand)  ver.  248.     That  is  to  say,  on  the  left 
hand   or  southward,   if   they  stood  facing  the  west.      Under  the  name 
"  Arabes  "  he  intends  to  include  the  ^Ethiopians  and  other  nations  living  on 
or  near  to  the  Equator.     He  probably  alludes  to  the  story  told  by  Pliny  in 
his  Natural  History,  B.  vi.  1.  22,  relative  to  the  inhabitants  of  Tapro- 
bana  or  Ceylon.     Their  ambassadors,  who  came  to  Rome  to  pay  homage  to 
Claudius,  were  especially  surprised  to  see  their  shadows  fall  northward,  and 
not  towards  the  south,  as  in  their  own  country. 


B.  m.  249-262.]  PHARSALIA.  105 

Then  did  the  Roman  frenzy  influence  the  extreme  Oretee ', 
and  the  Caramanian  chieftains3,  whose  sky  declining  towards 
the  south'1,  heholds  Arctus  set,  but  not  the  whole  of  it;  and 
there  the  swiftly-moving  Bootes  shines  but  a  small  part  of 
the  night.  The  region,  too,  of  the  ./Ethiopians,  which  would 
not  be  overhung  by  any  portion  of  the  sky  that  bears  the 
Constellations4,  did  not,  his  knee  inclining  downward,  the 
extremity  of  the  hoof  of  the  bending  Bull  extend  beyond 
the  Zodiac.  And  where  with  the  rapid  Tigris 5  the  vast 
Euphrates  takes  his  rise,  streams  which  Persia  sends  forth 
from  no  different  sources ;  and  it  is  uncertain,  if  the  earth 
were  to  mix  the  rivers,  which  name  in  preference  there  would 
be  for  the  waters.  But,  spreading  over  the  fields  the  fertile 
Euphrates  performs  the  part  of8  the  Pharian  waves ;  while 
the  earth  with  a  sudden  chasm  sucks  up  the  Tigris7,  and 

1  The  extreme  Oretee)  ver.  249.     The  Oritae,  Oretae,  or  Orse,  were  a 
people  of  Gedrosia  who  inhabited  the  coast  of  a  part  of  India  now  called 
Urboo  in  Beloochistan. 

2  Caramanian  chieftains)  ver.    250.     The   Caramanians    inhabited   the 
modern  Kirman,  a  province  of  the  ancient  Persian  empire,  bounded  on  the 
south  by  the  Indian  Ocean. 

3  Declining  towards  the  south)  ver.  250.     He  means  that  the  elevation 
of  the  North  Pole  is  so  very  small  in  those  regions  that  those  Constellations 
which  never  set  with  us,  appear  there  but  very  little  above  the  horizon. 

4  Sky  that  bears  the  Constellations)  ver.  254.     By  "  signiferi  poli "  he 
means  the  Zodiac,  and  intends  to  say  that  ^Ethiopia  lies  beyond  that  part 
of  the  earth  which  is  beneath  the  Zodiac,  except  that  the  hoof  of  the  Con- 
stellation Taurus  projects  over  it. 

*  With  the  rapid  Tigris)  ver.  256.  Though  they  do  not  rise  in  the  same 
spot,  both  the  Euphrates  and  the  Tigris  rise  in  the  mountains  of  Armenia  ; 
and  opposite  the  city  of  Seleucia  they  come  within  200  stadia,  or  about  20 
miles,  of  each  other.  They  then  recede  from  each  other,  and  unite  about 
60  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Persian  Gulf.  The  Poet  means  to  say  that 
they  are  both  such  mighty  streams,  and  so  nearly  equal  in  size,  that  if  they 
were  united  it  would  be  difficult  to  say  which,  as  the  smaller,  would  lose 
its  name  in  the  larger.  We  may  here  remark  that  Lucan  is  frequently  very 
incorrect  in  his  geographical  descriptions. 

8  Performs  the  part  of)  ver.  260.  He  means  that  the  Euphrates,  by 
overflowing,  like  the  Nile,  fertilizes  the  country  through  which  it  passes. 

7  Suds  up  the  Tigris)  ver.  261.  Seneca  and  some  others  of  the -ancient 
writers  mention  that  the  Tigris  disappears  in  its  course,  and  then  reappears 
in  all  its  magnitude.  It  sinks  under  one  of  the  mountains  of  the  Taurus  chain, 
and,  having  traversed  underground  25  miles,  reappears.  One  of  the  Scholiasts 
has  in  his  commentary  on  this  line  preserved  three  lines  composed  by  the 
Emperor  Nero  on  the  Tigris.  As  they  are  nowhere  else  to  be  found,  they 
deserve  to  be  quoted : — 


106  PHABSALIA.  [B.  in.  262-274. 

conceals  his  hidden  course,  and  does  not  exclude  the  river 
born  again  from  a  new  source  from  the  waters  of  the  sea. 

Between  die  ranks  of  Ceesar  and  the  opposing  standards 
the  warlike  Parthians  held  a  neutral  ground,  content  that 
they  had  made  them  but  two1.  The  wandering  tribes  of 
Scythia  dipped  their  arrows,  whom  Bactros2  encircles  with 
its  icy  stream,  and  Hyrcania3  with  its  vast  forests.  On 
this  side  the  Lacedaemonian  Heniochi4,  a  nation  fierce  in 
wielding  the  rein,  and  the  Sarmatian,  the  neighbour  of  the 
savage  Moschi5.  Where  the  Phasis  cleaves  the  most  wealthy 
fields  of  the  Colchians ;  where  runs  the  Halys fi  fatal  to 
Croesus ;  where  falling  from  the  Ehipsean  heights  the  Tanais 
has  given 7  the  names  of  different  parts  of  the  world  to  its 

"  Quique  pererratam  subductus  Persida  Tigris 
Demerit,  et  longo  terrarum  tracing  hiatu, 
Reddit  quaesitas  jam  non  quserentibus  undas."  . 

"  And  the  Tigris,  which,  traversing  beneath  Persia  passed  through,  forsakes 
it,  and,  travelling  in  prolonged  chasms  of  the  earth,  restores  its  waters  that 
were  sought  for  to  those  now  seeking  them  no  longer." 

1  Made  them,  lut  two)  ver.  266.     Content  to  have  reduced  their  number 
to  two  and  thus  embroiled  the  Roman  world,  by  slaying  Crassus  at  Carrhae ; 
who,  while  he  lived,  was  the  mediator  between  Caesar  and  Pompey. 

2  Whom  Bactros)    ver.   267.     Bactros  was  the  name  of  the  river  that 
flowed  by  Bactra  (now  Balkh),  the  capital  of  the  ancient  Bactria,  which 
occupied   the   locality   of  the    modern    Bokhara.      It   was   conquered    by 
Alexander  the  Great.     Lucan  is  hardly  correct  in  representing  these  tribes 
as  preparing  for  the  war,  as  they  had  been  conquered  by  the  Parthians,  whom 
he  has  just  described  as  being  neutral.     The  Bactrians  were  a  wild  and  war- 
like race,  and  probably  used  poisoned  arrows,  as  here  represented. 

3  And  Hyrcatiia)  ver.  268.     Hyrcania  was  a  fertile    produce    of  the 
ancient  Persian  empire.     Like  Bactria  it  was  at  this  time  under  the  Par- 
thian rule,  whose  kings  often  resided  in  it  during  the  summer. 

4  Tlie  Lacedamonia.il  Heniochi)   ver.  269.     He  calls  the   Heniochi,  a 
people  of  Colchis,  Lacedaemonii,  because  the  colony  was  said  to  have  been 
founded   by   Amphitus   and    Telchius,  Lacedaemonians,  the  charioteers  of 
Castor  and  Pollux.     The  story  probably  arose  from  the  fact  of  the  word 
Heniochi  in  Greek  signifying  "  charioteers." 

*  Of  the  savage  Moschi)  ver.  270.  The  Moschi  were  a  people  of  Asia, 
whose  territory  was  originally  iu  Colchis,  but  in  later  times  extended  into 
Iberia  and  Armenia. 

6  Wl&re  runt  the  Halys)  ver.  272.     The  Halys  was  a  river  which  served 
as  the  boundary  between  Lydia  and  Media.     It  was  rendered  famous  from 
the  oracle  given  to   Croesus,   the  wealthy  king  of  Lydia,  that,  "passing 
over  the  Halys,  be  should  overthrow  a  mighty  empire."     This  be  took  to  be 
the  kingdom  of  Media,  but  the  event  proved  that  it  was  his  own,  which 
was  conquered  by  Cyrus. 

7  The  Tanais  has  given)  ver.  273.     Or  the  river  Don,  which  was  usually 


B.  m.  -274-286.]  PHARSALIA.  107 

banks,  and,  the  same  boundary  both  of  Europe  and  of  Asia, 
cutting  through  the  confines  of  the  mid  part  of  the  earth, 
now  in  this  direction,  now  hi  that,  whichever  way  it  turns, 
enlarges  the  world1. 

Where,  too,  the  flowing  strait  pours  forth  the  waves  of 
Meeotis,  and  the  Euxine  sea  is  borne  away,  a  vaunt  wrested 
from2  the  limits  of  Hercules,  and  denies  that  Gades  alone3 
admits  the  ocean.  In  this  part  the  Essedonian  nations4, 
and  thou,  Arimaspian5,  tying  thy  locks  bound  up  with 
gold ;  in  this  the  bold  Arian,  and  the  Massagetan6  satisfying 
the  long  fast  of  Sarmatian  warfare  with  the  horse  on  which 
he  flies,  and  the  rapid  Geloni7. 

Not,  when  Cyrus  leading  forth  his  forces  from  the  Mem- 
nonian  realms8,  and  with  his  troops  counted  by  the  throwing 
of  their  darts,  the  Persian  came  down9,  and,  when  the  avenger 

considered  to  be  the  boundary  between  Europe  and  Asia.  This  river  rises 
in  the  centre  of  Russia. 

1  Enlarges  the  world)  ver.  276.  Where  it  extends  within  the  Asiatic  line 
it  widens  Europe  as  it  were,  and  the  same  with  regard  to  Asia. 

a  A  vaunt  wrested  from)  ver.  278.  The  meaning  is  that  the  Pontus 
Euxinus  (now  the  Black  Sea)  by  its  magnitude  detracts  from  the  glories  of 
the  pillars  of  Hercules  (now  Gibraltar)  by  pouring  into  the  Mediterranean  a 
body  of  water  almost  as  large. 

3  Tltat  Gades  alone)  ver.  279.     Gades  was  founded  by  the  Phoenicians. 
It  occupied  the  site  of  the  present  Cadiz. 

4  The  Essedonian  nations)  ver.  280.     According  to   Pliny,  the    Esse- 
doniang  were  a  people  of  Scythia,  near  the  Palus  Mseotis  or  sea  of  Azof. 

*  And  tfiou,  jirimtispmn)  ver.  281.  The  Arimaspi  were  a  people  of 
Scythia,  who  were  fabled  to  have  but  one  eye.  They  were  said  to  live  on 
the  banks  of  a  river  of  the  same  name,  whose  sands  produced  gold.  They 
had  also  gold-mines,  said  to  be  watched  by  griffins. 

6  And  the  Massagetan)  ver.  283.     The  Massagetee  were  said  to  be  in 
the  habit,  when  overtaken  by  hunger,  of  opening  veins  in  the  "bodies  of 
their  horses  and  sucking  the  blood. 

7  And  the  rapid  Geloni)    ver.    283.      The  <jreloni  were  a  people   of 
Scythia  who  dwelt  in   Asiatic  Sarmatia,  east  of  the  Tanais.     They  were 
said  to  have  been  of  Grecian  origin.     The  Arii  were  the  inhabitants  of  a 
part  of   the  ancient  Persian  empire,   -which  is  now  the  eastern   part   of 
Khorasan  and  to  the  west  of  Afghanistan. 

8  From  the  Memnonian  realms)  ver.  284.     He  calls  the  realms  of  Cyrus 
the  Great,  king  of  Persia,  "  Memnonian,"  from  Memnon,  who  was  the  son 
of  Aurora,  and  was  fabled  to  have  come  from  Ethiopia,  which  was  considered 
as  a  part  of  the  east,  to  the  Trojan  war. 

9  Tlte  Persian  came  down)  ver.  286.     Under  the  name  "Perses"  he 
alludes  to  Xerxes,  the  king  of  Persia,  and  his  memorable  expedition  against 
Greece.     Herodotus  tells  us  that  in  order  to  count  the  numbers  of  his  army, 


108  PHARSALIA.  [u.  m.  286-305. 

of  his  brother's  love1  beat  the  waves  with  so  many  fleets, 
did  sovereigns  so  numerous  have  one  leader.  Nor  ever  did 
races  unite  so  varied  hi  their  dress,  languages  of  people  so 
different.  Nations  thus  numerous  did  Fortune  arouse  to 
send  as  companions  in  his  mighty  downfall,  and  as  obsequies 
worthy  of  the  end  of  Magnus.  Horn-bearing  Ammon  *  did 
not  delay  to  send  the  Marmarian  troops3  to  the  warfare; 
however  far  parched  Libya  extends  from  the  western  Moors, 
even  to  the  Pareetonian  Syrtes 4  on  the  eastern  shores.  Lest 
fortunate  Caesar  might  not  meet  with  all  at  once,  Pharsalia 
gave  the  whole  world  to  be  subdued  at  the  same  moment. 

He,  when  he  quitted  the  walls  of  trembling  Rome,  swept 
across  the  cloud-capt  Alps  with  his  hastening  troops ;  and 
while  other  nations  were  alarmed  with  terror  at  his  fame, 
the  Phocsean  youth5  amid  doubtful  fortunes  dared  to  pre 
serve  their  fidelity6  with  no  Grecian  fickleness,  and  their 
plighted  faith,  and  to  adhere  to  the  cause  and  not  the  fortune. 
Yet  first  they  attempted  with  peaceful  words  to  modify  the 

he  commanded  each  soldier  as  he  passed  by  in  review  to  discharge  an  arrow, 
by  counting  which  he  might  have  an  exact  account  of  their  numbers. 

1  Avenger  of  his  brother's  love)  ver.  286.    This  was  Agamemnon,  who  led 
the  Greek  forces  to  Troy  to  avenge  the  injury  done  by  Paris  to  the  affections 
of  his  brother  Menelaus  in  carrying  off  his  wife. 

2  Horn-bearing  Ammon)  ver.  292.     The  country  situate  near  the  Temple 
of  Jupiter  Ammon  in  Libya,  where  Jupiter  was  worshipped  under  the  form 
of  a  ram. 

3  The  Marmarian  troops)  ver.  293.     The  Marmaridne  were  the  inhabit- 
ants of  Marmarica,  a  district  between  Cyrenaica  and  Egypt,  and  extending 
inland  as  far  as  the  Oasis  of  Ammon. 

4  .The  Parcetonian  Syrtes)  ver.  295.     Paraetonium  was  a  city  of  Egypt, 
situate  at  one  of  the  mouths  of  the  Nile.     The  meaning  of  this  circumlocu- 
tion is,  that  all  the  nations  extending  from  Mauritania  to  Egypt  sided  with 
Pompey. 

4  Tlte  Phoccean  youth)  ver.  301.  We  may  here  remark  that  Lucan  re- 
peatedly uses  the  word  "  juventus  "  to  signify  "  an  army,"  or  the  fighting 
men  of  a  place ;  as,  among  the  Romans,  from  the  age  of  seventeen  to  forty- 
six,  men  were  considered  to  be  "  juvenes,"  and  were,  as  such,  liable  to  mili- 
tary service. 

*  Dared  to  preserve  their  fidelity)  ver.  301.  He  alludes  to  the  inhabitants 
of  Massilia,  on  the  same  site  as  the  present  city  of  Marseilles,  in  the  south 
of  France.  It  was  founded  by  a  colony  of  Phocaeans  from  Asia  Minor  about 
B.C.  600.  Lucan  falls  into  the  error  of  confounding  these  with  the  inhabitants 
of  Phocis  in  Greece ;  and  in  the  present  instance  he  compliments  them  on 
not  showing  the  usual  "  Graia  levitas,"  the  fickleness  or  want  of  good  faith 
for  which  the  Greeks  were  proverbially  notorious. 


B.  m.  305-336.]  PHAKSALIA.  109 

impetuous  wrath  and  stubborn  feelings  of  the  hero,  and,  a 
branch  of  the  Cecropian  Minerva l  being  borne  before,  they 
entreated  the  approaching  enemy  in  these  terms : — 

"  That  always  hi  foreign  wars  Massilia  took  part  in 
common  with  your  people,  whatever  age  is  comprehended 
in  the  Latian  annals,  that  same  bears  witness.  And  now,  if 
in  an  unknown  world  thou  art  seeking  any  triumphs,  receive 
the  right  hands  that  are  pledged  to  foreign  warfare.  But  if, 
discordant,  you  are  preparing  a  deadly  strife,  if  direful  battles, 
to  civil  arms  we  give  our  tears  and  our  dissent.  By  our 
hands  let  no  accursed  wounds  be  meddled  with.  If  to  the 
inhabitants  of  heaven  fury  had  given  arms,  or  if  the  earth- 
born  Giants  were  aiming  at  the  stars,  still  not  either  by 
arms  or  by  prayers  would  human  piety  presume  to  give  aid 
to  Jove ;  and  the  mortal  race,  ignorant  of  the  fortunes  of  the 
Gods,  only  by  his  lightnings  would  be  sensible  that  still  the 
Thunderer  reigns  hi  heaven.  Besides,  nations  innumerable 
are  meeting  together  on  every  side,  nor  does  the  slothful 
world  so  shudder  at  the  contact  of  wickedness  that  the  civil 
war  stands  in  need  of  coerced  swords. 

"  Would,  indeed,  that  there  were  the  same  feelings  in  all, 
that  they  would  refuse  to  hurry  on  your  destiny,  and  that  no 
strange  soldier  would  wage  these  battles.  On  beholding  his 
parent,  whose  right  hand  will  not  grow  weak  ?  Brothers,  too, 
on  opposite  sides,  will  forbear  to  hurl  the  darts.  An  end  is 
there  to  your  state,  if  you  do  not  wage  war  with  those 3 
with  whom  it  is  lawful.  This  is  the  sum  of  our  prayer ; 
leave  the  threatening  eagles  and  the  hostile  standards  afar 
from  the  city,  and  be  willing  to  entrust  thyself  to  our  walls, 
and  permit,  Cffisar  being  admitted,  the  warfare  to  be  shut- 
out. Let  this  place,  exempt  from  crime,  be  safe  to  Magnus 
and  to  thee,  that,  if  fate  wishes  well  to  the  unconquered  City, 
if  a  treaty  pleases,  there  may  be  a  place  to  which  you  may 
repair  unarmed. 

"  Or  else,  when  the  dangers  so  great  of  the  Iberian  warfare 

1  A  branch  of  the  Cecropian  Minerva)  ver.  306.  A  branch  of  olive,  the 
symbol  of  peace,  sacred  to  Minerva. 

8  Wage  war  with  those)  ver.  328.  "  Arma  committere  "  here  most  pro- 
bably means  "to  engage"  or  "fight;"  and  "illis"  is  the  ablative  plural. 
Most  of  the  commentators  take  the  phrase  to  mean  "  to  entrust  arms  to,"  or 
"  put  arms  in  the  hands  of,"  and  make  "  illis"  the  dative  plural 


110  PHABSALIA.  [B.  m.  336-355. 

invite  you,  why  do  you  turn  aside  to  us  in  your  rapid  march? 
We  are  of  no  weight  in  affairs,  we  are  not  of  moment,  a 
multitude  that  never  has  enjoyed  prospering  arms,  exiled 
from  the  original  abodes  of  our  country,  and,  after  the  towers 
of  burnt  Phocis1  were  transferred  safe  on  foreign  shores, 
within  humble  walls,  whom  fidelity  alone  makes  renowned 
If  by  siege  thou  dost  prepare  to  block  up  our  walls,  and  by 
force  to  break  through  our  gates,  we  are  prepared  to  receive 
on  our  roofs  the  torches  and  the  darts,  to  seek,  the  streams 
being  turned  aside,  draughts  of  water  rescued2  from  your 
force,  and,  thirsting,  to  suck  at  the  dug  up  earth ;  and,  if 
bounteous  Ceres  should  fail,  then  with  stained  jaws  to  eat 
things  horrid  to  be  looked  upon  and  foul  to  be  touched. 
Nor  does  this  people  fear  to  suffer  for  liberty  that  which 
Saguntum,  besieged3  in  the  Punic  warfare,  underwent. 
Torn  from  the  bosoms  of  their  mothers,  and  vainly  drawing 
at  the  breasts  dried  up  with  thirst,  the  children  shall  be 
hurled  into  the  midst  of  the  flames.  The  wife,  too,  from 
her  dear  husband  shall  demand  her  death.  Brothers  shall 
exchange  wounds,  and  by  compulsion  this  civil  war  in  pre- 
ference will  they  wage."4 

1  Towers  of  burnt  Phocis)  ver.  340.  By  the  word  "Phocis"  here,  they 
properly  mean  Phocaea  in  Asia  Minor,  from  which  their  ancestors  had  been 
expelled  by  Harpagus,  the  general  of  Cyrus  the  Great,  on  which  they  colo- 
nized Massilia.  See  the  note  to  1.  301. 

*  Draughts  of  water  rescued)  ver.  345.  "  Haustus  raptos,"  water  with- 
drawn from  them  by  turning  the  streams  out  of  their  course. 

3  Saguntum,  besieged)  ver.  350.     Sagimtnm  was  a  city  of  Spain,  on  the 
site  of  the  present  Murviedro.     It  was  faithful  to  the  Romans,  and  was  be- 
sieged by   Hannibal  for  eight  months  in  the  second   Punic  war.     When 
taken,  the  inhabitants  set  fire  to  the  city  and  threw  themselves  and  their 
wives  and  children  into  the  flames. 

4  In  preference  will  they  vxtge)  Ter.   355.     Caesar  gives  the  following 
account  of  this  interview  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  i.  I.  35.     Having  heard  that 
I)omitius  Ahenobarbus,  whom  he  had  lately  released,  had  been  ordered  to 
seize  Massilia,  he  hastened  thither  from  Rome.     "  Caesar  sent  for  fifteen  of 
the  principal  persons  of  Massilia  to  attend  him.     To  prevent  the  war  com- 
mencing there,  he  remonstrated  to  the  effect  that  they  ought  to  follow  the 
precedent  set  by  all  Italy,  rather  than  submit  to  the  will  of  any  one  man  ; 
and  made  use  of  such  other  arguments  as  he  thought  would  tend  to  bring 
them  back  to  reason.    The  deputies  reported  this  speech  to  their  countrymen, 
and  by  the  authority  of  the  state  brought  back  this  answer: — '  That  they 
understood  that  the  Roman  people  were  divided  into  two  factions;  that  they 


B.  ra.  355-374.]  PHAKSALIA.  Ill 

Thus  does  the  Grecian  youth  make  an  end ;  when,  now 
betrayed  by  his  agitated  features,  the  anger  of  the  chieftain 
at  length  in  a  loud  voice  testifies  his  sorrow : — 

"  Vainly  does  assurance  of  my  haste  encourage  you  Greeks. 
Even  though  we  should  be  speeding  onward  to  the  furthest 
regions  of  the  west,  still  there  is  time  to  raze  Massilia.  Kejoice, 
ye  cohorts ;  by  the  favour  of  the  Fates  a  war  is  presented 
before  you.  As  the  wind  loses  its  strength  unless  the  dense 
woods  meet  it  with  their  oaks,  being  dissipated  in  empty 
space ;  so  it  is  harmful  to  me  that  foes  should  be  wanting ; 
and  we  think  it  an  injury  to  our  arms,  unless  those  who 
could  be  conquered  rebel.  But  if  I  go  alone,  degenerate, 
with  arms  laid  aside,  then  are  their  dwellings  open  to  me. 
Now,  not  so  much  to  shut  me  out,  but  to  inclose  me,  do  they 
wish.  But  yet  they  would  keep  afar  the  direful  contagion 
of  war  forsooth.  You  shall  suffer  retribution  *  for  suing  for 
peace ;  and  you  shall  learn  that,  during  my  life,  there  is 
nothing  more  safe  than  warfare,  myself  the  leader." 

After  he  has  thus  spoken,  he  turns  his  march  towards2 
the  fearless  city;  then  he  beholds  the  walls  shut,  and  for- 

themselves  had  neither  judgment  nor  ability  to  decide  which  had  the  juster 
cause;  that  the  heads  of  these  factions  were  Cneras  Pompey  and  Cains 
Caesar,  the  two  patrons  of  the  state;  the  former  of  whom  had  granted  to 
their  state  the  lands  of  the  Volcae  Arecomici  and  Helvii ;  the  latter  had 
assigned  them  a  part  of  his  conquests  in  Gaul,  and  had  augmented  their 
revenue.  Wherefore,  having  received  equal  favours  from  both,  they  ought 
to  show  equal  regard  for  both,  and  assist  neither  against  the  other,  nor  admit 
either  into  their  city  or  harbours.'" 

1  You  shall  suffer  retribution)  ver.   370.     If  hia  own  account  is  true, 
Caesar  had  some  grounds  for  being  offended  at  the  duplicity  of  the  Massi- 
lians.      He  says,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  36,  "  While  this  treaty  was 
going  forward,  Domitius  arrived  at  Massilia  with  his  fleet,  and  was  received 
into  the  city,  and  made  governor  of  it.     The  chief  management  of  the  war 
was  entrusted  to  him.     At  his  command  they  sent  the  fleet  to  all  parta; 
they  seized  all  the  merchantmen  they  could  meet  with,  and  carried  them 
into  the  harbour.     They  applied  the  sails,  timber,  and  rigging  with  which 
they  were  furnished  to  rig  and  refit  their  other  vessels." 

2  Turns  his  march  towards)  ver.  373.     Caesar  says,  in  the  Civil  War, 
B.  i.  c.  37,  "  Provoked  at  such  ill  treatment,  Caesar  led  three  legions  against 
Massilia,  and  resolved  to  provide  turrets  and  mantelets  to  assault  the  town, 
and  to  build  twelve  ships  at  Arelas,  which,  being  completed  and  rigged  in 
thirty  days  from  the  time  the  timber  was  cut  down,  and  being  brought  to 
Massilia,  he  put  under  the  command  of  Decimus  Brutus,  and  left  Caius  Tre- 
bonius,  his  lieutenant,  to  invest  the  city." 


112  PHARSALIA.  [B.  m.  374-404. 

tified  by  a  dense  band  of  youths.  Not  far  from  the  walls  a 
mound  of  earth  rising  aloft,  its  top  widening,  spreads  out 
a  little  plain ;  this  rock  seems  to  the  chieftain  fitted  to  be 
surrounded  with  a  long  fortification,  and  very  well  suited  for 
a  safe  encampment.  The  nearest  part  of  the  city  rises  with 
a  high  citadel,  equal  in  height  to  the  mound,  and  fields 
are  situate  in  the  valley  between.  Then  did  a  thing  please 
him,  to  be  brought  about  with  immense  labour,  to  join  the 
separated  elevations  by  a  vast  mound.  But  first,  that  he 
might  inclose  the  entire  city,  where  it  is  surrounded  by  the 
earth,  Csesar  drew  a  long  work  from  the  camp  to  the  sea, 
and,  encircling  the  springs  and  the  pastures  of  the  plain 
with  a  fosse,  with  turf  and  unmixed  earth  he  raised  out- 
works that  elevated  their  numerous  towers. 

Well  worthy  now  to  be  remembered  did  this  befall  the 
Grecian  city,  and  an  eternal  honor,  that,  not  provoked  at 
first1,  nor  yet  prostrated  by  very  fear,  it  stayed  the  headlong 
course  of  a  war  that  raged  on  every  side,  and  ah1  others  being 
seized  instantaneously  by  Csesar,  it  alone  was  conquered  with 
delay.  How  much  is  it  that  his  destinies  are  stayed,  and 
that  Fortune,  hastening  to  set  her  hero  over  the  whole  world, 
loses  these  days ! 

Then  far  and  wide  do  all  the  forests  fall,  and  the  woods 
are  spoiled  of  their  oaks,  that,  as  crumbling  earth  and  twigs 
keep  up  the  middle  of  the  mass,  the  wood  may  keep  close 
the  earth  knit  together  by  the  framed  construction  of  its 
sides,  that  the  mound  being  pressed  down2  may  not  give 
way  beneath  the  towers. 

There  was  a  grove,  never  violated  during  long  ages,  which 
with  its  knitted  branches  shut  in  the  darkened  air  and  the 
cold  shade,  the  rays  of  the  sun  being  far  removed.  This 
no  rustic  Pans,  and  Fauns  and  Nymphs  all-powerful  in  the 
groves,  possessed,  but  sacred  rites  of  the  Gods  barbarous 
in  their  ceremonial,  and  elevations  crowned  with  ruthless 

1  Not  provoked  at  first)  ver.  389.  "Non  impulsa,  nee  ipso  strata  metu." 
Cortius  suggests  this  translation  of  the  passage  : — "  Not  smitten  down  or 
laid  prostrate  with  fear."  "  Non  impulsa  "  seems,  however,  to  mean,  "  not 
acting  precipitately  through  provocation/'  and  not  to  depend  upon  "  metu." 

3  The  mound  being  pressed  down)  ver.  398.  According  to  Caesar,  these 
operations  were  carried  on  while  he  was  fighting  against  Afranius  and 
Petreiui,  the  generals  of  Pompey,  in  Spain. 


B.  in.  404-433.]  PHAESALIA.  113 

altars,  and  every  tree  was  stained1  with  human  gore.  If  at 
all,  antiquity,  struck  with  awe  at  the  Gods  of  heaven,  has 
been  deserving  of  belief,  upon  these  branches,  too,  the  birds 
of  the  air  dread  to  perch,  and  the  wild  beasts  to  lie  in  the 
caves;  nor  does  any  wind  blow  upon  those  groves,  and 
lightnings  hurled  from  the  dense  clouds ;  a  shuddering  in 
themselves 2  prevails  among  the  trees  that  spread  forth  their 
branches  to  no  breezes.  Besides,  from  black  springs  plen- 
teous water  falls,  and  the  saddened  images  of  the  Gods a  are 
devoid  of  art,  and  stand  unsightly  formed  from  hewn  trunks. 
The  very  mouldiness  and  paleness  of  the  rotting  wood  now 
renders  people  stricken  with  awe :  not  thus  do  they  dread 
the  Deities  consecrated  with  ordinary  forms ;  so  much  does 
it  add  to  the  terror  not  to  know  what  Gods  they  are  in 
dread  of.  Fame,  too,  reported  that  full  oft  the  hollow  ca- 
verns roared  amid  the  earthquake,  and  that  yews  that  had 
fallen  rose  again,  and  that  flames  shone  from  a  grove  that 
did  not  burn,  and  that  serpents  embracing  the  oaks  en- 
twined around  them. 

The  people  throng  that  place  with  no  approaching  wor- 
ship, but  have  left  it  to  the  Gods.  When  Phoebus  is  in 
the  mid  sky,  or  dark  night  possesses  the  heavens,  the  priest 
himself  dreads  the  approach,  and  is  afraid  to  meet  with  the 
guardian  of  the  grove4. 

This  forest  he  commanded  to  fall  beneath  the  aimed 
iron ;  for  close  by  the  works  and  untouched  in  former  war 
it  stood  most  dense  in  growth  amid  the  bared  mountains. 
But  the  valiant  bands  trembled,  and,  moved  by  the  venerable 
sanctity  of  the  place,  they  believed  that  if  they  should  touch 
the  sacred  oaks,  the  axes  would  rebound  back 5  against  their 
own  limbs.  Csesar,  when  he  beheld  his  cohorts  involved  in 

1  Every  tree  was  stained)  ver.  405.  By  this  he  would  seem  to  imply  that 
Druidiciil  rites  were  performed  in  the  wood. 

*  A  shuddering  in  themselves)  ver.  411.    By  the  use  of  "suus"  he  means 
that  the  leaves  are  left  entirely  undisturbed  by  the  winds. 

3  Images  of  the  Gods)  ver.  412.     These  figures  of  the  Deities  were  rough 
unhewn  logs  of  wood,  of  the  kind  called  by  the  Greeks  auregt/X*. 

4  The  guardian  of  the  grove)  ver.  425.     It  was  a  prevalent  belief  that 
the  Divinities  walked  on  the  earth  at  midday,  and  that  they  were  especially 
enraged  against  mortals  who  presented  themselves  in  their  path. 

*  Would  rebound  back)  ver.  431.     They  believed  that  the  axe  would 
rebound  as  a  punishment  for  their  profaneness. 

I 


114  PHABSALIA.  [B.  HL  483-457. 

great  alarm,  first  daring  to  poise  a  hatchet  snatched  up,  and 
with  the  iron  to  cut  down  the  towering  oak,  the  iron  being 
buried  in  the  violated  wood,  thus  says  :  "  Now  then,  that  no 
one  of  you  may  hesitate  to  hew  down  the  wood,  believe  that 
I  have  incurred  the  guilt." 

Then  did  all  the  throng  obey,  not,  all  fear  removed,  free 
from  care,  but  the  wrath  of  the  Gods  and  of  Ceesar  being 
weighed.  Down  fall  the  ashes,  the  knotty  holm-oak  is  hurled 
down ;  the  wood  of  Dodona,  too,  and  the  alder  more  suited 
to  the  waves,  the  cypress,  too,  that  bears  witness  to  no  ple- 
beian1 funeral  mourning,  then  first  lay  aside  their  foliage, 
and,  spoiled  of  leaves,  admit  the  day,  and  thrown  down 
with  its  trunks  thickly  set  the  falling  wood  supports  itself. 
Looking  on,  the  nations  of  the  Gauls  lament,  but  the  youth 
shut  up  within  the  walls  exult.  For  who  can  suppose  that 
the  Gods  are  insulted  with  impunity?  Fortune  spares  many 
that  are  guilty ;  and  only  with  die  wretched  can  the  Deities 
be  angered.  And  when  enough  of  the  grove  is  cut  down, 
they  bring  waggons,  sought  amid  the  fields ;  and  the  hus- 
bandmen bewail,  the  oxen  being  carried  off,  the  yearly  pro- 
duce of  the  soil  relaxed  from  the  curving  plough. 

The  general,  however,  impatient  with  a  contest  destined 
to  linger  on  before  the  walls,  turning  towards  the  Spanish 
forces  and  the  extremities  of  the  world,  orders  the  warfare  to 
be  carried  on2.  A  mound  is  erected  with  props  studded  with 
iron8,  and  receives  two  towers  equalling  the  walls  in  height; 

1  Witness  to  no  plebeian)  ver.  442.  The  cypress  was  planted  near  the 
tombs  of  the  rich,  and  was  sometimes  used  for  the  purposes  of  the  funeral 
pile.  It  was  a  tree  of  comparative  rarity  and  great  value.  A  branch  of  it 
was  also  placed  at  the  door  of  the  house  in  which  a  person  of  station  was 
lying  dead.  This  tree  is  said  to  have  been  considered  an  emblem  of  death 
from  the  fact  that  when  once  an  incision  has  been  made  in  it,  it  dies. 

*  Orders  the  warfare  to  be  carried  on)  Ter.  455.  Leaving  the  conduct  of 
the  war  to  Caius  Trebonius,  his  legate. 

8  Wilfi  props  studded  with  iron)  ver.  455.  "  Stellatis  aribns."  This 
expression  has  caused  great  perplexity  among  the  commentators,  and  Cortius 
has  come  to  the  conclusion  that  it  alludes  to  the  axle-trees  of  the  wheels  upon 
which  the  "  agger"  or  mound  was  placed  and  then  wheeled  to  the  city.  It  is 
much  more  likely  that  it  signifies  cross  beams  studded  with  iron,  which  were 
used  in  constructing  the  agger  which  they  were  building  round  the  city. 
This  operation  is  described  by  Caesar  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  1 5,  and  in 
the  following  passage  the  cross  beams  are  referred  to: — "  They  began,  there- 
fore, to  make  a  mound  of  a  new  construction,  never  heard  of  before,  of  two 


B.  m.  457-482.]  PHARSALIA.  115 

these  are  fastened  with  no  wood  to  the  earth,  but  moved 
along  a  lengthened  space,  the  cause  lying  concealed.  When 
so  great  a  mass  was  tottering,  the  youth  supposed  that  the 
wind  seeking  to  burst  forth  had  shaken  the  empty  recesses 
of  the  earth,  and  wondered  that  their  walls  were  standing 
Thence  did  the  darts  fall  upon  the  lofty  citadel  of  the  city. 
But  a  greater  power  was  there  in  the  Grecian  weapons 
against  the  Roman  bodies.  For  the  lance,  not  hurled  by 
arms  alone,  but  discharged  by  the  tightened  whirlwind  force 
of  the  balista,  did  not,  content  to  pass  through  but  one 
side,  cease  in  its  course ;  but,  opening  a  way  through  both 
arms  and  through  bones,  death  left  behind,  it  flies  on :  after 
the  wound  a  career  still  remains  for  the  weapon. 

But  as  often  as  a  stone  is  hurled  by  the  vast  impulse  of 
the  blow,  just  as  a  rock,  Avhich  old  age,  aided  by  the  power 
of  the  winds,  has  separated  from  the  height  of  the  mountain, 
rushing  onwards  it  bears  down  everything;  and  not  only 
de'prives  of  life  the  bodies  it  has  dashed  against,  but  scatters 
hi  every  direction  whole  limbs  together  with  the  bleod.  But 
when,  sheltered  beneath  the  stout  tortoise1,  valour  approaches 
the  hostile  walls,  and  the  foremost  bear  arms  connected  with 
the  arms  of  those  behind,  and  the  uplifted  shield  protects  the 
helmet,  those  which,  before  hurled  from  the  distant  retreats, 
proved  destructive,  now  fall  behind  their  backs ;  nor  is  it 
now  an  easy  task  to  the  Greeks  to  direct  their  charges,  or  to 
change  the  level  of  then-  engines  of  war  adapted  for  hurling 
weapons  to  a  distance ;  but,  content  with  heavy  masses  alone, 
they  hurl  down  stones  with  their  bared  arms.  While  the 


walls  of  brick,  each  six  feet  thick,  and  to  lay  floors  over  them  of  almost  the 
same  breadth  with  the  mound,  made  of  timber.  But  wherever  the  space  be- 
tween the  walls  or  the  weakness  of  the  timber  seemed  to  require  it,  pillars 
were  placed  underneath  and  traversed  beams  laid  on  to  strengthen  the  work, 
and  the  space  which  was  floored  was  covered  over  with  hurdles,  and  the 
hurdles  plastered  over  with  mortar." 

1  Sheltered  beneath  the  stout  tortoise)  ver.  474.  The  "testudo"  was  a 
mode  of  attacking  a  besieged  city,  by  the  soldiers  uniting  their  shields  over 
their  heads,  locking  one  in  the  other,  and  thus  making  a  compact  covering 
for  their  bodies.  The  "testndo"  also  meant  a  kind  of  penthouse  moving  on 
wheels,  under  cover  of  which  the  besiegers  worked  the  battering  ram.  The 
name  in  this  case  was  suggested  by  the  resemblance  which  the  ram  pre- 
sented to  a  tortoise  thrusting  its  head  forwards  from  its  shell  and  drawing  it 
back  again. 

i  a 


116  PHARSALIA.  [B.  m.  482-509. 

connected  chain  of  arms1  exists,  just  as  roofs  rattle,  struck  by 
the  harmless  hailstones,  so  does  it  ward  off  all  the  missiles ; 
but  after  the  excited  valour  of  the  men,  the  soldiers  being 
wearied,  breaks  down  the  lengthened  fence,  single  arms  give 
way  beneath  the  continuous  blows. 

Then,  covered  with  light  earth2,  the  mantelet  moves  on, 
concealed  under  the  sheds  and  screened  front  of  which  they 
now  attempt  to  undermine  the  lower  part  of  the  walls,  and 
with  iron  implements  to  overthrow  them ;  now  the  batter- 
ing ram,  more  mighty  with  its  suspended  blows,  impelled 
endeavours  to  loosen  the  texture  of  the  solid  wall,  and  to 
strike  away  one  from  the  stones  placed  above.  But  struck 
by  flames  from  above  and  fragments  of  vast  masses,  and 
many  a  stake,  and  the  blows  of  oaks  hardened  by  fire,  the 
hurdle  roof,  smitten,  gives  way;  and,  his  labour  spent  hi 
vain,  the  wearied  soldier  seeks  again  the  tents. 

It  was  at  first3  the  greatest  wish  of  the  Greeks  that  their 
walls  might  stand.  Now,  still  further,  they  prepare  to  make 
a  charge  with  their  troops  ;  and,  attacking  by  night,  they 
conceal  under  their  arms  blazing  torches,  and  the  bold 
youth  sally  forth4;  no  spear,  no  death-dealing  bow,  but  fire, 
is  the  weapon  of  the  men,  and  the  wind  sweeping  onward 
the  flames  bears  them  throughout  the  Koman  fortifications 
with  a  swift  course.  Nor,  although  it  struggles  with  green 
timber,  does  the  fire  display  slight  strength;  but  borne 
away  from  every  torch  it  follows  after  extended  volumes  of 
black  smoke;  it  consumes  not  only  the  wood  but  huge 
stones,  and  the  solid  rocks  dissolve  into  dust.  The  mound 
falls  prostrate,  and  as  it  lies  still  longer  does  it  appear. 

Hope  by  land  now  departed  from  the  conquered,  and  it 

1  While  the  connected  chain  of  arms)  ver.  482.  "Dum  fuit  armornm 
series."  "  So  long  as  the  shields  kept  firmly  locked,  the  one  in  the  other." 

3  Covered  with  light  eartfi)  ver.  487.  The  "  vineae,"  or  mantelets,  were 
covered  with  earth  to  prevent  them  from  being  set  on  fire  from  above  by  the 
enemy. 

3  It  was  at  first)  ver.  497.     He  means  that  it  had  been  the  limit  of  their 
wishes  that  their  walls  might  stand  and  the  city  remain  uncaptured,  but  now 
they  prepare  to  sally  forth  and  attack  the  enemy. 

4  The  bold  youth  sally  forth)  ver.  500.     The  Poet  conceals  the  fact  re- 
lated by  Caesar  that  this  sally  took  place  under  circumstances  of  considerable 
treachery,  when,  at  their  own  request,  a  truce  had  been  granted  them,  and 
they  were  awaiting  the  arrival  of  Caesar  from  Spain.     See  the  Civil  War, 
B.  ii.  c.  12,  13,  14. 


B.  ni.  509-527.]  PHARSALIA.  117 

pleased  them  to  try  their  fortune  on  the  deep  sea.  Not 
with  painted  oak  did  the  resplendent  tutelary  Deity1  grace 
the  ornamented  barks,  but  rough,  and  just  as  the  tree  falls 
on  the  mountains,  is  a  firm  surface  put  together  for  the 
naval  warfare.  And  now,  attending  the  towered  ship  of 
Brutus2,  the  fleet  had  come  into  the  waves  of  the  Rhone 
with  the  tide,  making  for  the  land  of  Stoechas*.  The  Gre- 
cian youth4  as  well  was  wishful  to  entrust  all  its  strength 
to  the  Fates,  and  armed  the  aged  men  with  the  lads6  inter- 
mingled. Not  only  did  the  fleet,  which  was  then  standing 
on  the  waves,  receive  the  men  ;  they  sought  again,  too,  the 
ships  worn  out  in  the  dock-yards. 

When  Phoebus,  spreading  his  morning  rays  upon  the 
seas,  has  refracted  them  on  the  waters,  and  the  sky  is  free 
from  clouds,  and,  Boreas  being  banished  and  the  south 
winds  holding  their  peace,  prepared  for  the  warfare  the  sea 
lies  calm,  each  one  moves  his  ship  from  each  station,  and 
by  equal  arms  on  the  one  side  the  ships  of  Caesar,  on  the 
other  by  Grecian  rowers  the  fleet  is  impelled ;  urged  on 

1  Tlie  resplendent  tutelary  Deity)  ver.  510.   The  statue  of  the  "  tutela"  or 
"tutelar  Divinity"  of  the  ship  was  placed  at  the  stern.     This  was   distinct 
from  the  "  insigne,"  which  was  placed  at  the  figure-head.      See  the  Tristia 

*  of  Ovid,  where  he  says  that  the  "  insigne  "  of  the  vessel  in  which  he  sailed 
for  Pontus  was  a  helmet,  while  Minerva  was  the  "  tutela"  of  it. 

2  The  towered  ship  of  Brutiis)  ver.  514.    His  bark  was  thus  distinguished 
as  being  the  Praetorian  or  admiral's  ship,  he  having  been  left  in  command  of 
the  fleet  by  Caesar.     This  was  D.  Junius  Brutus  Albinus,  who  had  served 
under  Caesar  in  Gaul.     After  the  siege  of  Massilia,  during  the  Civil  War, 
Caesar  gave  him  the  command  of  Further  Gaul,  and  took  every  opportunity 
of  showing  him  marks  of  favour.     Notwithstanding  this,  he  joined  the  mur- 
derers of  Caesar,  and  enjoying  his  full  confidence,  was  sent  to  conduct  him 
to  the  Senate-house  for  the  purpose  of  assassination.     He  was  afterwards 
deservedly  put  to  death  by  Capenus,  a  Sequanian,  by  order  of  Antony. 

3  The  land  of  Stcechas)  ver.   516.     The  Stoechades  were  a  cluster  of 
islands,  five  in  number,  in  the  Mediterranean,  to  the  east  of  Massilia,  where 
the  Massilians  kept  an  armed  force  to  protect  their  trade  against  pirates. 
They  are  now  called  the  Isles  d'Hierea. 

*  The  Grecian  youth)  ver.  516.  He  means  the  Massilians,  as  descendants 
of  the  rhocuiims,  whom  Lucan  supposes  to  have  been  Greeks.  According  to 
Caesar,  this  naval  engagement  between  Brutus  and  the  Massilians  took  place 
before  the  attack  by  land ;  and  the  Massilians  were  aided  by  Lucius  Nasi- 
dius,  who  had  been  sent  by  Pompey  with  sixteen  ships.  See  the  Civil 
War,  B.  ii.  c.  3,  7. 

4  With  the  tads)  ver.  518.     "  Ephebis."    "  Ephebi "  was  the  name  given 
to  those  between  the  ages  of  16  and  20. 


118  PHARSALIA.  [B.  ra.  527-559. 

by  oars  the  ships  shake  again,  and  the  repeated  strokes 
move  on  the  lofty  barks.  Both  strong  three-oared  galleys, 
and  those  which  the  rising  ranks  of  rowers  built  up  fourfold, 
move  on,  and  those  which  dip  in  the  seas  still  more  pine- 
wood  oars,  ships  in  numbers,  surround  the  wings  of  the 
Roman  fleet.  This  force  breasts  the  open  sea.  In  the 
centre,  in  form  of  a  crescent,  the  Liburnian  barks ',  content 
to  increase  with  two  ranks  of  oars,  fall  back.  But  the  Prae- 
torian ship  of  Brutus  more  lofty  than  all  is  impelled  by  six 
tiers  of  oars,  and  carries  a  tower  along  the  deep,  and  seeks, 
the  seas  from  afar  with  its  highest  oars. 

Where  there  is  just  so  much  sea  intervening  that  either 
fleet  could  cross  orer  to  the  otlwr  with  the  oars  once  pulled, 
innumerable  voices  are  mingled  in  the  vast  expanse ;  and 
the  sound  of  the  oars  is  drowned  in  the  clamour,  nor  can 
any  trumpets  be  heard.  Then  they  skim  along  the  azure 
main,  and  stretch  along  the  benches,  and  strike  their 
breasts  with  the  oars.  When  first  beaks  meeting  beaks 
send  forth  a  sound,  the  ships  run  astern,  and  the  hurled 
darts  as  they  fall  fill  the  air  and  the  vacant  deep.  And 
now,  the  prows  separated,  the  wings  extend,  and,  the  fleet 
sundered,  the  opposing  ships  are  received.  Just  as,  so  oft 
as  the  tide  struggles  against  the  Zephyrs  and  the  eastern 
gales,  in  this  direction  run  the  waves,  hi  that  the  sea ;  so, 
when  the  ships  hi  the  ploughed-up  tide  describe  their  vary- 
ing tracks,  the  sea  which  the  one  fleet  impels  onwards  with 
its  oars,  the  other  beats  back. 

But  the  pine-tree  ships  of  the  Greeks  were  skilful  both  to 
challenge  to  the  battle  and  to  resort  to  flight,  and  to  change 
their  course  with  no  wide  sweep,  and  with  no  tardiness  to  obey 
the  turning  helm.  But  the  lloman  ship  was  more  sure  in, 
affording  a  keel  firmly  laid,  and  convenience  to  the  warriors 
equal  to  the  dry  land.  Then  said  Brutus  to  the  pilot  sitting 
at  the  ensign-bearing  stern :  "  Dost  thou  suffer  the  battle  to> 

1  The  Liburnian  Janb)  ver.  534.  "  Libarna,"  or  "  Libunrica,"  was  a 
name  given  to  every  ship  of  war,  from  a  "  bireme"  up  to  those  with  six 
ranks  of  oars.  Pliny  tells  us  that  they  were  formed  with  sharp  bows  to> 
offer  the  least  possible  resistance  to  the  water.  They  were  originally  con- 
structed by  the  Liburnians,  a  people  of  Dalmatia,  and  were  then  probably 
limited  in  size  to  two  ranks  of  oars.  They  are  said  to  have  been  first  used 
by  the  Romans  at  the  battle  of  Actium.  The  "  Liburnae"  here  mentioned, 
from  the  words  "  ordine  gemino,"  appear  to  have  had  but  two  ranks  of  oars. 


B.  m.  559-588.]  PHAKSALIA.  119 

be  shifting  about  upon  the  deep,  and  dost  thou  contend  with 
the  vagaries  of  the  ocean  ?  Now  close  the  warfare ;  oppose 
the  mid  part  of  the  vessels  to  the  Phocsean  beaks." 

He  obeyed,  and  sidelong  he  laid  the  alder  barks  before 
the  foe.  Then,  whatever  ship  tried  the  oaken  sides  of 
that  of  Brutus,  conquered  by  her  own  blowT  captured,  she 
stuck  fast1  to  the  one  she  had  struck.  But  others  both 
grappling-irons  united  and  smooth  chains,  and  they  held 
themselves  on  by  the  oars'- ;  on  the  covered  sea  the  warfare 
stood  fixed  to  the  same  spot. 

Now  no  longer  are  the  darts  hurled  from  the  shaken  arms, 
nor  do  the  wounds  fall  from  afar  by  means  of  the  hurled 
weapons ;  and  hand  meets  hand.  In  a  naval  fight  the  sword 
effects  the  most.  Each  one  stands  upon  the  bulwark  of 
his  own  ship,  facing  full  the  blows  of  the  enemy ;  and  none 
fall  slain  hi  their  own  vessels.  The  deep  blood  foams  in 
the  waves,  and  the  tide  is  thickened  with  clotted  gore.  The 
ships,  too,  which  the  chains  of  iron  thrown  on  board  are 
dragging,  the  same  do  the  dead  bodies  clogged  together 
hinder  from  being  united.  Some,  half-dead,  fall  into  the 
vast  deep,  and  drink  of  the  sea  mingled  with  their  own 
blood.  Some,  adhering  to  life  struggling  with  slowly-coming 
death,  perish  in  the  sudden  wreck  of  the  dismantled  ships. 
Javelins,  missing  their  aim,  accomplish  their  slaughter  in 
the  sea,  and  whatever  weapon  falls,  with  its  weight  used  to 
no  purpose,  finds  a  wound  on  being  received  hi  the  midst  of 
the  waves. 

A  Roman  ship  hemmed  in  by  Phocsean  barks,  its  crew  di- 
vided, with  equal  warfare  defends  the  right  side  and  the  left ; 
from  the  high  stern  of  which,  while  Tagus  maintains  the  fight, 
and  boldly  seizes  hold  of  the  Grecian  flag:i,  he  is  pierced  both 
hi  back  and  breast  at  the  same  moment  by  hurled  darts ;  in 

1  Captured,  she  stuck  fast)  ver.  564.  The  shock  was  so  great  that  she 
was  impaled,  an  it  were,  on  the  beak  of  the  large  ship  of  Brutus. 

3  Held  themselves  on  fiy  the  oars)  ver.  566,  Oars  being  inserted  between 
oars,  the  ships  lying  broadside  to  broadside. 

3  Hold  of  the  Grecian  flag)  ver.  586.  "  Aplustre."  In  the  ancient  ships 
the  upper  part  of  the  stern  often  had  an  ornament  called  "  aplustre,"  which 
formed  the  highest  part  of  the  poop.  It  is  most  probable  that  the  form  of  it 
was  borrowed  from  the  tail  of  the  fish.  The  "aplustre"  rising  behind  the 
helmsman  served  in  some  measure  to  shelter  him  from  wind  and  rain ;  and  a 
lantern  was  sometimes  suspended  from  it. 


120  PHARSALIA.  [B.  in.  588-615. 

the  midst  of  his  breast  the  iron  meets,  and  the  blood  stands, 
uncertain  from  which  wound  to  flow,  until  the  plenteous 
gore  at  the  same  time  expels  both  the  spears,  and  rends 
asunder  his  life,  and  scatters  death  in  the  wounds. 

Hither  also  the  right  hand  of  hapless  Telon  directed  his 
ship,  than  which  no  hand  more  aptly,  when  the  sea  was 
boisterous,  did  the  barks  obey ;  nor  was  the  morrow's 
weather  better  known  to  any  one,  whether  he  looks  at  Phoe- 
bus or  whether  at  the  horns  of  the  moon,  hi  order  always  to 
trim  the  sails  to  the  coming  winds.  He  with  the  beak  had 
broken  the  ribs  of  a  Latian  bark;  but  quivering  javelins 
entered  the  middle  of  his  breast,  and  the  right  hand  of  the 
dying  pilot  turned  away  the  ship.  While  Gyareus  attempted 
to  leap  on  board  the  friendly  bark,  he  received  the  iron 
driven  through  his  suspended  entrails,  and  pinned  to  the 
ship,  the  dart  holding  him  back,  there  he  hung. 

Two  twin  brothers  are  standing,  the  glory  of  their  fruitful 
mother,  whom  the  same  womb  bore  to  differing  fates.  Cruel 
death  separates  the  heroes ;  and  the  wretched  parents  recog- 
nize the  one  left  behind,  all  mistake  being  now  removed,  a 
cause  for  everlasting  tears.  He  always  renews  their  grief, 
and  presents  his  lost  brother  to  them  as  they  mourn.  Of 
these,  the  one,  the  oars  of  two  ships  being  mingled  sideways, 
comb-like  indented,  dares  from  a  Grecian  stern  to  lay  hands 
upon1  a  Hi i] iiai i  bark,  but  from  above  a  heavy  blow  lops  it 
off;  still,  however,  with  the  effort  with  which  it  has  grasped 
it  keeps  hold,  and  as  it  dies,  holding  fast  with  tightened 
nerve,  it  stiffens.  By  his  mischance  his  valour  waxes 
stronger;  mutilated,  more  high-spirited  wrath  has  he,  and 

1  To  lay  hands  upon)  ver.  610.  A  similar  story  to  this  is  told  of  Cynae- 
gyrus,  the  brother  of  the  poet  JJschylus,  who,  when  the  Persians  were  en- 
deavouring to  escape  by  sea,  seized  one  of  their  ships  with  his  right  hand, 
which  was  cut  off.  Justin  magnifies  the  story,  and  states  that  he  held  with 
both  hands,  which  were  successively  cut  off,  and  then  held  on  with  his  teeth. 
Lucan,  with  his  usual  distortion  of  facts  at  all  favourable  to  Caesar,  here 
attributes  to  the  Massilians  a  valorous  exploit  which  was,  in  reality,  per- 
formed by  a  soldier  of  Caesar's  array.  Suetonius  says  that,  "  Acilius,  a  soldier 
of  Caesar,  in  the  naval  battle  at  Massilia,  having  seized  with  his  right  hand 
the  ship  of  the  enemy,  and  it  being  cut  off,  imitating  the  memorable  example 
of  Cynaegyrus  among  the  Greeks,  leaped  on  board  the  ship  and  drove  all  be- 
fore him  with  his  shield."  Plutarch  and  Valerius  Maximua  mention  the  same 
circumstance. 


B.  m.  615-645.]  PHARSALIA.  121 

he  renews  the  combat  with  valorous  left  hand,  and  about  to 
tear  away  his  right  hand  he  stretches  out  over  the  waves. 
This  hand,  too,  is  cut  off  with  the  entire  arm.  Now  de- 
prived of  shield  and  weapons,  he  is  not  stowed  away  in  the 
bottom  of  the  ship,  but,  exposed  and  covering  his  brother's 
arms  with  his  naked  breast,  pierced  by  many  a  spear,  he 
still  persists ;  and  weapons  that  were  to  have  fallen  to  the  de- 
struction of  many  of  his  own  friends  he  receives  with  a  death 
that  he  has  now  earned.  Then  he  summons  his  life,  fleeting 
with  many  a  wound,  into  his  wearied  limbs,  and  nerves  his 
members  with  all  the  blood  that  is  remaining,  and,  his 
members  failing  in  strength,  he  leaps  on  board  the  hostile 
bark,  destined  to  injure  it  by  his  weight  alone. 

The  ship,  heaped  up  with  the  slaughter  of  the  men,  and 
filled  with  much  blood,  received  numerous  blows  on  its 
slanting  sides.  But  after,  its  ribs  broken,  it  let  hi  the  sea 
being  filled  to  the  top  of  the  hatches,  it  descended  into  the 
waves,  sucking  in  the  neighbouring  waters  with  a  whirling 
eddy.  Cleft  asunder  by  the  sunk  ship,  the  waves  divided,  and 
in  the  place  of  the  bark  the  sea  closed  up.  Many  wondrous 
instances  of  various  fates  besides  did  that  day  afford  upon 
the  main. 

While  a  grappling-iron  was  fastening  its  grasping  hooks 
upon  a  ship,  it  fixed  on  Lycidas.  He  would  have  been 
sunk  in  the  deep ;  but  his  friends  hindered  it  and  held 
fast  his  suspended  thighs.  Torn  away  he  is  rent  in  two ; 
nor,  as  though  from  a  wound,  does  his  blood  slowly  flow ; 
the  veins  torn  asunder1,  on  every  side  it  falls ;  and  the  down- 
ward flow  of  his  life's  blood  passing  into  his  rent  limbs  is 
intercepted  by  the  waters.  The  life  of  no  one  slain  is  parted 
with  by  a  passage  so  great;  the  lower  part  of  him  muti- 
lated gives  to  death  the  limbs  deprived  of  their  vitals ;  but 
where  the  swelling  lungs  are  situate,  where  the  entrails  are 
warm,  there  does  death  delay  for  a  long  time ;  and  having 

1  The  veins  lorn  asunder)  ver.  639.  This  and  the  next  four  lines  are  said 
to  have  been  repeated  by  Lucan  when  dying  by  a  similar  death  ;  his  veins 
having  been  opened,  at  his  own  request,  when  commanded  by  Nero  to  slay 
himself.  Many  of  the  learned,  however,  do  not  believe  this  story,  while 
others  state  that  the  lines  beginning  at  1.  811  in  the  Ninth  Book  were  the 
ones  so  repeated. 


122  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  ra.  645-679. 

struggled  much  with  this  portion  of  the  man,  hardly  does  it 
take  possession  of  all  the  limbs. 

While,  too  eager  for  fight,  the  company  of  one  ship  is 
pressing  straight  against  the  side,  and  leaves  the  deck  empty 
where  it  is  free  from  the  enemy,  the  vessel,  overturned  by  the 
accumulated  weight,  within  its  hollow  hull  incloses  both  sea 
and  sailors ;  nor  is  it  allowed  them  to  throw  out  their  arms 
hi  the  vast  deep,  but  they  perish  in  the  inclosed  waves. 

Then  was  a  remarkable  kind  of  dreadful  death  beheld, 
when  by  chance  ships  of  opposite  sides  transfixed  with  their 
beaks  a  youth  as  he  swam.  His  breast  divided  hi  the  middle 
at  such  mighty  blows ;  nor  with  the  ground  bones  were  the 
limbs  able  to  prevent  the  brazen  beaks  from  re-echoing. 
His  middle  burst  asunder,  through  his  mouth  the  blood, 
mingled  with  the  entrails,  spouted  forth  corrupt  matter.  After 
they  backed  the  ships  with  the  oars,  and  the  beaks  with- 
drew, the  body,  with  the  pierced  breast,  being  cast  into  the 
sea  admitted  the  water  into  the  wounds. 

The  greatest  part  of  a  crew  being  shipwrecked,  strug- 
gling against  death  with  expanded  arms,  rushed  to  receive 
the  aid  of  a  friendly  ship ;  but  when  they  caught  hold  of 
the  woodwork  on  high  with  forbidden  arms,  and  the  bark, 
likely  to  perish,  swayed  to  and  fro  from  the  multitude 
received,  the  impious  crew  from  above  struck  at  the  middle 
of  their  arms  with  the  sword :  leaving  their  arms  hanging 
from  the  Grecian  ship,  they  were  slain  by  the  hands  of  their 
own  side ;  no  longer  did  the  waves  support  on  the  surface 
of  the  sea  the  heavy  trunks. 

And  now,  all  the  soldiers  stripped  bare,  the  weapons  being 
expended,  fury  finds  arms ;  one  hurls  an  oar  at  the  foe ;  but 
others  whirl  round  with  stout  arms  the  wrenched-up  flag- 
staff l,  and  the  benches  torn  away,  the  rowers  being  driven 
off.  For  the  purposes  of  fighting  they  break  up  the  ships. 
The  bodies  slain  they  catch  as  they  are  falling  overboard, 
and  spoil  the  carcases  of  the  weapons  Many,  wanting  darts, 
draw  the  deadly  javelin  wrenched  out  from  then-  own  entrails, 
and  with  the  left  hand  clench  fast  their  wounds,  so  that  the 
blood  may  allow  a  firm  blow,  and  may  start  forth  after  hav- 
ing hurled  the  hostile  spear. 

1  Wrenched-up  flag-staff)  ver.  672.  "  Aplustre."    See  the  Note  to  L  586. 


B.  in.  680-711.]  PHARSALTA.  123 

Yet  upon  this  ocean  nothing  causes  more  destruction, 
than  the  antagonist  opposed  to  the  sea.  For  fire  fixed  to 
unctuous  torches1,  and  alive,  beneath  a  covering  of  sulphur, 
is  spread  about ;  but  the  ships  ready  to  afford  a  nutriment,, 
now  with  pitch,  now  with  melted  wax,  spread  the  confla- 
gration. Nor  do  the  waves  conquer  the  flames ;  and,  the 
barks  now  scattered  over  the  sea,  the  fierce  fire  claims  the 
fragments  for  itself.  This  one  takes  to  the  waves,  that 
in  the  sea  he  may  extinguish  the  flames ;  these,  that  they 
may  not  be  drowned,  cling  to  the  burning  spars.  Amid 
a  thousand  forms  of  death,  that  single  end  is  an  object  of 
dread,  by  which  they  have  begun  to  perish.  Nor  is  their 
valour  idle  in  shipwreck.  They  collect  darts  thrown  up  by 
the  sea,  and  supply  them  to  the  ships,  and  with  failing 
efforts  ply  their  erring  hands  through  the  waves.  Now 
if  but  small  the  supply  of  weapons  that  is  afforded,  they 
make  use  of  the  sea.  Fierce  enemy  clutches  hold  of  enemy, 
and  they  delight  to  sink  with  arms  entwined,  and  to  die 
drowning  the  foe. 

In  that  mode  of  fighting  there  was  one  Phocsean  skilled 
at  keeping  his  breath  beneath  the  waves,  and  examining 
in  the  sea  if  anything  had  been,  sunk  in  the  sands,  and  at 
wrenching  up  the  tooth  of  the  fluke  too  firmly  fixed,  as 
often  as  the  anchor  had  proved  insensible  to  the  tightened 
rope.  He  took  the  enemy  quite  down  when  grappled  with, 
and  then,  victorious,  returned  to  the  surface  of  the  water ; 
but,  while  he  believed  that  he  was  rising  amid  the  vacant 
waves,  he  met  with  the  ships,  and  at  last  remained  for 
good  beneath  the  sea.  Some  threw  their  arms  around  the 
hostile  oars,  and  withheld  the  flight  of  the  ships.  Not  to 
throw  away  their  deaths  was  the  greatest  care ;  many  a  one, 
dying,  applied  his  wounds  to  the  stern,  and  warded  off  the 
blows  from  the  beaks. 

Lygdamus,  a  slinger  with  the  Balearic  sling2,  aiming  with 

1  Fire  fixed  to  unctuous  torches}  ver.  681.  This  was  probably  a  compo- 
sition which  was  sometimes  called  "  Greek  fire,"  and  similar  to  our  wildfire. 
Darts  were  used  which  they  called  "  phalaricae,"  and  which  being  dipped 
into  this  combustible  matter  were  then  hurled  against  ships  or  wooden 
towers.  This  weapon  was  said  to  have  been  particularly  used  by  the  people 
of  Saguntum.  See  the  Sixth  Book,  1.  198. 

1  Tht  Balearic  sling)  Ter.  710.     See  the  First  Book,  I.  229. 


124  PHARSALIA.  [B.  ra.  711-750. 

the  hurled  bullet  at  Tyrrhenus  as  he  stood  on  the  lofty  ele- 
vation of  the  prow,  shattered  his  hollow  temples  with  the 
solid  lead.  Expelled  from  their  sockets,  after  the  blood  had 
burst  all  the  ligaments,  the  eyes  started  forth;  his  sight 
destroyed,  he  stood  amazed,  and  thought  that  this  was  the 
darkness  of  death ;  but  after  he  found  that  strength  existed 
in  his  limbs,  he  said :  "  You,  O  companions,  just  as  you  are 
wont  to  direct  the  missiles,  place  me  also  straight  in  a  direc- 
tion for  hurling  darts.  Employ,  Tyrrhenus,  what  remains 
of  life  hi  all  the  chances  of  war.  This  carcase,  when  dead, 
in  a  great  degree  is  of  considerable  use  to  the  warriors ; 
in  the  place  of  one  living  shalt  thou  be  struck  by  the  blow." 
Thus  having  said,  with  aimless  hand  he  hurled  the  dart 
against  the  foe,  but  still  not  without  effect. 

This  Argus,  a  youth  of  noble  blood,  received,  not  quite 
where  the  midriff  slopes  down  to  the  loins,  and  falling  down 
he  aided  the  weapon  with  his  own  weight.  Now  stood  the 
unhappy  sire  of  Argus  in  the  opposite  part  of  the  conquered 
ship ;  in  the  days  of  his  youth  he  would  not  have  yielded  to 
any  one  in  Phocsean  arms :  conquered  by  age  his  strength 
had  decayed,  and,  worn  out  with  old  age,  he  was  a  model  of 
valour,  not  a  soldier.  He,  seeing  the  death,  often  stumbling, 
being  an  aged  man,  came  between  the  benches  of  the  long 
ship  to  the  stern,  and  found  the  panting  limbs.  No  tears  fell 
from  his  cheeks,  he  did  not  beat  his  breast,  but  grew  stiff 
all  over  his  body  with  distended  hands.  Night  came  on,  and 
dense  shades  spread  over  his  eyes,  and  as  he  looked  upon  him 
he  ceased  to  recognize  the  wretched  Argus.  He  sinking,  on 
seeing  his  father,  raised  his  head  and  his  now  languid  neck ; 
no  voice  issued  from  his  loosened  jaws ;  only  with  his  silent 
features  did  he  ask  a  kiss  and  invite  his  father's  right  hand 
to  close  his  eyes.  When  the  old  man  was  relieved  from  his 
torpor,  and  his  grief,  caused  by  the  bloodshed,  began  to  gain 
strength,  "  I  will  not,"  he  exclaimed,  "  lose  the  time  granted 
by  the  cruel  Gods,  and  I  will  pierce  my  aged  throat.  Argus, 
grant  pardon  to  thy  wretched  parent,  that  I  have  fled  from 
thy  embrace,  thy  last  kisses.  The  warm  blood  has  not  yet 
quitted  thy  wounds,  and  but  half-dead  thou  dost  lie,  and 
niayst  still  be  the  survivor." 

Thus  having  said,  although  he  had  stained  the  hilt  of  the 
sword  driven  through  his  entrails,  still,  with  a  headlong  leap, 


B.  m.  750-762.]  PHAKSALIA.  125 

he  descended  beneath  the  deep  waves.  His  life  hastening 
to  precede  the  end  of  his  son  he  did  not  entrust  to  but  one 
form  of  death. 

Now  do  the  fates  of  the  chieftains  take  a  turn,  nor  is  the 
event  of  the  warfare  any  longer  doubtful:  of  the  Grecian 
fleet  the  greatest  part  is  sunk;  but  other  ships,  changing 
their  rowers  \  carry  their  own  conquerors ;  a  few  with  pre- 
cipitate flight  reach  their  haven.  What  wailing  of  parents 
was  there  in  the  city!  What  lamentations  of  matrons 
along  the  shore !  Often  did  the  wife,  the  features  being 
disfigured  by  the  waves,  embracing  the  dead  body  of  a 
Roman,  believe  them  to  be  the  features  of  her  husband ;  and, 
the  funeral  pile  being  lighted,  wretched  parents  contended 
for  the  mutilated  body. 

But  Brutus,  victorious  on  the  deep,  added  to  the  arms  of 
Csesar  the  first  honor  gained  on  the  waves. 

1  Changing  their  rowers)  ver.  754.  On  being  taken.  Caesar  says,  in  the 
Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  7,  that  five  of  the  Massilian  ships  were  sunk,  and  four 
taken. 


126 

BOOK  THE  FOURTH. 

CONTENTS. 

In  the  meantime  Caesar  arrives  in  Spain,  where  Afranius  and  Petreiiu  are 
in  command  of  Pompey's  forces,  consisting  of  Romans  and  Spaniards,  1-10. 
A  battle  is  fought  at  Ilerda,  11-47.  By  reason  of  the  rains  in  the  spring 
an  inundation  ensues,  and  Caesar's  camp  is  overflowed,  48-90.  A  famine 
prevails,  91-97.  And  then  a  flood,  98-120.  When  the  waters  subside 
Petreius  departs  from  Ilerda,  121-147.  Caesar  comes  up  with  him,  and 
a  battle  is  fought,  148-156.  Caesar  commands  the  flying  enemy  to  be 
intercepted,  157-166.  Both  sides  pitch  theircamps.  The  fellow-citizens 
recognize  each  other,  and  interchange  courtesies,  167-194.  Bat  Petreius 
puts  an  end  to  this  good  feeling,  and  calls  his  own  men  to  arms,  195-211. 
He  then  harangues  his  troops,  212-235.  The  warfare  is  resumed,  236-253. 
The  Pompeian  troops  fly  towards  Ilerda,  254-263.  Caesar  shuts  them 
out  from  a  supply  of  water,  264-266.  The  sufferings  of  the  Pompeians 
are  described,  267-836.  Afranius  sues  for  peace,  837-362.  Which  Caesar 
grants  to  the  enemy,  363-401.  In  the  meantime,  Antony,  the  lieutenant 
of  Caesar,  is  besieged  by  the  adherents  of  Pompey  on  the  shores  of  the 
Adriatic,  and  his  troops  are  suffering  from  famine,  402-414.  He  then 
attempt*  to  escape  by  sea,  415-432.  Loose  chains  are  placed  by  the 
enemy  beneath  the  waves,  which  intercept  the  flight  of  one  of  Antony's 
rafts,  433-464.  Vulteius,  the  commander  of  the  raft,  exhorts  his  men  to 
slay  each  other  rather  than  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  465-520. 
They  obey  his  commands,  521-581.  Curio  sails  for  Africa,  and  landing 
at  the  river  Bagrada,  near  Utica,  is  informed  by  one  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  contest  which  took  place  near  there  between  Hercules  and  the  giant 
Antaeus,  581-660.  Varus,  the  Pompeian  commander,  is  routed  by  Curio, 
661-714.  Curio  fights  against  Juba,  but  being  surrounded  by  an  am- 
buscade, is  destroyed  with  his  forces,  715-798.  He  is  apostrophized  by 
the  Poet,  799-824. 

BUT  afar  in  the  remotest  regions  of  the  world  stern  Caesar 
wages  a  warfare,  not  injurious  with  much  slaughter1,  but 
destined  to  give  the  greatest  impulse  to  the  fate  of  the 
chieftains.  With  equal  rights,  Afranius2  and  Petreius* 

1  Not  injurious  with  much  slaughter)  ver.  2.     In  consequence,  as  is  seen 
in  the  sequel,  of  his  having  intercepted  the  supply  of  water  of  the  enemy. 

2  Afranius)  ver.  4.     L.  Afranius  was  a  person  of  obscure  origin,  and  was 
throughout  the  Civil  War  a  warm  friend  and  partisan  of  Pompey,  under  whom 
he   had  served   against  Sertorius  in    Spain  and  in   the  Mithridatic  war. 
He  was  afterwards  Consul,  and  obtained  a  triumph  in  B.C.  59,  probably  for 
some  advantage  gained  over  the  Gauls.     He  was  present  at  the  battle  of 
Pharsalia,  where  he  had  charge  of  the  camp.     He  fled  to  Africa  and  was 
taken  prisoner  and  put  to  death  shortly  after  the  battle  of  Thapsus.     He 
now  had  the  command  of  Hither  Hispania,  which,  with  three  legions,  had 
been  given  to  him  by  Pompey. 

*  And  Petreiut)  ver.  5.     M.  Petreius  first  served  under  Antony  against 


B.  iv.  4-21.]  PHAESALIA.  127 

•were  rulers  in  that  camp ;  an  agreement  divided  the  com- 
mon command  into  equal  shares ;  and  the  ever-watchful 
guard,  protector  of  the  trenches,  oheyed  alternate  standards. 
With  these,  besides  the  Latian  bands,  there  was  the  active 
Asturian1  and  the  light-armed  Vettones2,  and  the  Celts3, 
who  migrated  from  the  ancient  race  of  the  Gauls,  mingling 
their  name  with  the  Iberians. 

The  rich  soil  swells  with  a  slight  elevation,  and  with  a 
hill  of  gentle  slope  increases  on  high ;  upon  this  rises 
Ilerda4,  founded  by  ancient  hands;  the  Sicoris,  not  the 
last  among  the  Hesperian  rivers,  flows  by  with  its  placid 
waves,  which  a  stone  bridge  spans  with  its  large  arch,  des- 
tined to  endure  the  wintry  waters'.  But  an  adjoining  rock 
bears  the  standard  of  Magnus ;  nor  on  a  smaller  hill  does 
Caesar  rear  his  camp ;  a  river  hi  the  middle  divides  the  tents. 
The  earth,  expanding  from  here,  unfolds  extended  fields, 
the  eye  scarcely  catching  the  limits ;  and  thou  dost  bound 
the  plains,  impetuous  Cinga6,  being  forbidden  to  repel  the 

Catiline.  He  was  a  person  of  considerable  military  experience,  and  a 
staunch  partisan  of  Pompey.  He  was  one  of  the  legates  of  Pompey  in 
Spain,  and  after  his  defeat  by  Csesar,  joined  him  in  Greece.  After  the 
battle  of  Pharsalia  he  fled  to  Achaia  and  thence  to  Africa,  where,  after  the 
fatal  issue  of  the  battle  of  Thapsus,  he  and  king  Juba  fell  by  each  other's 
hand,  to  avoid  falling  into  the  power  of  the  enemy. 

1  The  active  Asturian)  ver.  8.     "  Astur,"  though  used  in  the  singular, 
means  the  Asturians,  or  natives  of  the  region  now  called  "  the  Asturias," 
in  Spain. 

2  The  light-armed  Vettones)  ver.  9.     The  Vettones,  or  Vectones,  were  a 
people  of  Lusitania   (now  Portugal),  separated  from   Asturia  by  the  river 
Durius,  now  the  Douro. 

*  And  the  Celts)  ver.  10.    He  means  the  Celtiberians,  who  were  descended 
from  the  Celts  who  had  originally  crossed  the  Pyrenees,  and,  becoming 
mixed  with  the  Iberians,  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  country,  occupied 
the  country  now  called  Arragon.     With  reference  to  these  levies  of  Pompey, 
Caesar  says,  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  39,  "  Afranius  had  three  legions,  Pe- 
treius  two.     There  were  besides  about  eighty  cohorts  raised  in   Hispania 
(of  which  the  troops  belonging  to   Hither  Hispania  had  shields,  those  be- 
longing to  Further  Hispania   leather   targets),    and    about  live  thousand 
horse,  raised  in  both  provinces." 

4  Upon  this  rises  Ilerda)  ver.  13.  Ilerda,  now  called  Lerida,  was  a  town 
of  the  Itergetes,  in  Hispania  Tarraconensis,  situate  on  an  eminence  over  the 
river  Sicoris  (now  the  Segre),  which  was  crossed  here  by  a  bridge  of  stone. 

*  To  endure  the  icintry  waters)  ver.  16.     Sufficiently  strong  and  high  to 
admit  of  the  passage  of  the  mountain  floods  of  winter. 

6  Impetuous  Cinga)  ver.  21.     Now  called  the  Cinca,  which,  with  the 


128  PHAESALIA.  [B.  iv.  21-32. 

waves  and  the  shores  of  ocean  in  thy  course ;  for,  the  streams 
being  mingled,  the  Iberus,  that  gives  it  to  the  region,  takes 
away  thy  name  from  thee. 

The  first  day  of  the  warfare  refrained  from  blood-stained 
battle,  and  drew  out  both  the  strength  of  the  chieftains 
and  the  numerous  standards  to  be  reviewed.  They  were 
ashamed  of  their  wickedness ;  fear  restrained  the  arms  of 
them  thw  frenzied,  and  one  day  did  they  devote  to  country 
and  the  broken  laws.  Then,  the  light  of  day  declining1, 
Caesar  by  night  surrounded  his  troops  with  a  trench  sud- 
denly formed,  while  the  front  ranks  kept  their  post2,  and 
he  deceived  the  foe,  and,  his  maniples  being  drawn  up  near 
each  other  in  close  ranks,  enveloped  the  camp. 

At  early  dawn  he  commanded11  them  with  a  sudden  move- 

Sicoris,  falls  into  the  river  Iberus,  or  Ebro.  The  Cinga  is  supposed  to  have 
lain  to  the  east  of  the  hostile  camps,  and  the  Sicoris  to  the  west. 

1  The  light  of  day  declining)  ver.    28.      "Prono  Olympo,"    literally 
"  Olympus  felling ; "     "  Olympus  "  being  here  used  to  signify  the  light  of 
the  day. 

2  The  front  ranks  kept  their  post)  ver.  30.     This  passage  is  rendered 
more  intelligible  by  a  reference  to  the  narrative  of  Caesar,  in  his  Civil  War, 
B.  i.  c.  41,  2  :  "  When  Caesar  perceived  that  Afranius  declined  coming  to  an 
engagement,  he  resolved  to  encamp  at  somewhat  less  than  half  a  mile's  dis- 
tance from  the  very  foot  of  the  mountain  ;  and  that  his  soldiers,  whilst  en- 
gaged in  their  works,  might  not  be  terrified  by  any  sudden  attack  of  the 
enemy,  or  disturbed  in  their  work,  he  ordered  them  not  to  fortify  it  with  a 
wall,  which  must  rise  high  and  be  seen  at  a  distance,  but  to  draw  on  the  front 
opposite  the  enemy  a  trench  fifteen  feet  broad.     The  first  and  second  lines 
continued  under  arms,  as  was  at  first  appointed.     Behind  them  the  third 
line  was  carrying  on  the  work  without  being  seen ;  so  that  the  whole  was 
completed  before   Afranius  discovered  that  the  camp  was  being  fortified. 
In  the  evening  Caesar  drew  his  legions  within  this  trench,  and  rested  them 
under  arms  the  next  night.     The  day  following  he  kept  his  whole  army 
within  it,  and  as  it  was  necessary  to  bring  materials  from  a  considerable 
distance,  he  for  the  present  pursued  the  same  plan  in  his  work ;  and  to 
eacli  legion,  one  after  the  other,  he  assigned  one  side  of  the  camp  to  fortify, 
and  ordered  trenches  of  the  same  magnitude  to  be  cut.     He  kept  the  rest 
of  the  legions  under  arms  to  oppose  the  enemy." 

3  At  early  dawn  he  commanded)  ver.  32.  This  attack  is  thus  described  in 
the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  43  : — "  Between  the  town  of  Ilerda  and  the  next 
hill,  on  which  Afranius  and   Petreius  were  encamped,  there  was  a  plain 
about  three  hundred  paces  broad,  and  near  the  middle  of  it  an  eminence 
somewhat  raised  above  the  level.     Caesar  hoped  that  if  he  could  gain  pos- 
session of  this  and  fortify  it  he  should  be  able  to  cut  off  the  enemy  from 
the  town,  the  bridge,  and  all  the  stores  which  they  had  kid  up  in  the  town. 
In  expectation  of  this,  he  led  three  legions  out  of  the  camp,  and  drawing 


B.  iv.  32-55.]  PHAESALIA.  129 

ment  to  ascend  a  hill,  which  in  the  middle  separated  Ilerda 
in  safety  from  the  camp.  Hither  did  hoth  shame  and  terror 
drive  the  foe,  and,  his  troops  hurried  on,  he  first  took  pos- 
session of  the  hill ;  to  these  valour  and  the  sword  promised 
the  spot,  but  to  those  possession  of  the  place  itself.  The 
loaded  soldiers  struggled  up  the  steep  rocks  ;  and  with  faces 
upturned  the  ranks  clung  to  the  opposing  mountain,  and, 
likely  to  fall  upon  their  backs,  were  elevated  by  the  shields 
of  those  that  followed.  There  was  opportunity  for  no  one  to 
poise  his  dart,  while  he  was  tottering  and  strengthening 
his  footsteps  with  his  javelin  fixed  in  the  ground,  while  they 
were  clinging  to  crags  and  stumps  of  trees,  and,  the  enemy 
neglected,  cut  their  way  with  the  sword. 

The  chieftain  beheld  the  troops  likely  to  fail  with  disaster, 
and  ordered  the  cavalry  to  take  part  in  the  warfare,  and  by  a 
circuit  to  the  left1  to  place  before  them  its  protected  side. 
Thus  was  the  foot,  readily,  and  with  no  one  pressing  upon 
it,  relieved,  and  the  disappointed  conqueror,  the  battle 
being  cut  short,  stood  aloft. 

Thus  far  were  the  vicissitudes  of  arms ;  the  rest  of  its 
fortunes  did  the  weather  give  to  the  warfare,  uncertain  with 
its  varying  fluctuations.  The  winter,  clogged  with  the  slug- 
gish ice,  and  the  dry  north  winds,  kept  the  showers  in  the 
clouds,  the  sky  being  frozen  up.  Snows  pinched  the  moun- 
tain districts,  and  hoar-frosts  destined  not  to  last  on 
seeing  the  sun ;  and  the  whole  earth  nearer  to  the  sky  that 
sinks  the  Constellations  was  parched,  hardened  beneath  the 
winter's  clear  sky. 

up  his  army  in  an  advantageous  position,  he  ordered  the  advanced  men  of 
one  legion  to  hasten  forward  and  take  possession  of  the  eminence.  Upon 
intelligence  of  this,  the  cohorts  which  were  on  guard  before  the  camp  of 
Afranius  were  instantly  sent  a  nearer  way  to  occupy  the  same  post.  The 
two  parties  engaged,  and  as  the  men  of  Afranius  had  reached  the  eminence 
first,  our  men  were  repulsed,  and  on  a  reinforcement  being  sent,  they  were 
obliged  to  turn  their  backs,  and  retreat  to  the  standards  of  the  legions." 

1  By  a  circuit  to  the  left)  ver.  41.  Lucan  seems  here  to  confound  the 
attempt  to  take  the  rising  ground  with  an  attack  on  the  town  made  by  his 
ninth  legion,  and  described  by  Caesar  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  45,  6.  "  The 
aid  given  by  the  cavalry  is  thus  described  in  the  latter  Chapter  : — "  Our 
cavalry  also,  on  either  flank,  though  stationed  on  sloping  or  low  ground, 
yet  bravely  struggled  up  to  the  top  of  the  hill,  and  riding  between  the 
two  armies,  made  our  retreat  more  easy  and  secure." 

K 


130  PHARSALIA.  [u.  iv.  56-76. 

But  after  the  vernal  carrier  of  Helle1  who  fell  off,  that 
looks  back  upon  the  Constellations,  brought  back  the  warm 
Titan,  and  once  again,  the  hours  having  been  made  equal 
according  to  the  weights  of  the  true  Balance,  the  days 
exceeded  in  duration'-;  then,  the  sun  left  behind,  at  the 
time  when  Cynthia  first  shone  dubious  with  her  honr3,  she 
excluded  Boreas,  and  received  flames  from  Eurus4.  He, 
whatever  clouds  he  finds  in  his  own  region,  hurls  on 
towards  the  western  world  with  Nabathrean  blasts  ';  both 
those  which  the  Arabian  feels,  and  the  mists  which  the  Gan- 
getic  land  exhales,  and  whatever  the  orient  sun  allows  to 
collect,  whatever  Corus,  the  darkener  of  the  eastern  sky, 
has  carried  along,  Avhatever  has  defended  the  Indians  from 
the  heat ;  the  clouds  removed  afar  from  the  east  rendered 
tempestuous  the  day  ;  nor  could  they  with  their  heaviness 
burst  upon  the  mid  region  of  the  world,  but  hurried  along 
the  showers  in  their  flight. 

Arctus  and  Notus  are  free  from  rams;  towards  Calpe 
alone  floats  the  humid  air.  Here,  where  now  the  lofty  sky 
of  heaven6  meets  with  the  limits  of  Zephyrus  and  the 
ocean,  forbidden  to  pass  beyond  they  roll  in  their  dense 
masses,  and  hardly  does  the  space  that  separates  the  earth 
from  the  heavens  contain  the  mass  of  darkened  air.  And  now, 
pressed  by  the  sky,  they  are  thickened  into  dense  showers, 

1  The  vernal  carrier  of  Helle)  ver.  57.  Aries,  the  Ram,  who  carried 
Helle  and  Phryxus  on  his  back  over  the  Hellespont,  when  the  former  fell 
off,  and  gave  her  name  to  that  sea.  He  alludes  to  the  entrance  of  the  sun 
into  Aries  in  the  Spring. 

*  The  days   exceeded  in  duration)  ver.   59.     When    the   days  became 
longer  than  the  nights  after  the  vernal  Equinox. 

3  Shone  dubious  with  her  horn)  ver.  60.     Because  her  horns  are  then  but 
indistinctly  seen. 

4  Received  flames  from  Eurus)  ver.  61.     Virgil,  in  the  First  Book  of 
the  Georgics,  remarks  that  the  approach  of  wind  causes  the  moon  to  be 
red  ;  "  vento  semper  rubet  aurea  Phoebe." 

*  With  Nabathcean  blasts)  ver.  63.     The  Nabataei,  or  Nabathse,  were  a 
people  situate  in  the  north-western  parts  of  the  Arabian  peninsula,  and  were 
said  to  be  descended  from  Nabath,  the  eldest  son  of  Ishmael.     They  after- 
wards extended  into  the  original  territory  of  the  Edomites,  or  ancient  Idumea. 
The  term  "  Nabataeis"  here  probably  signifies  "Eastern"  generally. 

*  The  lofty  sky  of  heaven)   ver.   73.     "  Summus  cardo "  here  seems  to 
mean  the  horizon.     Lucan  uses  the  word  "  cardo  "  very  indefinitely  and 
apparently  with  numerous  significations. 


B.  iv.  77-105.]  PHARSALIA.  131 

and,  united  together,  they  flow  downward  ;  nor  do  the  light- 
nings preserve  their  flames,  although  they  flash  incessantly ; 
the  bolts  are  quenched  hy  the  rains.  On  this  side,  with 
arch  incomplete,  the  rainbow  with  its  curve  spans  the  air, 
varying  in  colour  with  hardly  any  light,  and  drinks  of  the 
ocean1,  and  carries  the  waves,  borne  away,  ur  to  the  clouds, 
and  restores  to  the  heavens  the  ocean  spread  beneath. 

And  now,  the  Pyreneaii  snows2,  which  Titan  never  was 
able  to  melt,  flow  down,  and  the  roeks  are  wet  with  broken 
ice.  Then,  the  waters  which  spring  forth  from  wonted 
channels  have  no  passage,  such  an  extended  stream  does 
all  the  bed  of  the  river  receive  away  beyond  the  banks.  Now 
the  shipwrecked  arms  of  Cfesar  are  floating  in  the  plain, 
and,  carried  along  with  a  vast  torrent,  the  camp  is  swept 
away;  in  the  deep  trench  rivers  overflow.  No  capture  of 
cattle  is  easy,  no  fodder  do  the  furrows  under  water  bear ; 
through  mistake  of  the  covered  ways,  the  foragers,  scat- 
tered abroad,  are  deceived  amid  the  fields  hidden  from 
their  sight. 

And  now,  ever  the  first  attendant  on  great  calamities, 
ravening  famine  comes,  and,  besieged  by  no  enemy,  the 
soldier  is  in  want.  For  a  whole  fortune'1,  one,  not  a  prodigal, 
buys  a  little  corn.  O  the  pallid  thirst  for  gain !  The  gold 
proffered,  a  starving  seller  is  not  found  wanting.  Now  hills 
and  elevations  lie  concealed ;  now  one  continued  marsh  hides 
all  the  rivers,  and  sinks  them  in  its  vast  gulf ;  entirely  it 
absorbs  the  rocks,  and  bears  away  the  shelters  of  wild 
beasts,  and  carries  off  themselves ;  and,  stronger  than  they, 
it  whirls  hi  sudden  vortices  the  roaring  waters  and  repulses 
the  tides  of  ocean.  Nor  is  the  night,  spread  over  the 
sky,  sensible  that  Phcebus  rises ;  the  disfigured  face  of 

1  And  drinks  of  the  ocean)  ver.  81.  Virgil  and  Plautus  also  allude  to 
the  popular  belief  that  the  rainbow  drinks  of  the  waters  of  the  ocean. 

3  The  Pyrenean  snows)  ver.  83.  The  Pyrenees,  which  divide  France 
from  Spain,  were  called  "  Pyrene,"  or  "  Pyrensei  Monies."  They  are  called 
by  both  names  by  Lucan. 

a  For  a  whole  fortune)  ver.  95.  Livy,  in  his  28th  Book,  mentions  an  ex- 
traordinary instance  of  this  species  of  avarice.  He  says  that  during  the 
siege  of  Praeneste,  a  soldier  who  was  dying  with  hunger  sold  a  mouse, 
which  he  had  caught,  for  200  Roman  denarii,  but  that  he  did  not  long  sur- 
vive the  bargain. 

K  3 


132  PHARSALIA.  [B.  nr.  105-120. 

heaven  and  the  united  shades  mingle  the  varying  traces  of 
objects. 

Thus  lies  the  remotest  part  of  the  world,  which  tfie 
snowy  zone  and  perpetual  winters  oppress ;  in  the  heavens 
no  stars  does  it  behold,  not  anything  does  it  produce  with 
its  barren  cold .  but  with  ice  it  moderates  the  fires  of  the  Con- 
stellations1 in  the  middle  of  the  system.  Thus,  O  supreme 
Parent  of  the  world,  thus,  Neptune,  ruler  in  the  second 
rank2  of  the  ocean  trident,  mayst  thou  do,  and  mayst  thou 
render  dense  the  air  with  perpetual  showers ;  do  thou, 
Neptune,  forbid  to  return,  whatever  streams  thou  hast  sent 
forth.  Let  not  the  rivers  find  a  downward  course  to  the 
sea-shore,  but  be  beaten  back  by  the  waters  of  the  main ; 
and  let  the  shaken  earth  crumble  into  channels  for  the 
streams.  These  plains  let  the  Rhine  inundate,  these  the 
Rhone ;  hither  let  the  rivers  direct  their  vast  resources. 
Hither  send  the  Rhipsean  snows  to  thaw ;  hither  pour  forth 
the  pools  and  lakes,  and,  wherever  they  extend,  the  sluggish 
marshes,  and  rescue  from  civil  wars3  the  wretched  lauds. 


1  The  fires  of  the  Constellations)  ver.  109.    By  "ignes  medios  signorum," 
he  means  the  supposed  heat  of  the  Constellations   in  the  torrid  zone,  and 
that  the  northern  regions  counteract  it,  so  as  to  render  the  countries  habit- 
able which  lie  beneath  them. 

2  In  the  second  rani)  ver.  110.     "  Sorte  secunda,"  "in  the  second  rank." 
Neptune,  as  the  king  of  the  ocean,  ranked  next  to  his  brother  Jupiter,  the 
king  of  the  heavens. 

a  Rescue  from  civil  tears)  ver.  120.  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i. 
c.  48,  thus  describes  this  tempest  and  its  effects : — "  In  two  days  after 
this  transaction,  there  happened  an  unexpected  misfortune.  For  so  great 
a  storm  arose,  that  it  was  agreed  that  there  were  never  eeen  higher  floods 
in  those  countries.  It  swept  down  the  snow  from  all  the  mountains,  and 
broke  over  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  in  one  day  carried  away  both  the 
bridges  which  Fabius  had  built — a  circumstance  which  caused  great  dif- 
ficulties to  Caesar's  army;  for  as  one  camp  was  pitched  between  two  rivers, 
the  Sicoris  and  the  Cinga,  and  as  neither  of  these  could  be  forded  for  the 
space  of  thirty  miles,  they  were  all  of  necessity  confined  within  these  nar- 
row limits.  Neither  could  the  states  which  had  espoused  Caesar's  cause 
furnish  him  with  corn,  nor  the  troops  which  had  gone  far  to  forage  return, 
aa  they  were  stopped  by  the  floods ;  nor  could  the  convoys  coming  from 
Italy  and  Gaul  make  their  way  to  the  camp.  The  states,  too,  were  ex- 
hausted, because  Afranius  had  conveyed  almost  all  the  corn,  before  Caesar's 
arrival,  into  Ilerda,  and  whatever  he  had  left  had  been  already  consumed  by 
Caesar.  The  cattle  which  might  have  served  as  a  secondary  resource  against 


B.  iv.  121-136.]  PHARSALIA.  133 

But  the  Fortune  of  the  hero,  contented  with  this  slight 
alarm,  returns  in  full  career,  and  more  than  usual  do  the 
propitious  Deities  favour  him  and  merit  his  forgiveness. 
Now  the  air  is  more  serene,  and  Phoebus,  equal  to  the  waters, 
has  scattered  the  dense  clouds  into  fleecy  forms,  and  the 
nights  are  reddening  with  the  approaching  light ;  and,  the 
due  order  of  things  observed,  moisture  departs  from  the 
stars',  and  whatever  of  the  water  is  poised  aloft  seeks 
the  lower  regions. 

The  woods  begin  to  raise  their  foliage,  the  hills  to 
emerge  from  the  standing  waters,  and  the  valleys  to  become 
hard,  the  light  of  day  beheld.  And  when  the  Sicoris  re- 
gains its  banks  and  leaves  the  plains,  in  the  first  place<  the 
white  willow,  its  twigs  steeped  in  water,  is  woven  into 
small  boats,  and  covered  over,  the  bullock  being  slaugh- 
tered, adapted  for  passengers  it  floats  along  the  swelling 
stream.  Thus  does  the  Venetian  on  the  flowing  Padus, 
and  on  the  expanded  ocean  the  Briton  sail2;  thus,  when 
the  Nile  covers  everything,  is  the  Memphitic  boat  framed 
of  the  swampy  papyrus '. 

want,  had  been  removed  by  the  states  to  a  great  distance  on  account  of  the 
war." 

1  Moisture   departs  from,   the   stars)    ver.   126.      He    means   that   the 
moisture  now  departed,  which  before,   filling  the  clouds,  had  obscured  the 
light  of  the  stars. 

2  The  Briton  sail)  ver.   134.     These  were    like  the  coracles,  or  light 
boats,  which  Caesar  had  seen  used  by  the  people  of  Britain.     In  the  Civil 
War,  B.  i.  c.  54,  he  thus  describes   these  operations  : — "  When  Caesar's 
affairs  were  in  this  unfavourable  position,  and  all  the  passes  were  guarded 
by  the  soldiers  and  horse  of  Afranius,  and  the  hedges  could  not  be  re- 
paired, Caesar  ordered  the  soldiers  to  make  ships  of  the  kind  that  his  know- 
ledge of  Britain  a  few  years  before  had  taught  him.     First,  the  keels  and 
ribs  were  made  of  light  timber,  then  the  rest  of  the  hull  of  the  ships  was 
wrought  with  wicker-work,  and  covered  over  with  hides.     When  these  were 
finished,  he  drew  them  down  to  the  river  in  waggons  in  one  night,  a  dis- 
tance of  twenty-two  miles  from  his  camp,  and  transported  in  them  some  sol- 
diers across  the  river,  and  on  a  sudden  took  possession  of  a  hill  adjoining 
the  bank.     This  he  immediately  fortified,  before  he  was  perceived  by  the 
enemy.     To  this  he  afterwards  transported  a  legion ;  and  having  bejrun  a 
bridge  on  both  sides,  he  finished  it  in  two  days.     By  this  means  he  brought 
safe  to  his  camp  the  convoys  and  those  who  had  gone  out  to  forage,  and 
began  to  prepare  a  conveyance  for  the  provisions." 

3  Of  the  swampy  papyrus)  ver.  136.     Sulpitius,  the  Scholiast,  says,  that 
he  calls  the  papyrus  "  bibula,"  from  its  growing  in  the  sand,  which  sucks 
up  the  water. 


134  THARSALIA.  [a  iv.  137-156. 

Thrown  across  on  these  vessels  the  army  hastens  on 
either  side  to  curve  the  cut-down  wood l ;  and  dreading  the 
swelling  of  the  threatening  river,  it  does  not  place  the  wooden 
foundations  on  the  edges  of  the  banks,  but  extends  the 
bridge  into  the  midst  of  the  fields.  And  lest  the  Sicoris 
may  dare  anything  with  its  waters  rising  once  again,  it  is 
drawn  away  into  channels,  and,  the  stream  being  divided  by 
canals,  it  pays  the  penalty  for  the  more  swollen  waters. 
When  Petreius  sees  that  all  tilings  proceed  with  fortune  to 
Caesar,  he  abandons  the  lofty  Ilerda,  and,  distrusting  the 
might  of  the  knoAvn  world,  seeks  nations  unsubdued  -,  and 
always  fierce  in  arms  by  courting  death,  and  he  directs  his 
course  to  the  limits  of  the  world. 

Csesar,  beholding  the  hills  forsaken  and  the  camp  aban- 
doned, bids  them  take  up  arms,  and  not  look  for  bridge 
or  fords :1,  but  surmount  the  stream  •with,  hardy  arms. 
Obedience  is  given,  and  the  soldier,  rushing  to  the  battle, 
eagerly  hastens  on  a  path  which  in  flight  he  would  have 
dreaded.  Afterwards,  their  arms  regained,  they  warm  their 
soaking  limbs,  and,  by  running,  reinvigorate  their  joints 
chilled  by  the  stream,  until  the  shadows  decrease,  the  day 
speeding  onwards  to  the  noon.  And  now  the  cavalry  over 
takes  the  hindmost  ranks,  and,  undecided  for  flight  and 
for  fight,  they  are  detained. 

1  To  curve  the  cut-down  wood)  ver  137.  "  Snccisura  ciirvare  nemus ; " 
an  elliptical  method  of  expressing  "  to  cut  down  wood  and  bend  it  into 
arches  for  a  bridge." 

3  Seeks  nations  unsubdued)  ver.  146.  The  object  of  Petreius  and 
Afranius,  we  learn  from  Caesar,  was  to  repair  to  Celtiberia. 

3  Not  look  for  bridge  or  fords)  ver.  149.  Because  the  route  by  the 
bridge,  aa  Caesar  informs  us,  required  too  large  a  circuit.  His  cavalry 
bwnm  across  the  river.  He  says,  that  "  The  foot  being  left  behind,  and 
seeing  that  the  cavalry  had  overtaken  the  enemy  (Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  54) 
through  the  whole  camp,  the  soldiers  gathered  in  parties  and  declared  their 
regret  that  the  enemy  had  been  suffered  to  escape  from  their  hands.  They 
applied  to  their  tribunes  and  centurions,  and  entreated  them  to  inform 
Caesar  that  he  need  not  be  sparing  of  their  labour :  that  they  were  ready 
and  able,  and  would  venture  to  ford  the  river  where  the  horse  had  crossed. 
On  this,  Caesar  ordered  all  the  weaker  soldiers  to  be  selected  from  each  cen- 
tury, and  left  them  with  one  legion  besides  to  guard  the  camp.  The  rest 
of  the  legions  he  drew  out  without  any  baggage,  and  having  disposed  a 
great  number  of  horse  in  the  river,  above  and  below  the  ford,  he  led  his 
army  over.  A  few  of  his  soldiers  being  carried  away  by  the  force  of  the 
current  were  stopped  by  the  horse  and  taken  up,,  and  not  a  man  perished." 


B.  IT.  157-176.]  PHARSALIA.  135 

Two  rocks  raise1  their  craggy  ridges  from  the  plain,  a 
hollow  vale  being  in  the  midst.  On  the  one  side  the  ele- 
vated earth  forms  a  chain  of  lofty  hills,  between  which 
with  darkened  route  safe  paths  lie  concealed.  These 
straits  an  enemy  gaining  possession  of,  Ca3sar  perceives 
that  the  warfare  may  be  carried  thence  into  the  remote 
regions  of  the  earth  and  into  savage  nations.  "  Go,"  says 
he,  "  without  keeping  your  ranks 2,  and  in  your  speedy  course 
turn  back  your  hastening  force,  and  present  your  faces  and 
your  threatening  countenances  to  the  battle ;  and  let  not 
the  cowards  fall  by  an  ignoble  death ;  as  they  fly  let  them 
receive  the  weapon  straight  hi  the  breast." 

He  spoke,  and  he  came  in  front  of  the  foe  speeding  on- 
ward to  the  mountains.  There  they  pitched  their  camps  a 
little  distant  from  each  other,  with  a  narrow  trench  between. 
After  their  eyes,  straining  by  reason  of  no  distance,  had 
mutually  caught  sight *  of  each  other's  countenances  in 
full  view,  and  they  beheld  their  own  brothers,  and  children, 
and  fathers,  the  wickedness  of  civil  warfare  was  revealed. 

For  a  little  tune  they  held  their  peace  through  fear ; 
only  with  signs  and  the  waving  of  the  sword  did  they 
salute  their  friends.  Soon,  when,  with  more  powerful 
impulses,  ardent  affection  overpowered  the  rules  of  war, 
the  soldiers  ventured  to  pass  the  trench,  and  to  stretch 

1  Two  rocls  raise)  ver.  157.     Caesar  finds  that  there  is  a  passage  through 
these  defiles  to  remote  regions  and  barbarous  nations.     It  appears  from  his 
account  that  from  his  scouts  he  learnt  "  that  there  was  a  level  road  for  the 
next  five  miles,  and  that  there  then   succeeded  a  rough  and  mountainous 
country ;  and  that  whichever  should  first  obtain  possession  of  the  defiles 
would  have  no  trouble  in  preventing  the  other's  progress." 

2  Without  keeping  your  ranks)  ver.  162.    The  meaning  is,  that  Caesar  in- 
structed his  men  to  make  all  haste,  leaving  their  ranks,  to  go  by  a  circuitous 
path,  and  reaching  the  pass  before  the  enemy,  there  to  face  about  and  charge 
him.     Caesar  says,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  69,  that,  when  his  troops  began 
to  do  this, — "  At    first   the  soldiers  of  Afranius  ran  in  high  spirits  from 
their  camp  to  look  at  us,  and  in  contumelious  language  upbraided  us,  that  we 
were  forced  for  want  of  necessary  subsistence  to  run  away,  and  return  to 
Ilerda.     For  our  route  was  different  from  what  we  purposed,  and  we  seemed 
to  be  going  a  contrary  way." 

3  Had  mutually  caught  sight)  ver.  170.     He  means,  that  when  they  had 
encamped  they  were  so  close  that  they  could  easily  recognize  the  counte- 
nances of  each  other. 


136  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  176-194 

the  extended  hands'  for  an  embrace.  One  calls  out  the 
name  of  his  host ;  another  shouts  to  a  neighbour ;  a  youth 
spent  together  reminds  another  of  their  boyish  pursuits ; 
nor  is  there  a  Roman  that  does  not  recognize  an  enemy 
as  an  acquaintance.  The  arms  are  wet  with  tears,  with 
sighs  they  interrupt  their  kisses ;  and,  although  stained 
with  no  blood,  the  soldier  dreads  to  have  done  what  he 
might  have  done. 

Why  dost  thou  beat  thy  breast?  Why,  madman,  dost 
thou  groan  ?  Why  dost  thou  pour  forth  empty  laments,  and 
not  own  that  of  thine  own  accord  thou  hast  been  obedient 
to  criminality?  Dost  thou  so  greatly  dread  him,  whom  thou 
thyself  dost  make  to  be  dreaded  ?  Let  the  trumpet-call 
sound  to  battle,  do  thou  neglect  the  ruthless  signal ; 
let  them  bear  on  the  standards,  stay  behind  ;  soon  will  the 
civic  strife  come  to  an  end,  and  Csesar,  a  private  person, 
will  love  his  son-in-law.  Now,  Concord,  do  thou  approach, 
encircling  all  things  in  thine  everlasting  embrace,  O  thou 
salvation  of  things  and  of  the  harmonizing  world,  and  hal 
lowed  love  of  the  universe !  now  does  our  age  hold  a  vast  in 
fluence  on  what  is  to  come.  The  skulking  places  of  crimes 
so  many  have  come  to  an  end ;  pardon  is  torn  away  from 
an  erring  people ;  they  have  recognized  their  own  friends. 

1  To  stretch  the  extended  hands)  ver.  176.  These  circumstances  are 
thus  related  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  283 : — "  The  soldiers  having  ob- 
tained a  free  opportunity  of  conversing  with  each  other,  came  out  in  great 
numbers,  and  enquired  each  for  whatever  acquaintance  or  fellow-citizen  he 
had  in  our  camp,  and  invited  him  to  him.  First  they  returned  them  ge- 
neral thanks  for  sparing  them  the  day  before,  and  acknowledged  that  they 
were  alive  through  their  kindness.  Then  they  enquired  about  the  honor 
of  our  general,  and  whether  they  could  with  safety  entrust  themselves 
to  him ;  and  declared  their  sorrow  that  they  had  not  done  so  in  the 
beginning,  and  that  they  had  taken  up  arms  against  their  relations  and 
kinsmen.  Encouraged  by  these  conferences,  they  desired  the  general's  pa- 
role for  the  lives  of  Petreius  and  Afranius,  that  they  might  not  appear 
guilty  of  a  crime  in  having  betrayed  their  generals.  When  they  were 
assured  of  obtaining  their  demands,  they  promised  that  they  would  imme- 
diately remove  their  standards,  and  sent  centurions  of  the  first  rank  as 
deputies  to  treat  with  Caesar  about  a  peace.  In  the  meantime  some  of  them 
invite  their  acquaintances,  and  bring  them  to  their  camp,  others  are  brought 
away  by  their  friends,  so  that  the  two  camps  seemed  to  be  united  into  one, 
and  several  of  the  tribunes  and  centurions  came  to  Caesar,  and  paid  their 
respects  to  him." 


B.  iv.  194-215.]  PHARSALIA.  137 

O  Fates,  the  Deity  thus  unpropitious,  that  by  reason  of  a 
little  respite  increase  calamities  so  great ! 

There  was  a  truce,  and  the  soldiers,  mingled  in  either 
camp,  wandered  at  large  ;  in  friendship  on  the  hard  turf  they 
prepared  the  banquets;  and  with  the  mingled  wine  the 
libations  flowed1  on  the  grassy  hearths,  and,  their  couches 
united,  the  tale  of  the  wars  prolonged  the  sleepless  night : 
on  what  plain  they  first  came  to  a  stand,  from  what  right 
hand  sped  the  lance.  While  they  are  boasting  of  the  valiant 
things  which  they  have  done,  and  while  they  are  disagreeing 
on  many  a  point,  what  alone  the  Fates  are  seeking,  confi- 
dence is  renewed  in  them,  wretched  beings,  and  all  the  future 
criminality  waxes  the  stronger  by  reason  of  their  affection. 

For  after  the  treaty  for  a  truce2  is  known  to  Petreius, 
and  he  sees  himself  and  his  own  camp  being  betrayed,  he 
arouses  the  right  hands  of  his  household  troops  to  the 
accursed  warfare,  and,  surrounded  with  a  multitude,  head- 
long drives  the  unarmed  enemy  from  the  camp,  and 
separates  them,  joined  in  embraces,  with  the  sword,  and 
with  plenteous  bloodshed3  disturbs  the  peace.  Fierce 
anger  adds  words  to  provoke  the  battle  : — 

"  O  soldiers,  unmindful  of  your  country,  forgetful  of  your 
standards,  if  you  cannot  bestow  this  on  the  cause  of  the 
Senate,  to  return,  its  champions,  Csesar  being  overcome ; 
at  least  you  can,  to  be  overcome4.  While  there  is 

1  The  libations  floiced)  ver.  198.     Libations  of  wine  in  honour  of  Bac- 
chus were  poured  forth  on  the  hearths  that  were  temporarily  made  on  the 
grass. 

2  The  treaty  for  a  truce)  ver.  205.     In  allusion  to  the  overtures  made  by 
his  troops  to  Caesar.     See  the  Note  to  1.  176. 

3  With  plenteous  bloodshed)  ver.  209.      Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i. 
c.  75,  76,  mentions  the  conduct  of  Petreius  in  the  following  terms  : — "  Pe- 
treius did  not  neglect  himself;  he  armed  his  domestics ;  with  them  and  the 
Prcetorian  cohort  of  Spaniards  and  a  few  foreign  horse,  his  dependents, 
whom  he  commonly  kept  near  him  to  guard  his  person,  he  suddenly  flew  on 
the  rampart,  interrupted  the  conferences  of  the  soldiers,  drove  our  men  from 
the  camp,  and  put  to  death  as  many  as  he  caught.     Orders  were  given  that 
whoever  had  any  of  Cwsar's  soldiers  should  produce  them ;  as  soon  as  they 
were  produced,  they  put  them  to  death  publicly  in  the  Praetorium ;  but  most 
of  them  concealed  those  whom  they  had  entertained,  and  let  them  out  at  night 
over  the  rampart." 

*  You  can,  to  le  overcome)  ver.  214.  He  means,  that  if  they  cannot 
be  the  champions  of  the  Senate  by  the  conquest  of  Caesar,  still  they  may 
fight,  and  though  conquered,  thus  prove  their  fidelity. 


138  THARSALIA.  [u.  ly,  215-245. 

the  sword,  and  the  Fates  are  yet  uncertain,  and  blood 
shall  not  be  wanting  to  flow  from  many  a  wound,  will  you 
be  going  over  to  a  tyrant,  and  will  you  raise  standards  con- 
demned for  treason?  And  will  Caesar  have  to  be  entreated 
that  he  will  make  no  distinction  between  his  slaves  ?  Is 
life  also  to  be  begged  for l  for  your  generals  ?  Never  shall 
my  safety  be  the  price  and  the  reward  of  abominable  trea- 
son ;  civil  wars  tend  not  to  this,  that  we  should  live  on. 

"  Under  the  name  of  peace  we  are  betrayed.  Nations 
would  not  be  digging  iron  out  of  the  mine  that  retreats 
far  within  the  earth,  no  walls  would  be  fortifying  cities,  no 
spirited  steed  would  be  going  to  the  wars,  no  fleet  upon 
the  ocean  to  spread  its  tower-bearing  ships  upon  the  deep, 
if  liberty  were  ever  righteously  bartered  hi  return  for  peace. 
Oaths  sworn  in  accursed  criminality2  are  to  bind  my 
enemies,  forsooth!  but  by  you  is  your  fidelity  less  es- 
teemed, because  it  is  allowed  you  fighting  for  a  just  cause 
to  hope  for  pardon  as  well.  O  shocking  compact  of  dis- 
grace !  Now,  Magnus,  ignorant  of  thy  lot  throughout  the 
whole  world  thou  art  levying  annies,  and  art  arousing  the 
monarchs  who  possess  the  extremities  of  the  world,  when 
perhaps  by  our  treaty  safety  is  already  basely  promised  thee." 

Thus  he  spoke,  and  he  aroused  all  their  feelings,  and 
brought  back  the  fondness  for  criminality.  Thus,  when, 
unused  to  the  woods,  wild  beasts  have  grown  tame  in  an 
inclosed  prison,  and  have  laid  aside  their  threatening 
countenances,  and  have  learned  to  submit  to  man ;  if  a 
little  blood  comes  to  their  burning  mouths,  their  rage  and 
fury  return,  and,  reminded  by  the  tasted  gore,  their  jaws 
swell ;  their  anger  waxes  hot,  and  hardly  does  it  with- 
hold from  the  trembling  keeper.  They  rush  on  to  all 
wickedness,  and  broken  faith  commits  excesses,  which, 
amid  the  dark  night  of  battle,  Fortune,  to  the  dis 
grace  of  the  Deities,  might  have  been  guilty  of;  amid  the 

1  /*  life  also  to  le  begged  for)  ver.*219.  In  allusion  to  the  terms  which 
they  had  proposed  to  Caesar  for  the  safety  of  their  generals,  he  reproaches 
them  with  the  readiness  with  which  they  were  about  to  make  themselves 
and  their  generals  indiscriminate!}'  his  slaves. 

*  Sworn  in  accursed  criminality)  ver.  228.  In  allusion  to  the  promise 
of  safety  for  their  generals  which  Caesar  had  given,  contrary  to  his  own 
withes. 


B.  TV.  245-266.]  PHAESALIA.  139 

tables1  and  the  couches2,  they  stab  the  breasts  which  just 
before  they  have  enfolded  in  their  embraces.  And,  although 
at  first  lamenting  they  unsheathe  their  weapons,  when  the 
sword,  the  dissuader  from  right,  adheres  to  the  right  hand, 
soon  as  they  strike,  they  hate  their  own  friends  and 
strengthen  their  wavering  spirits  with  the  blow.  Now  the 
camp  waxes  hot  with  the  tumult,  and  with  the  riot  of  crimi- 
nality ;  the  necks  of  parents  are  wrenched.  And  as  though 
hidden  criminality  might  be  valueless,  they  expose  all  their 
monstrous  deeds  before  the  faces  of  their  chieftains ;  they 
take  delight  in  being  guilty. 

Thou,  Csesar,  although  despoiled  of  many  a  soldier, 
dost  recognize  3  the  Gods  of  heaven  as  favouring  tliee.  Nor 
indeed  in  the  Emathian  plains  4  was  thy  fortune  greater, 
nor  in  the  waves  of  Phocsean  Massilia  ;  nor  were  exploits 
so  great  performed  in  the  Pharian  seas  ;  since  through 
this  crime  alone  in  the  civil  warfare  thou  shalt  be  the  leader 
of  the  better  cause.  Polluted  by  an  accursed  slaughter,  the 
generals  dare  not  entrust  then*  troops  to  an  adjoining 
camp,  and  again  they  take  flight  towards  the  walls  of  lofty 
Ilerda.  The  cavalry,  meeting  them,  cuts  off  all  the  plain, 
and  encloses  the  enemy  on  the  parched  hills.  Then  Csesar 
strives  to  surround  them 3  destitute  of  water  with  a  deep 
entrenchment,  and  not  to  permit  the  camp  to  reach  the 
banks  of  the  river,  or  the  outworks  to  wind  around  plenteous 
springs. 

1  Amid  the  tables)  ver.  245.  This  is  contrary  to  the  account  of  the 
conduct  of  the  soldiers  given  by  Caesar  himself.  See  the  Note  to  1.  209. 

4  And  the  couches)  ver.  245.  The  "tori"  are  the  couches  on  which  they 
reclined  while  taking  the  repast. 

3  Dost  recognize)  ver.  255.     It  is  a  matter  of  doubt  with  the  Commen- 
tators what  is  the  true  meaning  of  "  agnoscis "  here.     Some  think  that  it 
means  that  Caesar  recognizes  the  Gods  as  propitious  to  him  in  this  transac- 
tion ;    while    others,  perhaps  with  some  reason,  consider  it  to  mean  that 
Caesar  shows  reverence  for  the  Gods,  in  not  violating  the  rites  of  hospitality 
and  good  faith  by  slaying  the  troops  of  Petreius  which  were  in  his  camp. 

4  Nor  indeed  in  the  Emathian  plains)  ver.  255.     He  means  to  say  that 
the  cause  of  Caesar  was  not  more  profited  by  his  successes  at  Pharsalia, 
Massilia,  and  in  Egypt,  than  by  the  favour  which  he  found  with  the  Gods 
on  this  occasion.     It  may  be  observed  that  this  is  one  of  the  very  few  occa- 
sions on  which  the  Poet  speaks  favourably  of  Caesar.  Indeed,  as  Rowe  justly 
observes,  the  baseness  and  cruelty  of  Petreius  were  inexcusable. 

4  Ccesar  strives  to  surround  them)  ver.  264.  These  events  are  related 
at  length  in  the  Civil  "War,  B.  i.  c.  80-84. 


140  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  267-298. 

When  they  beheld  the  road  to  death,  their  terror  was 
tumed  into  headlong  rage.  The  soldiers  slew  the 
horses,  no  useful  aid  to  people  blockaded ;  and  at  length, 
hope  faid  aside,  being  compelled  to  condemn  all  flight, 
doomed  to  fall  they  are  borne  upon  the  foe.  When  Csesar 
saw  them  running  down  with  extended  front,  and,  devoted, 
making  their  way  to  certain  death,  he  said : — 

"  Soldiers,  now  keep  back  your  darts,  and  withhold  your 
swords  from  them  as  they  rush  on ;  with  no  blood  shall  the 
victory  be  gained  for  me  ;  he  is  not  conquered  at  no  cost, 
who  with  his  throat  exposed  challenges  the  foe.  See  how 
life  being  hated  by  them,  valueless  to  themselves,  the  youths 
rush  on,  now  threatening  to  perish  with  loss  to  myself.  They 
will  feel  no  wounds,  they  will  fall  on  the  swords,  and  rejoice  in 
shedding  their  blood.  Let  this  zeal  forsake  their  minds,  let 
this  mad  fit  subside.  Let  them  be  rid  of  their  wish  to  die." 

Thus  did  he  suffer  them  to  be  inflamed  to  no  purpose 
as  they  threatened,  and,  the  war  forbidden,  to  wax  faint,  until, 
Phoebus  having  sunk,  night  substituted  her  lights.  Then, 
when  no  opportunity  was  given  of  mingling  in  the  fight, 
by  degrees  their  fierce  anger  moderated,  and  their  spirits 
cooled ;  just  as  wounded  breasts  manifest  the  greatest  courage 
while  the  pain  and  the  wound  is  recent,  and  the  warm  blood 
gives  an  active  impulse  to  the  nerves,  and  the  bones  have 
not  as  yet  cleaved  to  the  skin ;  if  the  victor  stands  con- 
scious of  the  sword  being  driven  home,  and  withholds  his 
hands,  then  a  cold  numbness  fastens  on  the  limbs  and 
spirit,  the  strength  being  withdrawn,  after  the  congealed 
blood  has  contracted  the  dried-up  wounds. 

And  now  deprived  of  water,  the  earth  first  dug  up, 
they  seek  hidden  springs  and  concealed  streams ;  and  not 
alone  with  mattocks  and  sturdy  spades  do  they  dig  up  the 
fields,  but  with  their  own  swords  :  and  a  well  upon  the 
hollowed  mountain  is  sunk  as  far  as  the  surface  of  the 
watery  plain.  Not  so  deeply  down,  not  daylight  left 
so  far  behind,  does  the  pale  searcher  *  for  the  Asturian  gold 

1  Does  the  pale  searcher)  ver.  298.  Claudian  also  speaks  of  the  gold- 
mines in  the  country  of  the  Asturians  in  Spain.  Lemaire  thinks,  appa- 
rently with  good  reason,  that  "  pallidus  "  is  to  be  read  in  a  literal  or  phy- 
sical sense.  Silius  Italicus  speaks  of  the  avaricious  Asturian  as  being  "con- 
color,"  "  of  the  same  colour,"  as  the  gold  which  he  seeks,  B.  i.  1.  231. 


B.  iv.  298-331.]  PHARSALIA.  141 

bury  himself;  still,  neither  do  any  rivers  resound  in  their 
hidden  course,  nor  any  new  streams  gush  forth,  on  the 
pumice-stone  being  struck ;  nor  do  the  sweating  caverns 
distil  with  small  drops,  nor  is  the  gravel  disturbed,  moved 
upwards  by  the  little  spring.  Then,  exhausted  with  much 
perspiration,  the  youths  are  drawn  up  above,  \vearied  with 
the  hard  incisions  in  the  flinty  rocks.  And  you,  waters, 
in  the  search  for  you  cause  them  to  be  the  less  able  to 
endure  l  the  parching  atmosphere.  Nor  do  they,  wearied, 
refresh  their  bodies  with  feasting,  and,  loathing  food,  they 
make  hunger  their  resource  against  thirst.  If  a  softer  soil 
betrays  moisture,  both  hands  squeeze  the  unctuous  clods 
over  their  mouths.  If  turbid  filth  is  lying  unmoved  upon 
the  black  mud,  all  the  soldiers  vying  with  each  other  fall 
down  for  the  polluted  draughts,  and  dying,  quaff  the  waters, 
which,  likely  to  live,  they  would  have  been  unwilling  :  after 
the  manner,  too,  of  wild  beasts,  they  dry  the  distended 
cattle,  and,  milk  denied,  the  loathsome  blood  is  sucked 
from  the  exhausted  udder.  Then  they  wring  the  grass 
and  leaves,  and  strip  off  the  branches  dripping  with  dew, 
and  if  at  all  they  can,  they  squeeze  juices  from  the  crude 
shoots  or  the  tender  sap. 

0  happy  they,  whom  the  barbarian  enemy,  flying,  has 
slain    amid    the    fields    with    poison  mingled    with    the 
springs-!      Though,    Ceesar,   thou   shouldst   openly  pour 
into  these  streams  poison,  and  the  gore  of  wild  beasts, 
and  the  pallid  aconite  that  grows  upon  the  Dicteean  rocks, 
the   Koman    youth,   not   deceived,   would    drink.      Their 
entrails  are  scorched  by  the  flame,  and  their  parched  mouths 
are   clammy,  Tough  with  scaly  tongues.      Now  do   their 
/eins   shrink   up,  and,  refreshed  with  no  moisture,  their 
;  ungs  contract  the  alternating  passages  for  the  air ;  and  hard- 
drawn  sighs  hurt  their  ulcerated  palates.     Still,  however, 
they  open  their  mouths,  and  catch  at  the  night  air.     They 
long  for  the  showers,  by  whose  onward  force  but  just  now 

1  The  less  able  to  endure)  ver.  305.     The  more  they  vainly  searched  for 
water,  the  more  thirsty  they  became. 

2  With  poison  mingled  with  the  springs)  ver.  320.     Several  opponents 
of  the  llomans  are  said  to  have  poisoned  the  rivers  and  springs ;  Pyrrhus, 
king  of  Epirus,  Jugurtha,  king  of  Mauritania,  Mithridates,  and  Juba,  are 
mentioned  in  history  as  having  so  done. 


142  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  331-351. 

all  things  were  inundated,  and  their  looks  are  fixed  upon 
the  dry  clouds.  And  that  the  more  the  want  of  water  may 
afflict  them  in  their  wretchedness,  they  are  not  encamped 
upon  the  scorching  Meroe  1  beneath  the  sky  of  the  Crab, 
where  the  naked  Garamantes v  plough ;  but,  the  army,  en 
trapped  between  the  flowing  Sicoris  and  the  rapid  Iberus, 
looks  upon  the  adjacent  streams. 

Now  subdued,  the  generals  yielded,  and,  arms  being  laid 
down,  Afranius,  the  adviser  to  sue  for  peace,  dragging  after 
him  his  half-dead  squadrons  into  the  enemy's  camp,  stood 
suppliantly  before  the  feet  of  the  conqueror.  His  dignity  is 
preserved  as  he  entreats,  not  beaten  down  by  calamities,  and 
he  performs  between  his  former  good  fortune  and  his  re- 
cent misfortunes  all  the  parts  of  one  conquered,  but  that 
one  a  general,  and  with  a  breast  void  of  care  he  sues  for 
pardon 3 : — 

"  If  the  Fates  had  laid  me  prostrate  under  a  degenerate 
enemy,  there  was  not  wanting  the  bold  right  hand  for 
hurrying  on  my  oivn  death ;  but  now  the  sole  cause  of  my 
entreating  for  safety  is,  Csesar,  that  I  deem  thee  worthy  to 
grant  life.  By  no  zeal  for  party  are  we  influenced ;  nor  have 
we  taken  up  arms  as  foes  to  thy  designs.  Us  in  fact  did 
the  civil  warfare  find  generals ;  and  to  our  former  cause 
was  fidelity  preserved  so  long  as  it  could  be.  The  Fates  we 

1  The  scorching  Meroe)  ver.  333.  Meroe  was  a  spot  in  .^Ethiopia  called 
an  island  by  the  ancients,  though  not  really  so.  It  was  the  chief  emporium 
for  trade  between  Egypt,  ^Ethiopia,  Arabia,  and  India.  Of  course,  from  its 
southerly  situation,  the  heat  there  would  be  intense. 

4  The  naked  Garamantes)  ver.  334.  The  Garamantes  were  the  most 
southerly  people  known  to  the  ancients  in  North  Africa.  Herodotus  places 
them  nineteen  days'  journey  from  ^Ethiopia  and  the  shores  of  the  Indian 
Ocean,  fifteen  days'  journey  from  Ammonium,  and  thirty  days'  journey 
from  Kgypt. 

3  He  sues  for  pardon)  ver.  343.  The  following  is  the  speech  of  Afranins, 
on  this  occasion,  given  by  Caesar  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  84 : — "  That  Caesar 
ought  not  to  be  displeased  either  with  him  or  his  soldiers,  for  wishing  to 
preserve  their  fidelity  to  their  general,  Cneius  Pompeius.  That  they  had 
now  sufficiently  discharged  their  duty  to  him,  and  had  suffered  punishment 
enough,  in  having  endured  the  want  of  every  necessary;  but  now,  pent  up 
almost  like  wild  beasts,  they  were  prevented  from  procuring  water,  and  from 
walking  abroad,  and  were  unable  to  bear  either  the  bodily  pain  or  the  mental 
anguish,  but  confessed  themselves  conquered,  and  begged  and  entreated,  if 
there  was  any  room  left  for  mercy,  that  they  might  not  be  necessitated  to 
suffer  the  most  severe  penalties.'' 


B.  TV.  351-378.]  PHAESALIA.  143 

do  not  withstand ;  the  western  nations  we  yield,  the  eastern 
ones  we  open  unto  thcc,  and  we  permit  thee  to  feel  assured 
of  the  world  left  behind  thy  back. 

"  Nor  has  blood,  shed  upon  the  plains,  concluded  the  war 
for  thee,  nor  sword  and  wearied  troops.  This  alone  forgive 
thy  foes,  that  thou  dost  conquer.  And  no  great  things  are 
asked.  Grant  repose  to  the  wearied ;  suffer  us  unarmed  to 
pass  the  life  which  thou  dost  bestow ;  consider  that  our 
troops  are  lying  prostrate  along  the  plains  ;  nor  does  it  in- 
deed befit  thee  to  mingle  with  fortunate  arms  those  con- 
demned, and  the  captured  to  take  part  in  thy  triumphs ; 
this  multitude  has  fulfilled  its  destiny.  This  do  we  ask, 
that  thou  wilt  not  compel  us,  conquered,  to  conquer  along 
with  thyself." 

He  spoke;  but  C&sar,  readily  prevailed  upon,  and  serene 
in  countenance,  was  appeased,  and  remitted  continuance  in 
the  warfare 1  and  all  punishment.  As  soon  as  ever  the 
compact  for  the  desired  peace  had  pleased  them,  the 
soldiers  ran  down  to  the  now  unguarded  rivers ;  they 
fell  down  along  the  banks,  and  troubled  the  conceded 
streams.  In  many  the  long-continued  draughts  of  water 
suddenly  gulped  not  permitting  the  air  to  have  a  pas- 
sage along  the  empty  veins,  compresses  and  shuts  in  the 
breath ;  nor  even  yet  does  the  parching  plague  give  way ; 
but  the  craving  malady,  their  entrails  now  filled  with  the 
stream,  demands  water  for  itself. 

Afterwards  strength  returned  to  the  nerves,  and  power  to 
the  men.  O  Luxury,  prodigal  of  resources  2,  never  content 
with  moderate  provision,  and  gluttony,  craving  for  food 
sought  for  over  land  and  sea,  and  thou,  pride  of  a  sump- 
tuous table,  learn  from  this  with  how  little  we  have  the 
power  to  prolong  life,  and  how  much  it  is  that  nature  de- 

1  Continiiance  in  the  warfare)  ver.  364.  "  Uswm  belli  "  probably  means 
"any  further  employment  in  the  wnr,"  by  being  forced  to  serve  on  his  side; 
so  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  86  :  "  Caesar  gave  security  that  they  should 
receive  no  damage,  and  that  no  person  should  be  obliged,  against  his  inclina- 
tion, to  take  the  military  oath  under  him.'' 

"  Prodigal  of  resources)  ver.  373.  The  Poet  thus  exclaims  in  a  vein  of 
Stoicism  in  which  he  sometimes  indulges.  See  the  Second  Book,  L  351, 


144  PHARSALIA.  [B.  TV.  378-395. 

mands.  No  wine,  poured  forth  under  a  Consul  gone  out  of 
memory1,  refreshes  them  fainting;  from  no  gold  and 
porcelain2  do  they  drink ;  but  from  the  pure  water  does 
life  return.  Enough  for  the  people  is  the  stream  and 
bread.  Ah,  wretched  they  who  engage  in  wars ! 

Then,  leaving  their  arms  to  the  victor,  the  soldiers,  un- 
harmed with  spoiled  breast  and  free  from  cares,  are  dis- 
persed among  their  own  cities.  Oh!  how  much  do  they 
regret,  on  having  obtained  the  granted  peace,  that  they  have 
ever  with  vibrated  shoulders  poised  the  weapon,  and  have 
endured  thirst,  and  have  in  vain  asked  the  Gods  for  pros- 
perous battles.  To  those,  forsooth,  who  have  experienced 
successful  wai-fare,  there  still  remain  so  many  doubtful 
battles,  so  many  toils  throughout  the  world ;  should  waver- 
ing Fortune  never  make  a  slip  in  success,  so  often  must 
victory  be  gained,  blood  be  poured  forth  upon  all  lands, 
and  through  his  fortunes  so  numerous  Caesar  be  followed. 
Happy  he,  who  was  able  then  to  know,  the  ruin  of  the 
world  impending,  in  what  place  he  was  to  lie  :t.  No  battles 
summoned  them  forth  in  their  weariness  ;  no  trumpet-call 
broke  their  sound  slumbers. 

1  A  Consul  gone  out  of  memory)  ver.  379.     On  the  outside  of  the  "  am- 
phorae," or  "  cadi,"  the  titles  of  the  wine  were  painted,  the  date  of  the  vintage 
being  denoted  by  the  names  of  the  Consuls  then  in  office ;  and  when  the 
vessels  were  of  glass,  small  tickets,  called  "  pittacia,"  were  suspended  from 
them,  stating  to  a  similar  effect.     Ovid  has  a  somewhat  similar  passage  to 
the   present,  in   his  Art  of  Love,  B.  ii.   1.  88 : — "  For  me,  let  the  cask, 
stored  up  in  the  times  of  ancient  Consuls,  pour  forth  the  wine  of  my  an- 
cestors." 

2  And  porcelain)   ver.    380.      The    "  murrhina,"    or   "  murrea   vasa," 
"  myrrhine  vessels,"  were  first  introduced  into  Rome  by  Pompey.     Their 
value  was  very  great     Nero  is  said  to  have  given  three  hundred  talents  for 
a  drinking  cup  of  this  description.     Pliny  says  that  these  vessels  came  from 
the  east,  principally  from  places  within  the  Parthian  empire,  and  chiefly 
from  Caramania.     lie  describes  them  as  made  of  a  substance  formed  by  a 
moisture  thickened  in  the  earth  by  heat,  and  says  that  they  were  chiefly 
valued  for  their  variety  of  colours.     It  has  been  suggested  that  they  were 
made  of  a  kind  of  glass,  but  it  is,  perhaps,  more  probable  that  they  were 
made  of  Chinese  porcelain. 

3  He  was  to  lie)  ver.  394.     "  Quo  jaceat  jam  scire  loco."     There  is  some 
doubt  about  the  exact  meaning  of  "  jaceat;"  it  may  signify  simply,  "  where 
in  the  ruin  of  the  world  he  is  to  lie,"  without  any  stronger  signification,  or 
it  may  have  the  meaning  of  "  where  he  is  to  die." 


B.  iv.  396-415.]  PHAESALIA.  145 

Now  do  the  wives,  and  the  innocent  children,  and  the 
humble  dwellings,  and  the  land  their  own,  receive  no 
husbandmen  draughted  off1.  This  burden  as  well  does 
Fortune  remove  from  them  at  ease,  that  tormenting  party 
spirit  is  removed  from  their  minds.  The  one  is  the 
giver  of  their  safety,  the  other  was  their  leader.  Thus  do 
they  alone,  in  happiness,  look  on  upon  the  cruel  warfare 
with  no  favouring  wishes. 

Not  the  same  fortune  of  war  lasted  throughout  the 
whole  earth  ;  but  against  the  side  of  Caesar  something  did 
it  dare,  where  the  waves  of  the  Adriatic  sea  beat  against 
the  extended  Salonre  2,  and  the  warm  Jader :i  flows  forth 
towards  the  gentle  Zephyrs.  There,  trusting  in  the  warlike 
race  of  the  Curictans 4,  whom  the  land  rears,  flowed  around 
by  the  Adriatic  sea,  Antony,  taking  up  his  position  in  that 
distant  region,  is  shut  up,  safe  from  the  onset 5  of  war, 
if  only  famine,  that  besieges  with  certainty,  would  with- 
draw. The  earth  affords  no  forage  for  feeding  the  horses, 
the  yellow-haired  Ceres  produces  no  crops  of  corn;  the 
soldiers  strip  the  plains  of  grass,  and,  the  fields  now 
shorn  close,  with  their  wretched  teeth  they  tear  the  dry 
grass  from  off  the  turf  of  their  encampment.  As  soon  as 

1  No  husbandmen  draughted  off)  ver.  397.  Happy  in  not  having  to  await 
the  conclusion  of  the  war,  in  order  to  be  planted  (deduci)  in  the  enemy's 
country  as  military  colonists,  inasmuch  as,  being  disbanded,  they  immediately 
retired  to  their  own  homes. 

2  The  extended  Salonce)  ver.  404.    Salona,  or  Salonae,  was  an  important  city 
of  Illyria,  and  the  capital  of  Dalma,tia,  situate  on  a  small  bay  of  the  sea.    It 
was  the  seat  of  a  Roman  colony.     Here  the  Emperor  Diocletian  was  born, 
and  ended  his  days  in  retirement. 

3  The  warm  Jader)   ver.  405.      He  alludes  to  a  river  so  called  near 
Salona  ;  there  was  also  a  town  called  Jader,  or  Jadera,  on  the   Illyrian 
coast,  with  an  excellent  harbour. 

4  Race  of  the  Curictans)  ver.  406.     Curicta  was  the  name  of  an  island  in 
the  Adriatic,  off  the  coast  of  Illyria,  where  Dolabella  commanded  for  Caesar, 
while  Caius  Antonius  encamped  on  the  island,  and  was  besieged  by  Libo. 
He  must  not  be  confounded  with  his  brother,  Marc  Antony,  who  at  this 
time  was  at  Brundisium,  in  command  of  Caesar's  forces  there.     C.  Antonius 
•was  Proconsul  of   Macedonia  at  the  time  of  Caesar's  death,  and  being  de- 
feated by  Brutus,  was  slain  by  him  in  revenge  for  the  murder  of  Cicero  by 
Marc  Antony. 

5  Safe  from  the  onset)  ver.  409.     "Cautus"  has  here  the  unusual  meaning 
of  "  safe/'  or  "  secure." 

L 


146  PHABSALIA.  [B.  iv.  415-433. 

they  behold  their  friends  l  on  the  shore  of  the  opposite 
mainland  and  Basilus  their  leader 2,  a  new  stratagem  for 
flight  across  the  sea  is  discovered. 

For,  not  according  to  wont  do  they  extend  the  keels  and 
build  aloft  the  sterns,  but  with  an  unusual  shape  they 
fasten  firm  planks  together  for  supporting  a  massive 
tower.  For,  on  every  side,  empty  caissons  support  the 
raft :t,  a  series  of  which,  fastened  together,  with  extended 
chains  receives  alder  planks  laid  obliquely  in  double  rows. 
Nor  does  it  carry  its  oars  exposed  to  the  weapons  in  the 
open  front ;  but  that  sea  which  it  has  surrounded  with  the 
beams  the  oars  strike,  and  it  shows  the  miracle  of  a  silent 
course,  because  it  neither  carries  sails  nor  beats  the  dis- 
covered waves.  Then  the  straits  are  watched,  while  the  ebb- 
ing tide  is  retreating  with  lessening  waves,  and  the  sands 
are  laid  bare  by  the  sea  flowing  out.  And  now,  the  waters 
retiring,  the  shores  increase ;  the  raft,  being  launched,  is 
borne  gliding  along  on  the  receding  tide,  and  its  two  com- 
panions. Upon  them  all  a  lofty  tower  is  threatening  above, 
and  the  decks  are  formidable  with  nodding  pinnacles. 

Octavius,  the  guardian4  of  the  Illyrian  waves,  was  un- 

1  Behold  iJieir  friends)  ver.  415.  The  "socii"  here  mentioned  are  Dola- 
bella,  who  was  commanding  for  Caesar  on  the  mainland,  with  his  troops,  and 
whom  Basilus  had  joined  with  his  fleet,  while  waiting  to  relieve  Antonius. 

3  Basilus  their  leader)  ver.  416.  This  was  L.  Minucius  Basilus,  whose 
original  name  was  M.  Satrius,  before  he  assumed  that  of  his  uncle,  by  whom 
he  was  adopted.  He  served  under  Caesar  in  Gaul,  and  in  the  Civil  War  com- 
manded part  of  his  fleet  Like  Brutus  and  others,  though  a  personal  friend 
of  Caesar,  he  took  part  in  his  murder.  He  himself  was  slain  by  his  own 
slaves  about  a  year  after.  The  fifteenth  Epistle  in  the  sixth  book  Ad  Fami- 
liares,  was  written  by  Cicero  to  Basilus,  congratulating  him  on  the  death 
of  Caesar. 

3  Support  the  raft)  ver.  420.   The  whole  of  this  account  is  very  confused, 
and  Lemaire  suggests  that  it  is  one  description  formed  from  a  mixture  of 
several.     The  floats  or  rafts  seem  to  hare  been  of  oblong  form,  and  formed 
each  of  two  tiers  of  caissons,  or  "  cuppa?  "  (more  literally  "  wine  vats  "),  the 
apace  between  which  tiers  was  not  covered  "ver,  for  the  purpose  of  rowing, 
while  the  outer  sides  of  the  raft  were  protected  by  hurdles.     Being  thus 
rowed  from  within,  their  motion  would  naturally  astonish  the  enemy  when 
at  a  distance.     Lucan  speaks  of  the  floats  being  made  by  the  forces  of  Anto- 
nius, whereas  Florus  mentions  them  as  being  sent  by  Basilus  to  the  relief  of 
the  troops  on  the  island. 

4  Octavius,  the  guardian)  rer.  433.     This  was  M.  Octavius,  a  friend  of 


B.  iv.  433-447.]  PHARSALIA.  147 

willing  immediately  to  assault  the  raft,  and .  withheld  his 
swift  ships,  until  his  prey  should  be  increased  on  a  second 
passage ',  and  invited  them,  rashly  going  on  hoard,  to  try 
the  deep  once  more  through  the  pacific  appearance  of  the 
sea.  Thus,  while  the  hunter  encloses  the  scared  deer  in 
the  feather-foil2,  as  they  dread  the  scent  of  the  strong 
smelling  feathers,  or  while  he  is  lifting  the  nets  on  the 
forked  sticks  duly  arranged,  he  holds  the  noisy  mouth  of 
the  light  Molossian  hound :>,  and  restrains  the  Spartan  and 
the  Cretan  dogs ;  neither  is  the  wood  permitted  to  any  dog, 
except  the  one  which,  with  nose  pressed  to  the  ground,  scents 
the  footsteps,  and,  the  prey  found,  knows  how  not  to  bark, 
contented  by  shaking  the  leash 4  to  point  out  the  lair. 

And  no  delay  is  there;  the  masses  are  filled  again,  and,  the 
rafts  greedily  sought,  the  island  is  abandoned,  at  the  time 
when  at  nightfall  the  waning  light  now  opposes  the  first 

Cicero  and  Curule  .ffidile  B.C.  50.  He  espoused  the  cause  of  Pompey,  and 
was  appointed,  with  Q.  Scribonius  Libo,  to  the  command  of  the  Liburnian 
and  Achaean  fleets,  serving  as  legate  to  M.  Bibulus,  the  commander  of 
Pompey's  fleet.  He  and  Libo  defeated  Dolabella  on  the  Illyrian  coast. 
After  the  battle  of  Pharsalia,  he  retreated  first  to  Illyricum,  and  thence  to 
Africa.  The  last  time  that  he  is  mentioned  in  history  is  on  the  occasion  of 
the  battle  of  Actium,  when,  with  M.  Justeius,  he  commanded  the  middle  of 
Antony's  fleet. 

1  On  a  second  passage)  ver.  435.     The  meaning  of  this  is  obscure,  but  it 
seems  to  be  that  Octavius  would  not  attack  the  floats  till  the  first  suc- 
cessful attempt  had  led  them  to  return  and  fetch  away  more  troops  from  the 
island. 

2  In  the  feather-foil)  ver.  437.     The  "  formido,"  or  "  feather-foil,"  was  a 
toil  or  net  used  for  catching  deer,  and  covered  with  feathers  of  a  red  colour, 
for  the  purpose  of  scaring  them  away  from  breaking  through  the  nets  when 
inclosed.     The  "  odorata  penna  "  here  mentioned  is  supposed  by  some  to 
refer  to    the  smell   of  the  red  dye  in  which  the  feathers  were  steeped; 
others,  however,  think  that  it  refers  to  the  smell  of  the  feathers  themselves, 
and  cite  the  Cynsegeticon  of  Qratius  Faliscus,  where  he  says  that  the  feathers 
of  vultures  were  used  for  foils,  the  strong  smell  of  them  driving  away  the 
wild  beasts.     As  the  feathers  seem  to  have  been  used  for  scaring  the  deer, 
both  by  the  sight  and  the  smell,  the  line  may  mean,  "  the  deer  fearing  the 
strong-smelling  feathers  as  they  move  about  in  the  breeze,"  or,  "  fearing  the 
scent  of  the  strong-smelling  feathers." 

3  The  light  Molossian  hound)  ver.  440.    The  dogs  of  Molossus,  in  Epinig, 
were  famed  for  their  courage  in  the  chase,  while  those  of  Sparta  and  Crete 
were  prized  for  their  swiftness. 

*  By  shaking  Uie  leash)  ver.  444.  It  appears  from  this  passage,  that  when 
sent  into  dense  thickets  to  find,  the  dogs  were  held  by  a  long  leash  or  cord, 
and,  when  successful,  notice  was  given  to  the  hunter  by  the  shaking  of  it. 

L   S 


148  PHAESALIA.  [a  iv.  447-468. 

shades  of  night.  But  the  Cilicians  of  Pompey  with  their 
ancien-t  skill l  prepare  to  lay  stratagems  beneath  the  sea, 
and  suffering  the  surface  of  the  main  to  be  free,  suspend 
chains  in  the  midst  of  the  deep,  and  permit  the  connected 
links  to  hang  loose,  and  fasten  them  to  the  rocks2  of  the 
Illyrian  cliffs.  Neither  the  first  rafta  nor  the  one  that 
follows  is  retarded ;  but  the  third  mass  sticks  fast,  and  by 
a  rope  drawn 4  follows  on  to  the  rocks.  The  hollow  cliffs 
hang  over  the  sea,  and,  strange  !  the  mass  stands,  always 
about  to  fall,  and  with  the  woods  overshadows  the  deep. 
Hither  did  the  ocean  often  bear  ships,  wrecked  by  the 
north  wind,  and  drowned  bodies,  and  hide  them  in  the 
darkened  caverns.  The  sea  enclosed  restores  the  spoil; 
and  when  the  caverns  have  vomited  forth  the  water,  the 
waves  of  the  eddying  whirlpool  surpass  in  rage  the  Tau- 
romenian  Charybdis*. 

Here  one  mass,  laden  with  colonists  of  Opitergium0, 
stopped  short ;  this  the  ships,  unmoored  from  all  their 
stations,  surrounded ;  others  swarmed  upon  the  rocks  and 
the  sea-shore.  Vulteius  perceived7  the  silent  stratagems 
beneath  the  waves  (he  was  the  captain  of  the  raft), 
who  having  in  vain  endeavoured  to  cut  the  chains  with 
the  sword,  without  any  hope 8  demanded  the  fight,  un- 
certain which  way  to  turn  his  back,  which  way  his  breast, 

1  With  their  ancient  skill)  ver.  449.     He  alludes  to  the  skill  which,  from 
of  old,  the  Cilicians  had  possessed  in  naval  matters  in  consequence  of  their 
former  piratical  mode  of  life. 

2  Fasten  them  to  the  rocks)  ver.  452.      One  end  of  the  chain  or  boom 
was  fastened  to  the  rocks  on  the  shore,  while  the  other  was  probably  fastened 
down  with  anchors,  thus  extending  nearly  from  the  shore  to  the  point  of 
embarkation  in  the  island. 

3  Neither  the  first  raft)  ver.  452.     We  learn  from  Floras  that  two  were 
carried  over  by  the  high  tide. 

4  By  a  rope  drawn)  ver.  454.     Getting  entangled  by  the  chain  or  boom, 
the  float  appears  to  have  been  dragged  by  the  enemy  upon  the  rocks  off  the 
mainland,  among  which  was  the  whirlpool  here  described. 

5  Tauromenian  Charybdis)  ver.  461.     The  whirlpool  of  Charybdis,  in 
Sicily,  was  near  the  town  of  Taurornenus,  or  Tauromenium. 

*  "Colonists  of  Opitergium)  ver.  462.  This  was  a  Roman  colony  of 
Venetia,  in  the  north  of  Italy.  The  present  name  is  Oderzo. 

7  Vulteius  perceived)  ver.  465.     "We  learn  from   Florus  that  this  brave 
man  was  a  tribune  of  Caesar's  army,  but  nothing  more  is  known  of  him. 

8  Without  any  hope)  ver.  467.     Wishes  to  fight,  though  with  no  hope  of 
being  victorious. 


B.  rr.  463-499.]  PHARSALIA.  149 

to  the  warfare.  Valour,  however,  in  this  calamity  effected 
as  much  as,  ensnared,  it  was  able.  The  fight  was  be- 
tween so  many  thousands  pouring  in  upon  the  captured 
raft  and  scarcely  on  the  other  side  a  complete  cohort ;  not 
long  indeed,  for  black  night  concealed  the  dubious  light, 
and  darkness  caused  a  truce. 

Then  thus  with  magnanimous  voice  did  Vulteius  en- 
courage the  cohort  dismayed  and  dreading  their  approach- 
ing fate :  "  Youths,  free  no  longer  than  one  short  night, 
consult  in  this  limited  time  for  your  fortunes  in  this  ex- 
tremity. A  short  life  remains  for  no  one  who  in  it  has 
time  to  seek  death  for  himself;  nor,  youths,  is  the  glory  of 
death  inferior,  in  running  to  meet  approaching  fate. 
The  period  of  their  life  to  come  being  uncertain  to  all, 
equal  is  the  praise  of  courage,  both  in  sacrificing  the  years 
which  you  have  hoped  for,  and  in  cutting  short  the  mo- 
ments of  your  closing  existence,  while  by  your  own  hand 
you  hasten  your  fate.  No  one  is  compelled  to  wish  to  die. 
No  way  for  flight  is  open ;  our  fellow-citizens  stand  on  every 
side  bent  against  our  throats.  Determine  on  death,  and 
all  fear  is  gone ;  whatever  is  necessary,  that  same  desire. 

"  Still,  we  have  not  to  fall  amid  the  dark  haze  of  warfare, 
or  when  armies  envelope  their  own  darts  with  the  shades 
intermingling,  when  heaped  up  bodies  are  lying  on  the 
plain,  and  every  death  goes  to  the  common  account,  and 
valour  perishes  overwhelmed.  In  a  ship  have  the  Gods 
placed  us  conspicuous  to  our  allies  and  to  the  foe.  The 
seas  will  find  us  witnesses,  the  land  will  find  them,  the 
island  from  the  summit  of  its  cliffs  will  present  them  ;  the 
two  sides  from  opposite  shores1  will  be  spectators.  For- 
tune !  an  example  hi  our  deaths  how  great  and  memora- 
ble thou  art  contemplating  I  know  not.  Whatever  me- 
morials in  ages  past  fidelity  has  afforded  and  a  soldier's  duty 
preserved  by  the  sword,  the  same  our  youths  will  transcend. 

1  From  opposite  shores)  ver.  495.  "  Diverse  a  littore."  This  description 
is  very  confused,  and  it  is  difficult  to  say  what  were  the  localities  of  the 
different  parties.  It  would  seem  that  the  island  was  probably  at  the 
mouth  of  a  river,  and  that  the  mainland  on  one  side  of  the  river  was  occu- 
pied by  Antonius  and  his  troops,  while  the  Pompeians  had  possession  of  the 
mainland  on  the  other  side,  on  which  they  now  dragged  the  raft  of 
Vulteius. 


160  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  500  527. 

"  For,  Csesnr,  to  fall  upon  our  own  swords  for  thee  we 
deem  to  be  but  little ;  but  to  us,  hemmed  in,  no  greater 
ones  are  existing,  for  us  to  give  as  pledges  of  affection  so 
great.  An  envious  lot  has  cut  off  much  from  our  praises, 
in  that  we  are  not  environed,  captured  together  with  our  old 
men  and  children1.  Let  the  enemy  know  that  we  are  men 
unsubdued,  and  dread  our  courage,  glowing  and  eager  for 
death,  and  be  glad  that2  no  more  rafts  have  stuck  fast 
They  will  be  trying  to  corrupt  us  with  treaties  and  with  a 
disgraced  life.  O  would  that,  in  order  that  our  distin- 
guished death  might  gain  the  greater  fame,  they  would  prof- 
fer pardon,  and  bid  us  hope  for  safety;  that  they  might 
not,  when  we  pierce  our  vitals  with  the  warm  weapon,  think 
that  we  are  desperate.  By  great  valour  must  we  deserve, 
that  Caesar,  a  few  among  so  many  thousands  being  lost, 
may  call  this  a  loss  and  a  calamity. 

"  Though  the  Fates  should  afford  an  egress  and  let  us 
escape,  I  would  not  wish  to  avoid  what  is  pressing  on. 
I  have  parted  with  life,  companions,  and  am  wholly  im- 
pelled by  the  longing  for  approaching  death.  It  is  a  frenzy. 
To  those  alone  is  it  granted  to  feel  it  whom  now  the 
approach  of  doom  is  influencing ;  and  the  Gods  conceal 
from  those  destined  to  live,  in  order  that  they  may  endure 
to  live,  that  it  is  sweet  to  die." 

Thus  did  courage  arouse  all  the  spirits  of  the  magnani- 
mous youths ;  whereas,  before  the  words  of  their  leader, 
they  all  beheld  with  moistened  eyes  the  stars  of  heaven, 
and  were  in  dread  at  the  turning  of  the  Wain  of  the  Bear, 
those  same,  when  his  precepts  had  influenced  their  brave 
minds,  now  longed  for  day.  Nor  was  the  sky  then  slow  to 
sink  the  stars  in  the  main ;  for  the  sun  was  occupying  the 
Ledrean  Constellations3  when  his  light  is  most  elevated  in 

1  With  our  old  men  and  children)  ver.  504.  Probably  in  allusion  to  the 
Saguntines,  who  slew  their  aged  people  and  children  rather  than  allow  them 
to  fall  into  the  possession  of  the  enemy. 

*  And  be  glad  Utat)  ver.  506.  Because  he  must  envy  onr  glory  in  dying 
thus  valiantly. 

3  The  Ledcean  ConstellatioTis)  ver.  526.  He  means  the  Constellation 
Gemini,  supposed  to  have  been  formed  by  Castor  and  Pollux,  the  twin  sons 
of  Jupiter  and  Leda.  The  meaning  of  this  circumlocution  is,  that  the  sun 
was  passing  from  Gemini  into  Cancer,  and  that  it  was  about  the  beginning 
of  June. 


B.  iv.  527-550.]  PHAESALIA.  151 

the  Crab.  A  short  night  was  then  urging  the  Thessalian 
arrows1.  The  rising  day  disclosed  the  Istrians-  standing 
on  the  rocks,  and  the  warlike  Liburnians:J  on  the  sea  with 
the  Grecian  fleet.  The  fight  suspended,  they  first  tried  to 
conquer  by  a  treaty,  it  perchance  life  might  become  more  de- 
sirable to  those  entrapped,  through  the  very  delay  of  death. 

Life  now  forsworn,  the  devoted  youths  stood  resolved, 
and,  secure  in  fight,  their  deaths  assured  to  themselves  by 
their  own  hands ;  and  in  no  one  of  them  did  the  outcry  of 
the  enemy  shake  the  minds  of  the  heroes  prepared  for  the 
worst;  and  at  the  same  time,  both  by  sea  and  land,  few 
in  number,  they  bore  up  against  innumerable  forces,  so 
great  was  their  confidence  in  death.  And  Avhen  it  seemed 
that  in  the  warfare  blood  enough  had  flowed,  their  fury 
was  turned  from  the  enemy.  First,  Vulteius  himself,  the 
commander  of  the  float,  his  throat  bared,  now  demanding 
death,  exclaims  : — 

"  Is  there  any  one  of  the  youths  whose  right  hand  is 
worthy  of  my  blood,  and  who,  with  certain  assurance,  can 
testify  that  with  wounds  from  me  he  is  ready  to  die  ? " 
Having  said  no  more,  already  has  not  one  sword  alone 
pierced  his  entrails.  He  commends  all,  but  him  to  whom  he 
owes  the  first  wounds,  dying,  he  slays  with  a  grateful  stroke. 
The  others  rush  to  meet  each  otlier,  and  the  whole  horrors 
of  warfare  on  one  side  do  they  perpetrate.  Thus  did  the 
Dircsean  band  spring  up  from  the  seed  sown  by  Cadmus4, 

1  The  Thessalian  arrows)  ver.  528.  He  alludes  to  the  Constellation  Sagit- 
tarius, or  the  Archer,  which  was  supposed  to  be  formed  by  Chiron,  the  Cen- 
taur, who  dwelt  in  Thessaly.  Being  opposite  to  Gemini,  it  then  rises  at 
night. 

*  Disclosed  the  Islrians)  ver.  529.  The  Histri,  or  Istri,  here  mentioned, 
were  the  inhabitants  of  Histria,  a  peninsula  at  the  northern  extremity  of  the 
Adriatic.  They  were  a  warlike  Illyrian  race,  and  were  the  partisans  of 
Pompey,  as  here  seen.  Their  chief  towns  were  Tergeste  and  Pola. 

3  The  warlike  Liburnians)  ver.  530.     The  Liburni  were  the  inhabitants 
of  Liburnia,  a  district  of  Illyricum ;  they  were  very  skilful  sailors,  and,  on 
this  occasion,  were  adherents  to  the  cause  of  Pompey.     Their  light-sailing 
vessels  were  the  original  models  of  the  "  Liburnicae  "  or  "  Liburnae  naves  "  of 
the  Romans. 

4  Seed  sown  by  Cadmus)  ver.  550.     He  alludes  to  the  occasion  when 
Cadmus  slew  the  dragon  near  the  fountain  of  Dirce,  and  sowed  its  teeth  in 
the  ground,  from  which  soldiers  sprang  up  who  slew  each  other.     See  the 
Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  iii.  1. 100,  ct  seq.      This  was  ominous  of  the 


152  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  550-576. 

and  fall  by  the  wounds  of  its  own  side,  a  dire  presage  to 
the  Theban  brothers ;  the  earth-born  ones,  too,  sprung  on 
the  plains  of  Phasis '  from  the  wakeful  teeth  of  the  dragon, 
the  anger  being  enflamed  by  magic  charms,  filled  the  fur- 
rows so  vast  with  kindred  blood  ;  and  Medea  herself  shud- 
dered at  the  crime2  which  she  had  wrought  with  herbs 
before  untried. 

Thus  engaged  to  mutual  destruction  do  the  youths  fall, 
and  in  the  deaths  of  the  heroes  death  has  too  great  a 
share  in  the  valour ;  equally  do  they  slay  and  fall  with 
deadly  wounds ;  nor  does  his  right  hand  deceive  any  one. 
Nor  are  the  wounds  owing  to  the  swords  driven  home ; 
the  blade  is  run  against  by  the  breast,  and  with  their 
throats  they  press  against  the  hand  of  him  who  gives  the 
wound.  When  with  a  blood-stained  fate  brothers  rush  upon 
brothers,  and  the  son  upon  the  parent,  still,  with  no  trem- 
bling right  hand,  with  all  their  might  they  drive  home  the 
swords.  There  is  but  one  mark  of  duty  in  those  who 
strike,  not  to  repeat  the  blow.  Now,  half-dead,  they  drag 
their  entrails,  gushing  out,  to  the  hatches,  and  they  pour 
into  the  sea  plenteous  blood.  It  gives  them  pleasure  to  be- 
hold the  scorned  light  of  day,  and  with  proud  looks  to  gaze 
upon  their  conquerors,  and  to  feel  the  approach  of  death. 

Now  is  the  raft  beheld  heaped  up  with  the  bloody 
slaughter,  and  the  victors  give  the  bodies  to  the  funeral 
piles,  the  generals  wondering :|  that  to  any  one  his  leader 
can  be  of  value  so  great.  Fame,  spreading  abroad  over 
the  whole  world,  has  spoken  with  greater  praises  of  no  ship 
Still,  after  these  precedents  of  the  heroes,  cowardly  na- 
tions will  not  come  to  a  sense  how  far  from  difficult  it  is 

deaths  of  Eteocles  and  Polynices,  the  brothers,  descendants  of  Cadmus,  by 
each  other's  hands. 

1  On  the  plains  of  Phasis)  ver.  552.  Jason  also  at  Colchis,  or  "  the 
plains  of  Phasis,"  slew  the  dragon  that  guarded  the  Golden  Fleece,  and,  sowing 
its  teeth  in  the  ground,  a  race  of  men  sprang  up,  on  which,  through  the  arts 
of  Medea,  they  turned  their  weapons  against  each  other.  See  Ovid's  Meta- 
morphoses, B.  vii.  1. 122,  et  teq. 

a  Shuddered  at  the  crime)  ver.  556.  The  crime  of  fratricide  which  those 
sprung  from  the  teeth  were  committing,  after  Jason  had  thrown  the  stone 
among  them,  as  related  by  Ovid. 

3  The  generals  wondering)  ver.  572.  Octavius  and  Libo,  the  leaders  of 
Pompey'a  forces. 


B.  iv.  577-592.]  PHARSALIA.  153 

to  escape  slavery  by  ones  own  hand.  But  tyrants'  rule  is 
feared  by  reason  of  the  sword,  and  liberty  is  galled  by 
cruel  arms,  and  is  ignorant  that  swords  were  given  that 
no  one  might  be  a  slave.  Death,  I  wish  that  thou  wouldst 
refuse  to  withdraw  the  fearful  from  life,  but  that  valour 
alone  could  bestow  thee ! 

Not  more  inactive  than  this  warfare  was  the  one  which  at 
that  time  was  raging  in  the  Libyan  fields.  For  the  bold 
Curio  unmoors  his  ships  from  the  shore  of  Lilybseum  l, 
and,  no  boisterous  north  wind  being  caught  in  his  sails, 
makes  for  the  shores  between  the  half-buried  towers  of 
great  Carthage  and  Clupea2  with  its  well-known  encamp- 
ment^ ;  and  his  first  camp  he  pitches  at  a  distance  from 
the  surging  sea,  where  the  sluggish  Bagrada4  betakes  it- 
self, the  plougher-up  of  the  parched  sand. 

Thence  he  repairs  to  the  hills  and  the  rocks  eaten  away 
on  every  side,  which  antiquity,  not  without  reason,  names 
the  realms  of  Antseus5.  A  rude  countryman  informed 
him,  desiring  to  know  the  reasons  for  the  ancient  name, 
what  was  known  to  him  through  many  ancestors. 

1  The  shore  of  Lilylceum)  ver.  583.      Lilybseum  was  a  town  on  the 
western  coast  of  Sicily,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Marsala,  situate  on  a  pro- 
montory of  the  same  name,  opposite  to  the  coast  of  Africa.     Caesar,  in  the 
Civil  War,  B.  ii.  1.  23,  thus  mentions  the  departure  of  Curio  for  Africa  : — 
"  About  the  snme  time  Caius  Curio,  having  sailed  from  Sicily  to  Africa,  and, 
from  the  first,  despising  the  forces  of  Publius  Attius  Varus,  transported  only 
two  of  the  four  legions  which  he  had  received  from  Caesar,  and  five  hundred 
horse,  and  having  spent  two  days  and  three  nights  on  the  voyage,  arrived  at 
a  place  called  Aquilaria,  which  is  about  twenty-two  miles  distant  from 
Clupea,  and,  in  the  summer  season,  has  a  convenient  harbour." 

2  And  Clupea)  ver.  586.     Clupea,  or  Clypea,  was  originally  called  Aspis. 
It  was  a  city  on  a  promontory  so  called,  in  the  north-east  of  the  Carthagi- 
nian territory.     It  was  founded  by  Agathocles,  king  of  Sicily,  and  was 
taken  in  the  first  Punic  war  by  the  Romans,  who  called  it  Clypea,  the 
translation  of  Aspis,  meaning  "a  shield."     Its  present  name  is  Klibiah. 

3  With  its  -well-known  encampment)  ver.  586.     Probably  from  the  circum- 
stance of  Hercules  having  been  said  to  have  landed  there,  in  his  expedition 
against  Antaeus.     Cornelius  Scipio,  as  mentioned  by  Lucan,  had  formerly  en- 
camped in  that  neighbourhood,  whence  the  spot  was  called  "  Castra  Corne- 
liana." 

4  The  sluggish  Bagrada)  ver.  588.     This  river,  which  is  now  called  the 
"  Mejerdah,"  falls  into  the  sea  near  the  ancient  Utica. 

4  Realms  of  Ante-us)  ver.  590.  Strabo  mentions  this  mountain  chain  as 
"  the  tomb  of  Antaeus,"  and  describes  it  as  extending  many  hundreds  of 
miles,  from  Tingitana,  in  Mauritania,  to  the  hills  in  the  vicinity  of  Utica. 


154  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  593-616. 

"  Earth,  not  as  yet  ban-en,  after  the  Giants  being  born, 
conceived  a  dreadful  offspring  in  the  Libyan  caves.  Nor 
to  the  Earth  was  Typhon  so  just  a  ground  of  pride,  or 
Tityus  and  the  fierce  Briareus ;  and  she  spared  the  hea- 
vens, in  that  she  did  not  bring  forth  Antseus  in  the  Phle- 
grsean  fields1.  By  this  privilege  as  well  did  the  Earth 
redouble  the  strength  so  vast  of  her  offspring,  in  that, 
when  they  touched  their  parent,  the  limbs  now  exhausted 
were  vigorous  again  with  renewed  strength.  This  cavern 
was  his  abode ;  they  report  that  under  the  lofty  rock  he 
lay  concealed,  and  had  caught  lions  for  his  food.  For 
his  sleep  no  skins  of  wild  beasts  were  wont  to  afford  a 
bed,  no  wood  a  couch,  and  lying  on  the  bare  earth  he  reco- 
vered his  strength.  The  Libyans,  tillers  of  the  fields,  pe- 
rish; they  perish  whom  the  sea  has  brought;  and  his 
strength,  for  a  long  time  not  using  the  aid  of  falling, 
slights  the  gift  of  the  Earth ;  unconquered  was  he  in 
strength  by  all,  although  he  kept  standing. 

"'At  length  the  report  of  the  blood-stained  pest  was 
spread  abroad,  and  invited  to  the  Libyan  shores  the  mag- 
nanimous Alcides,  who  was  relieving  the  land  and  sea  from 
monsters.  He  threw  off  the  skin  of  the  lion  of  Cleonse2, 
Antaeus  that  of  a  Libyan  lion.  The  stranger  besprinkled 
his  limbs  with  oil,  the  custom  of  the  Olympic  exercises3 
observed ;  the  other,  not  entirely  trusting  to  touching  his 
mother  with  his  feet,  sprinkled  warm  sand4  as  an  aid  to  his 

1  The  Phlegraan  fields)  ver.  597.     The  Phlegraean  plains  were  said  to  be 
situate  in  Thessaly  or  Macedonia,  and  there  the  Earth  gnve  birth  to  Typhon, 
Tityus,  and  Briareus,  who  waged  war  against  the  Gods.     The  volcanic  tract 
extending  from  Capua  to  Cumae  in  Campania  was  called  by  the  same  name, 
and  the  tradition  was,  that  there,  too,  the  Giants  warred  with  the  Gods. 

2  The  lion  of  Cleonce)  ver.  612.     The  Nemean  lion,  whose  skin  Hercules 
wore,  is  so  called  from  the  town  of  Cleonse,  which  was  near  the  spot  where 
it  was  slain. 

3  The  Olympic  exercises)  ver.  614.     At  the  Olympic  games,  and  at  the 
"palaestrae"  in  general,  it  was  the  custom  of  the  wrestlers  to  anoint  their 
bodies  with  "  ceroma,"  a  mixture  of  oil  and  wax. 

4  Sprinkled  warm  sand)  ver.  616.     This  must  have  been  necessarily  laid 
upon  the  ceroma  with  which  he  anointed  himself.     Lucan  says  that  it  was 
done  in  order  to  have  some  portion  of  the  earth,  from  which  he  derived  his 
strength,  always  in  contact  with  him ;  but  dust  or  fine  sand  was  univer- 
sally used  by  wrestlers  for  sprinkling  on  their  bodies  after  they  had  anointed 
themselves. 


B.  iv.  616-647.]  PHARSALIA.  155 

limbs.  With  many  a  twist  they  linked  their  hands  and 
arms.  For  long,  in  vain  were  their  throats  tried  at  by  their 
ponderous  arms,  and  with  fixed  features  the  head  was  held 
unmoved  ;  and  they  wondered  at  having  fovind  their  match. 

"  Nor  in  the  beginning  of  the  contest  was  Alcides  willing 
to  employ  his  strength,  and  he  wearied  out  the  hero ;  which 
his  continued  panting  betrayed,  and  the  cold  sweat  from 
his  fatigued  body.  Then  his  wearied  neck  began  to  shake  ; 
then  breast  to  be  pressed  upon  by  breast ;  then  the  thighs 
to  totter,  stmck  sideways  by  the  hand.  Now  does  the  victor 
grasp  the  back  of  the  hero  as  it  is  giving  way,  and,  his 
flanks  squeezed  up,  he  encircles  him  around  the  middle ; 
and  his  feet  inserted,  he  spreads  asunder  his  thighs,  and 
stretches  the  hero  with  all  his  limbs  upon  the  ground. 
The  scorching  earth  carries  off  his  sweat;  with  warm 
blood  his  veins  are  filled.  The  muscles  swell  out,  and  in 
all  the  limbs  he  grows  hard,  and,  his  body  refreshed,  he 
loosens  the  Herculean  grasp.  Alcides  stands  astounded  at 
strength  so  vast;  and  not  so  much,  although  he  was  then 
inexperienced,  did  he  dread  the  Hydra  cut  asunder  hi  the 
Inachian  waves1,  her  snakes  renewed. 

"  Equally  matched  they  struggle,  the  one  with  strength 
from  the  earth,  the  other  with  it  his  own.  Never  has  it 
been  allowed  his  unrelenting  stepdame2  to  be  more  hi 
hopes.  She  sees  the  limbs  of  the  hero  exhausted  by  sweat, 
and  his  neck  parched,  upon  which  he  bore  Olympus.  And 
when  again  he  lays  hands  upon  his  wearied  limbs,  An- 
taeus, not  waiting  for  the  might  of  the  foe,  falls  of  his 
own  accord,  and,  strength  received,  rises  more  mighty. 
Whatever  vigour  there  is  in  the  ground  it  is  infused  into 
his  weary  limbs,  and  with  the  struggling  hero  the  earth 
labours. 

"  When  at  last  Alcides  perceived  the  aid  of  the  contact  of 
his  parent  availing  him,  he  said,  '  Thou  must  stand,  and  no 

1  In  the  Inachian  leaves)  ver.  634.  Inachus  was  one  of  the  ancient  kings 
of  Argos,  near  which  was  situate  the  marsh  or  swamp  of  Lerna,  where  Her- 
cnles  slew  the  Hydra  with  many  heads,  each  of  which,  when  cut  off,  was 
replaced  by  two  new  ones. 

-  If  is  unrelenting  stepdame)  ver.  637.  "  He  never  was  in  greater  dagger 
of  being  destroyed,  which  would  have  gratified  the  vengeance  of  his  im- 
placable step-mother,  Juno." 


156  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  647-670. 

further  shalt  tliou  be  entrusted  to  the  ground,  and  thou 
shalt  be  forbidden  to  be  laid  upon  the  earth.  With  thy 
compressed  limbs  thou  shalt  cling  fast  to  my  breast ;  thus 
far,  Antaeus,  shalt  thou  fall.'  Thus  having  said  he  raised 
aloft  the  youth,  struggling  to  gain  the  ground.  Earth  was 
not  able  to  infuse  strength  into  the  limbs  of  her  dying  son. 
Alcides  held  him  by  the  middle;  now  was  his  breast 
numbed  by  a  torpid  chill ;  for  long  he  did  not  entrust 
his  foe  to  the  earth.  Hence,  recording  antiquity,  the 
guardian  of  ancient  times  and  the  admirer  of  herself,  has 
marked  the  land  with  his  name.  But  a  more  noble 
name1  has  Scipio  given  to  these  hills,  who  called  back  the 
Punic  foe  from  the  Latian  towel's ;  for  this  was  the  encamp- 
ment on  the  Libyan  land  being  first  reached.  Look  !  you 
perceive  the  vestiges  of  the  ancient  entrenchment.  .Roman 
victory  first  took  possession  of  these  plains." 

Curio,  overjoyed,  as  though  the  fortune  of  the  spot  would 
wage  the  war,  and  preserve  for  himself  the  destinies  of 
former  commanders,  pitching  his  unlucky  tents  upon  the 
fortunate  spot,  indulged  his  camp  with  hopes,  and  took  their 
omen  away  from  the  hills,  and  with  unequal  strength  pro- 
voked the  warlike  foes.  All  Africa,  which  had  submitted  to 
the  Reman  standards,  was  then  under  the  command  of 
Varus'-';  who,  though  trusting  in  the  Latian  strength,  still 
summoned  from  every  side  the  forces  of  the  king  of  the 
Libyan  nation,  and  standards  that  attended  their  Juba J 
from  the  extremities  of  the  world.  Not  a  more  extended 

1  But  a  more  nolle  name)  ver.  656.  He  alludes  to  the  "  Comeliana 
Castra,"  or  "  Cornelian  Camp."  It  was  so  called  from  P.  Cornelius  Afri- 
canus  Scipio  the  elder,  who  landed  in  that  vicinity  B.C.  204,  and  having 
vanquished  Hasdrubal  and  Syphax,  alarmed  the  Carthaginians  to  such  a 
degree,  that  they  were  obliged  to  recall  Hannibal  and  Mago  from  Italy. 

3  Command  of  Varus)  ver.  667.  This  was  Fublius  Attius  Varus,  whom 
we  have  already  met  with  in  B.  ii.  1.  466,  as  running  away  from  Auximum 
in  Italy.  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  i.  c.  31,  thus  mentions  his  arrival  in 
Africa  : — "  When  Tubero  arrived  in  Africa,  Le  found  Attius  Varus  in  com- 
mand of  the  province,  who,  having  lost  his  cohorts,  as  already  related,  at 
Auximum,  had  straightway  fled  to  Africa,  and  finding  it  without  a  governor, 
had  seized  it  of  his  own  accord,  and,  making  levies,  had  raised  two  legions." 

3  Attended  their  Juba)  ver.  670.  He  was  the  son  of  Hiempsal,  who  had 
been  re-established  on  the  Numidian  throne  by  Fompey,  whose  cause  Juba 
now  espoused.  He  was  also  probably  influenced  by  personal  enmity  against 
Curio,  who,  when  Tribune  of  the  people,  had  proposed  a  law  for  reducing  the 


B.  iv.  671-681.]  PHARSALIA.  157 

region  was  there  under  any  master.  Where  the  realms  are 
the  longest,  on  the  western  extremity,  Atlas,  hi  the  vici- 
nity of  Gades,  terminates  them ;  on  the  south J,  Ammon, 
adjacent  to  the  Syrtes ;  hut  where  in  its  breadth  extends 
the  scorching  track  of  his  vast  realms,  it  divides  the  Ocean3, 
and  the  humt-up  regions  of  the  scorched  zone  suffice  for 
the  space  that  intervenes. 

Races  so  numerous  follow  the  camp ;  the  Autololes 3  and  the 
wandering  Numidians,  and  the  Gfetulian,  ever  ready  with  his 
uncaparisoned  horse 4 ;  then  the  Moor,  of  the  same  colour  as 
the  Indian ;  the  needy  Nasamonian5,  the  swift  Marmaridse i;, 
mingled  with  the  scorched  Garamantes,  and  the  Mazagian7, 

kingdom  of  Juba  to  the  condition  of  a  Roman  province.  On  the  ultimate 
success  of  the  arms  of  Caesar,  he  fell  at  Utica,  and,  according  to  one  account, 
he  and  Petreius  were  slain  by  each  other's  hand. 

1  0>i  the  south)  ver.  673.     It  would  appear  curious  that  Lucan  mentions 
the  extent  of  Numidia  from  east  to  south,  were  it  not  the  fact  that  the  desert 
of  Ammon  and  the  adjacent  coast  lie  in  a  considerably  more  southern  lati- 
tude than  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  kingdom  near  Grades  and  Mount 
Atlas.     Besides,  Gyrene,   the  Libyan  desert,  and    Egypt  were  universally 
considered  as  essentially  southern  climes  by  the  Roman  Poets. 

2  It  divides  the  Ocean)  ver.  675.    He  seems  to  mean  that  the  whole  region 
which  lay  between  the  Mediterranean  and  the  southern  ocean  of  Africa, 
bounded,  as  before  mentioned,  east  and  west,  belonged  to  Juba.     This  seems 
a  better  explanation  than  that  given  by  some  who  would  have  the  Poet  to 
me:m  that  the  whole  track  of  country  from  north  to  south  which  lay  between 
the  Eastern  (or  Atlantic)  Ocean  and  the  Western  Ocean  (or  Red  Sea),  be- 
longed to  Juba,  as  that  would  contradict  what  he  has  just  said  as  to  the 
breadth  of  the  kingdom,  and  would  include  Egypt  in  his  dominions,  a  mis- 
take which  Lucan  certainly  would  not  be  guilty  of. 

3  The  Autololes)  ver.  677.     According  to  Pliny,  the   Autololes  were  a 
people  of  Mauritania  Tingitana ;  but  Ptolemy  places  them  on  the  western 
coast  of  Africa,  and  south  of  the  range  of  Atlas. 

4  With  his  uncaparisoned  horse)  ver.  678.     He  alludes  to  the  custom  of 
the  Gaetulians  riding  on  horseback  without  saddles.      In  its  widest  sense, 
the  region  of  Gsetulia  included  the  inhabitants  of  the  regions  between  Mau- 
ritania, Numidia,  Gyrene,  and  the  Great  Desert 

s  The  needy  Nasamonian)  ver.  679.  The  Nasamones  were  a  people  of 
Libya  who  originally  dwelt  on  the  shores  of  the  Great  Syrtis,  but  were 
driven  inland  by  the  Greek  settlers  of  Gyrene,  and  afterwards  by  the 
Romans. 

6  The  smft  Marmaridce)  ver.  680.    As  to  the  Marmaridre,  see  the  Note  to 
B.  iii.  1.  293. 

7  And  the  Mazagian)  ver.  681.     The  Mazagians  were  probably  the  tame 
as  the  Maxyes,  a  people  of  the  north  of  Africa,  near  the  coast  of  the  Lesser 
Syrtis,  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Triton.     They  were  said  to  claim  descent 
from  the  Trojans. 


158  PHARSALIA.  [B.  IT.  681-698. 

that  will  rival  the  arrows  of  the  Medes,  when  he  hurls  the 
quivering  spear;  the  Massylian  nation1,  too,  that  sitting  on 
the  hare  back  of  the  horse,  with  a  slight  wand  guides  the 
mouth  unacquainted  with  the  bit ;  the  African  huntsman, 
too,  who  is  wont  to  wander  with  his  empty  cot,  and  at  the 
same  time,  since  he  has  no  confidence  in  his  weapons,  accus- 
tomed to  cover  the  infuriate  lions2  with  flowing  garments. 

Nor  alone  did  Juba  prepare  arms  hi  the  cause  of  civil 
strife,  but  aroused,  he  granted  war  to  his  private  resent- 
ment. Him  too,  in  the  year  in  which3  he  had  denied  the 
Gods  above  and  things  human,  by  a  tribunitial  law  Curio 
had  attempted  to  expel  from  the  throne  of  his  forefathers, 
and  to  wrest  Libya  from  its  king,  while,  Rome,  he  was 
making  a  kingdom4  of  thee.  He,  remembering  his  sor- 
rows, fancies  that  this  Avar  is  the  fruit  of  himself  retaining 
the  sceptre.  At  this  report,  therefore,  of  the  king  approach- 
ing  Curio  now  trembles.  And  because  those  youths  have 
never  been  entirely  devoted  to  the  cause  of  Caesar,  nor  as 
soldiers  had  been  tried  in  the  waves  of  the  Rhine,  having 
been  taken  in  the  citadel  of  Corfinium5,  both  unfaithful  to 

1  The  Massylian  nation)  ver.  682.     The  llassyli  were  a  people  of  Mau- 
ritania, who,  like  the  Gaetulians,  rode  without  saddles. 

2  To  cover  the  infuriate  lions)  ver.  685.     Pliny  the  Elder,  in  his  Eighth 
Book,  informs  us  that  the  Gaetulians  were  in  the  habit  of  catching  lions  by 
throwing  a  cloak  or  garment  over  their  heads.     The  strength  of  the  lion  was 
commonly  supposed  to  be  centred  in  the  eye. 

1  In  the  year  in  which)  ver.  689.  He  means  the  year  in  which  he  was 
Tribune,  and  in  which,  according  to  report,  he  had  been  bribed  by  Caesar  to 
desert  the  aristocratic  party. 

4  He  was  making  a  kingdom)  ver.  692.  While  he  was  covertly  trying  to 
bring  Rome  under  the  despotic  sway  of  Caesar. 

*  In  the  citadel  of  Corfinium)  ver.  697.  His  soldiers,  to  his  sorrow,  were 
not  the  veterans  who  had  fought  under  Caesar  at  the  Rhine,  but  were  those 
who,  captured  at  Corfinium  (see  B.  ii.  1.  507),  had  gone  over  to  the  party  of 
Caesar.  This  circumstance  is  thus  referred  to  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  28 : — 
"  In  the  army  there  was  one  Sextus  Quintilius  Varus,  who,  as  we  have  men- 
tioned before,  was  at  Corfinium.  When  Caesar  gave  him  his  liberty  he  went 
over  to  Africa.  Now  Curio  had  transported  to  Africa  those  legions  which 
Caesar  had  received  under  his  command  a  short  time  before  at  Corfinium; 
so  that  the  officers  and  companies  were  still  the  same,  excepting  the  change 
of  a  few  centurions.  Quintilius,  making  this  a  pretext  for  addressing  them, 
began  to  go  round  Curio's  lines,  and  to  entreat  the  soldiers  not  to  lose  all 
recollection  of  the  oath  which  they  first  took  to  Domitius  and  to  himself, 
their  Quaestor,  nor  bear  arms  against  those  who  had  shared  the  same  fortune, 
and  endured  the  same  hardships  in  siege,  nor  fight  for  those  by  whom  they 
had  opprobriously  been  called  deserters." 


B.  IT.  698-722.]  PHARSALIA.  159 

their  new  leaders,  and  wavering  to  their  former  one,  they 
deem  either  side  equally  right.  But  after  he  perceives  all 
faint  with  inactive  dread,  and  the  nightly  guards  of  the 
trenches  forsaken  by  desertion,  thus  hi  his  agitated  mind 
does  he  speak  : — 

"  By  daring  great  fears  are  concealed ;  to  arms  will  I  re- 
sort the  first.  Let  the  soldiers  descend  to  the  level  plains 
while  they  are  yet  my  own ;  rest  ever  produces  a  wavering 
disposition  ;  remove  all  consideration  by  fight.  When  the 
dire  intent  waxes  strong  with  the  sword  grasped  in  hand, 
and  helmets  conceal  their  shame,  who  thinks  of  comparing 
the  leaders,  who  of  weighing  the  causes  ?  The  side  he  has 
taken  to  that  does  he  wish  well ;  just  as  in  the  shows  of  the 
fatal  sand1  no  ancient  grudge  compels  those  brought  for- 
ward to  combat  together,  but  they  hate  those  pitted  against 
them." 

Thus  having  said2,  in  the  open  plains  he  drew  up  his 
ranks,  whom  the  fortune  of  war,  about  to  deceive  him  with 
future  woes,  blandly  received.  For  he  drove  Varus :)  from 
the  field,  and  smote  their  backs  exposed  in  disgraceful 
flight,  until  their  camp  prevented  it.  But  after  the  sad 
battle  of  the  worsted  Varus  was  heard  of  by  Juba ;  joyous 
that  the  glory  of  the  warfare  might  be  recovered  by  his 
own  aid,  by  stealth  he  hurried  on  his  troops,  and  by  en- 
joined silence  retarded  the  report  of  himself  approaching, 
fearing  this  alone,  through  want  of  caution  to  be  dreaded 
by  the  enemy.  Sabura4,  next  after  the  king  among  the 
Numidians,  was  sent  before  to  provoke  the  commencing 
battle  with  a  small  troop  and  to  draw  them  on,  as  though 
pretending5  that  the  warfare  was  entrusted  to  himself. 

1  In  ike  shows  of  tJi£  fatal  sand)  ver.  708,  9.    "Fatalis  arenae  Muneribus." 
He  alludes  to  the  "  muncra  gladiatoria,"  or  "  gladiatorial  shows,"  where  the 
gladiators  fought  upon  the  "  arena,"  or  area  covered  with  sand,  of  the  Amphi- 
theatre. 

2  Thus  having  said)  ver.  710.    The  speeches  of  Curio  to  his  council  of  war 
and  his  soldiers  are  set  forth  at  length  in  Caesar's  Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  31,  32. 

*  For  he  drove  Varus)  ver.  714.  The  particulars  of  this  defeat  are  related 
in  the  Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  34,  35.  Caesar  says  that  of  the  enemy  there  were 
about  six  hundred  killed  and  a  thousand  wounded. 

4  Sabura)  ver.  722.   This  Sabura,  or  Saburra,  was,  with  his  forces,  utterly 
defeated,  B.C.  46,  by  P.  Sittius.     See  the  African  War  of  Hirtius,  c.  93. 

5  A*  though  pretending)  ver.  722.     Sabura  is  to  advance  with  a  small  force 
to  lead  Curio  to  believe  that  he  alone  is  marching  against  him,  and  that  Juba 


160  PHARSALIA.  [B.  iv.  723-748. 

He  himself  in  a  hollow  valley  keeps  back  the  strength  of 
the  realm ;  just  as  the  more  crafty  enemy1  with  his  tail  de- 
ceives the  Pharian  asps,  and  provokes  them,  enraged  by  a 
deceiving  shadow;  and  obliquely  seizes  with  safe  grip  the 
head  of  the  serpent,  stretching  out  in  vain  into  the  air,  with- 
out its  deadly  matter;  then  the  venom,  baulked  of  its  purpose, 
is  squeezed  out,  and  its  jaws  overflow  with  the  wasted  poison. 

To  the  stratagems  Fortune  gives  success  ;  and  fierce,  the 
strength  of  the  concealed  foe  not  surveyed,  Curio  com- 
mands his  cavalry  to  sally  forth  from  the  camp  by  night, 
and  to  spread  far  and  wide  over  the  unknown  plains.  He 
himself,  about  the  first  break  of  dawn,  commands  the  signal 
to  sound  in  the  camp,  often  and  vainly  having  begged  them 
to  apprehend  Libyan  stratagem  and  the  Punic  warfare, 
always  fraught  with  treachery. 

The  destiny  of  approaching  death  had  delivered  up  the 
youth  to  the  Fates,  and  the  civil  warfare  urged  on  its  author 
to  his  doom.  Over  steep  rocks,  over  crags,  along  an  abrupt 
path  he  led  his  standards ;  when,  espied  afar  from  the  tops 
of  the  hills,  the  enemy,  in  their  stratagem,  gave  way  a 
little,  until,  the  hill  being  left,  he  entrusted  his  extended 
ranks  to  the  wide  plains.  He,  believing  this  a  flight,  and 
unacquainted  with  the  concealed  design,  as  though  victo- 
rious, led  forward  his  forces  into  the  midst  of  the  fields. 
Then  first  was  the  stratagem  disclosed,  and  the  flying 
Numidians,  the  mountains  filled  on  every  side,  hemmed  in 
the  troops.  At  the  same  moment  the  leader  himself  was 
astounded,  and  the  multitude,  doomed  to  perish. 

is  not  near  at  hand.  So  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  38,  Cxsar  snys,  "  Curio 
is  informed  by  some  deserters  from  the  town  that  Juba  has  stayed  behind  in 
his  own  kingdom,  being  called  home  by  a  neighbouring  war,  and  a  dispute 
with  the  people  of  Leptis ;  and  that  Sabura,  who  has  been  sent  with  a  small 
fjrce,  is  drawing  near  to  Utica.  Curio,  rashly  believing  this  information, 
alters  his  design,  and  resolves  to  hazard  a  battle."  It  appears,  however,  by 
Caesar's  account,  that  there  was  no  stratagem  at  first  on  the  part  of  Juba, 
whose  advanced  guard  was  attacked  unexpectedly  by  the  cavalry  of  Curio, 
with  great  slaughter;  shortly  after  which,  Curio  neglecting  to  make  proper 
enquiries,  again  attacked  Sabura,  who,  falling  back,  gradually  surrounded 
him  with  his  armv,  and  destroyed  him  and  his  forces.  See  the  Civil  \Var, 
B.  ii.  c.  39-43. 

1  The  more  crafty  enemy)  ver.  724.  He  alludes  to  the  ichneumon,  or  rat 
of  Ei-ypt,  which  was  said  to  be  a  deadly  enemy  to  the  asp  of  that  country, 
and,  provoking  it  with  the  shadow  of  its  own  tail,  to  cause  it  to  raise  its 
head,  on  which  it  would  seize  it  by  the  throat  and  kill  it. 


B.  iv.  749-776.]  PHARSALIA.  161 

The  fearful  sought  not  flight,  the  valiant  not  battle ; 
since  not  there  did  the  charger,  moved  by  the  clangor  of 
trumpets,  shake  the  rocks  with  the  beating  of  his  hoof, 
working  at  his  mouth  that  champs  the  stiffened  reins,  and 
spread  his  mane,  and  prick  up  his  ears,  and  not  with  the 
varying  movement  of  the  feet  did  he  struggle  not  to  be  at 
rest.  His  wearied  neck  hangs  down.  His  limbs  reek 
with  sweat,  and  his  parched  mouth  is  clammy,  his  tongue 
hanging  out ;  his  hoarse  breast,  which  an  incessant  panting 
excites,  groans  aloud ;  and  the  breath,  hardly  drawn,  con- 
tracts the  spent  flanks ;  the  foam,  too,  grows  hard  upon 
the  blood-stained  bits.  And  now,  compelled  neither  by 
whips  nor  goads,  nor  though  prompted  by  frequent  spur- 
ring, do  they  increase  their  speed.  By  wounds  are  the 
horses  urged  on.  Nor  avails  it  any  one  to  have  cut  short 
the  delay  of  his  horny-hoofed  steed,  for  they  have  neither 
space  nor  force  for  the  onset ;  he  is  only  carried  on  against 
the  foe,  and  affords  room  for  the  javelins,  the  wound  being 
offered. 

But  when  first  the  skirmishing  African  sent  forth  his 
steeds  hi  a  troop,  then  did  the  plains  re-echo  with  the 
sound ;  and,  the  earth  loosened,  the  dust  enveloped  the  air 
in  its  clouds,  and  brought  on  the  shades,  as  vast  as  it  is 
when  hurled  by  the  Bistonian  whirlwind 1.  But  when  the 
miserable  fate  of  war  befell  the  foot,  no  fortune  stood  in 
suspense  upon  the  decision  of  a  doubtful  conflict,  but 
death  occupied  the  duration  of  the  -battle.  Nor  yet  had 
they  the  power  to  run  straight  against  them,  and  to  mingle 
their  troops.  Thus,  the  youths,  hemmed  in  on  every  side, 
by  those  who  fight  hand  to  hand2  and  by  those  who  send 
them  from  above,  are  overwhelmed  with  lances  obliquely 
slanting  and  held  horizontally ;  doomed  to  perish  not  by 
wounds  or  bloodshed,  solely  through  the  cloud  of  darts  and 
the  weight  of  the  weapons. 

1  The  Bistonian  whirlwind)  ver.  767.  Thrace  is  called  "  Bistonia,"  from 
the  Bistones,  a  people  of  that  country  between  Mount  Rhodope  and  the 
-35gean  Sea,  near  Lake  Bistonis. 

8  Whofiyht  liand  to  hand)  ver.  774.  It  seems  not  improbable  that  in  this 
•line  "  eminus "  and  "  comminus "  have  changed  places ;  for  the  darts  or 
epears  that  were  thrown  from  a  distance,  "  eminus,"  would  fall  obliquely, 
while  the  spears  presented  by  those  close  at  hand,  "comminus,"  would  be 
"  rectce,"  or  "  horizontally"  pointed. 

M 


162  FHARSALIA.  [u.  iv.  777-800. 

Therefore,  ranks  so  numerous  are  crowded  into  a  small 
compass,  and  if  any  one,  fearing,  creeps  into  the  middle  of 
the  troop,  hardly  with  impunity  does  he  turn  amid  the 
swords  of  his  own  friends  ;  and  the  mass  is  made  more 
dense,  inasmuch  as  the  first  rank,  their  feet  bearing  back- 
wards, contract  the  circles.  For  them  compressed  there  is 
now  no  room  for  wielding  their  arms,  and  then*  crowded 
limbs  are  trodden  on ;  armed  breast  is  broken  by  breast 
beaten  against  it.  The  victorious  Moor  did  not  enjoy  a 
spectacle  so  joyous  as  Fortune  really  presented ;  he  did  not 
behold  the  streams  of  blood,  and  the  faulting  of  the  limbs, 
and  the  bodies  as  they  struck  the  earth ;  squeezed  up  in 
the  crowd  every  carcase  stood  upright. 

Let  Fortune  arouse  the  hated  ghosts  of  dire  Carthage  by 
these  new  funeral  sacrifices1;  let  blood-stained  Hannibal 
and  the  Punic  shades  receive  this  expiation  so  dire.  '  Twere 
profane,  ye  Gods  of  heaven,  for  a  Roman's  fall  on  Libyan 
ground  to  benefit  Pompey  and  the  wishes  of  the  Senate ; 
rather  for  herself  may  Africa  conquer  us ! 

Curio,  when  he  beheld  his  troops  routed  on  the  plain, 
and  the  dust,  laid  by  the  blood,  allowed  him  to  perceive  how 
great  the  slaughter,  did  not  endure  to  prolong  his  life  amid 
his  stricken  fortunes,  or  to  hope  for  flight ;  and  he  fell  amid 
the  slaughter  of  his  men  2,  eager  for  death,  and  valiant  with 
a  bravery  to  which  he  was  forced. 

What  now  avail  thee  the  turmoil  of  the  Rostra  and  the 
Forum,  from  which,  with  the  arts  of  harangue3,  the  standard- 

1  New  funeral  sacrifices)  ver.  789.  "  Inferiae  "  were  propitiatory  sacri- 
fices offered  to  the  shades  of  the  dead.  He  says  that  this  slaughter  of 
Romans  by  the  hand  of  Romans  will  be  as  good  as  a  propitiatory  sacrifice  to 
the  shades  of  Hannibal  and  the  Carthaginians  who  had  suffered  so  much  at 
the  hands  of  their  ancestors. 

8  Amid  the  slaughter  of  his  men)  ver.  797.  The  death  of  Curio  is  thus 
related  by  Caesar  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  ii.  c.  42 : — "  Cneius  Domitius,  com- 
mander of  the  cavalry,  standing  round  Curio,  with  a  small  party  of  horse, 
urged  him  to  endeavour  to  escape  by  flight,  and  to  hasten  to  his  camp,  and 
assured  him  that  he  would  not  forsake  him.  But  Curio  declared  that  he 
would  never  more  appear  in  Caesar's  sight,  after  losing  the  army  which  had 
been  committed  by  him  to  his  charge,  and  accordingly  fought  till  he  was 
slain." 

3  The  arts  of  harangue)  ver.  799.  The  "  tribunitia  ars,"  or  "  tribimitial 
art,"  of  Curio  was  his  eloquence,  for  which  he  was  famous,  and  which,  as 
Tribune  of  the  people,  when  speaking  from  the  Rostra,  he  knew  how  to  use 


B.  iv.  800-824.]  PHARSALIA.  163 

bearer  of  the  plebeians,  thou  didst  deal  arms  to  the  people  ? 
What,  the  betrayed  rights '  of  the  Senate,  and  the  son-in-law 
and  the  father-in-law  enjoined  to  meet  in  battle  ?  Thou  liest 
prostrate  before  dire  Pharsalia  has  brought  the  chieftains 
together,  and  the  civil  warfare  has  been  denied  thee  to  be- 
hold. Is  it  thus,  forsooth,  that  to  the  wretched  City  you 
pay  the  penalty  with  your  blood  ?  Thus,  ye  powerful  ones, 
do  you  atone  with  your  throats  for  your  warfare !  Happy 
Home,  indeed,  and  destined  to  possess  fortunate  citizens,  if 
the  care  of  its  liberty  had  pleased  the  Gods  above  as  much 
as  to  avenge  it  pleases  them ! 

Lo,  Curio,  a  noble  corpse,  covered  by  no  tomb,  is  feeding 
the  Libyan  birds.  But  to  thee  (since  it  will  be  to  no  pur- 
pose to  be  silent  upon  those  things  from  which  their  own 
fame  repels  all  the  lengthened  age  of  time)  we  grant,  0 
youth,  the  due  praises  of  a  life  that  deserved  them.  Not 
another  citizen  of  capacity  so  great  did  Eome  produce,  or 
to  whom  the  laws  owed  more,  when  pursuing  what  was 
right.  Then  did  the  corrupt  age  injure  the  City,  after 
ambition  and  luxmy,  and  the  possession  of  wealth,  so 
much  to  be  dreaded,  had  carried  along  with  a  torrent  that 
crossed  his  path  his  unsettled  mind ;  and  the  altered  Curio 
became  the  controller  of  events,  charmed  by  the  spoils  of 
the  Gauls  and  the  gold  of  Ceesar. 

Although  powerful  Sulla  acquired  rule  over  our  lives  by  the 
sword,  and  the  fierce  Marius,  and  the  blood-stained  Cinna, 
and  the  long  line  of  Caesar's  house2;  to  whom  was  power  so 
great  ever  granted?  They  all  bought  the  City,  he  sold  it3. 

to  dangerous  purpose.  See  B.  i.  1.  275,  where  Curio,  in  his  speech,  alludes 
to  the  Eostra  at  Home. 

1  The  betrayed  rights)  ver.  801.     In  allusion  to  the  charge  made  against 
him  of  having  been  bribed  by  Caesar. 

2  The  long  line  of  Caesar's  house)  ver.  823.     Lucan  must  clearly  have 
been  on  bad  terms  with  Nero  when  he  penned  this  line,  as  he  would  not 
otherwise  have  joined  the  "  series  "  of  the  house  of  Caesar,  of  which  Nero 
was  a  member  (through  adoption),  with  Sulla,  Marius,  and  Cinna,  whom  he 
repeatedly  mentions  as  monsters  of  cruelty. 

3  He  sold  it)  ver.  824.     Virgil  is  supposed  to  refer  to  him  in  a  somewhat 
similar  manner  in  the  Sixth  Book  of  the  JEneid,  1.  621.     "  He  sold  hia 
country  for  gold,  and  imposed  upon  it  a  powerful  tyrant." 


M   2 


164 
BOOK  THE  FIFTH. 

CONTENTS. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  year  the  Consuls  convene  the  Senate  in  Epirus, 
1-14.  Lentulus  addresses  the  Senators,  and  advises  them  to  appoint 
Pompey  Commander-in-chief,  which  is  accordingly  done,  15-49.  The  Poet 
praises  the  monarchs  and  nations  who  lent  their  aid,  50  64.  Appius 
goes  to  consult  the  oracle  at  Delphi,  which  has  now  long  been  silent,  as 
to  the  result  of  the  war,  65-70.  The  oracle  is  described,  71-120. 
The  Temple  is  opened,  and  Phemonoe,  the  Priestess,  tries  to  dissuade 
Appius  from  his  enquiries,  121-140.  She  is  forced,  however,  to  ascend 
the  oracular  tripod,  141-162.  And  is  inspired  by  the  prophetic  frenzy. 
The  oracle  foretells,  in  ambiguous  terms,  the  death  of  Appius  himself 
before  the  battle  of  Pharsalia,  at  the  Island  of  Eubcea,  163-197.  The 
oracle  is  apostrophized  by  the  Poet,  198-236.  The  soldiers  of  Caesar's 
party  become  mutinous,  237-261.  Their  threats  and  clamours  for  peace, 
262-296.  Caesar  presents  himself  before  them  thus  complaining,  297-318. 
Headdresses  them,  319-364.  The  tumult  is  appeased,  365-373.  Caesar 
sends  his  army  to  Brundisium,  and  orders  a  fleet  to  be  collected  there, 
374-380.  He  then  repairs  to  Rome,  where  he  is  made  Dictator  and 
Consul,  380-384.  Evil  omens  give  portentous  signs,  384-402.  He  goes 
thence  to  Brundisium  ;  where  collecting  a  fleet,  he  orders  part  of  his  troops 
to  embark,  although  the  skies  betoken  an  approaching  tempest,  403-411. 
He  harangues  his  soldiers,  412-423.  The  sea  is  suddenly  becalmed,  and 
passing  over  he  lands  at  Palaeste,  in  Epirus,  424-460.  He  encamps 
at  Dyrrhachium,  461-475.  Caesar  entreats  Antony  to  send  over  the 
remaining  forces,  476-497.  Impatient  at  his  delay,  he  determines  to  go 
across,  498-503.  He  does  so  in  a  small  boat,  504-570.  Caesar  en- 
courages the  mariners  in  a  tempest,  571-593.  Which  is  described, 
594-653.  He  arrives  in  Italy,  654-677.  He  returns  to  Epirus,  and  his 
soldiers  expostulate  with  him  for  leaving  them,  678-700.  Antony  passes 
over  with  the  rest  of  his  troops,  701-721.  Pompey  determines  to  send 
his  wife  Cornelia  to  Lesbos,  722-739.  He  apprises  her  of  his  intentions, 
740-759.  Cornelia's  answer,  760-790.  She  embarks,  790-801.  And 
Bails  for  Lesbos,  801-815. 

THUS  did  Fortune  reserve  the  two1  generals  who  had  suffered 
the  alternate  wounds  of  warfare  for  the  land  of  the  Mace- 
donians, mingling  adversity  with  prosperity.  Now  had  the 
whiter  sprinkled  the  snows  on  Hsemus,  and  the  daughter 

1  Reserve  the  two)  ver.  3.  "Pares."  This  term,  used  in  the  athletic 
sports,  to  signify  the  two  athletes  or  gladiators  that  were  "  comparati," 
"  pitted  "  against  each  other,  is  often  used  by  the  Poet. 


B.  v.  4-28.]  PHARSALIA.  165 

of  Atlas l  who  sets  in  the  cold  Olympus ;  the  day,  too,  was 
at  hand  which  gives  a  new  name  to  the  Calendar  ,  and  which 
is  the  first  to  worship  Janus :i,  who  introduces  the  seasons. 
But  while  the  latter  part  still  remained  of  their  expiring 
sway,  each  Consul  invited  the  Senators  dispersed  amid  the 
duties  of  the  warfare  to  Epirus.  A  foreign  and  a  lowly 
retreat  received  the  Roman  nobles,  and  a  foreign  senate 
under  a  distant  roof  heard  the  secrets  of  the  state.  For 
who  could  call  so  many  axes  wielded  by  the  laws,  so  many 
fasces  \  a  camp  ?  The  venerable  order  taught  the  people 
that  it  was  not  the  party  of  Magnus,  but  that  Magnus  was 
their  partisan. 

When  first  silence  pervaded  the  sorrowing  assembly, 
Lentulus  •'  from  a  lofty  seat  thus  spoke  : — "  If  strength  exists 
in  your  minds  worthy  of  the  Latian  spirit,  if  of  your  ancient 
blood,  consider  not  in  what  land  you  are  banished,  and  how 
far  we  are  located  from  the  abodes  of  the  captured  City ; 
but  think  of  the  aspect  of  your  own  assembly;  and,  able 
to  command  everything,  first,  Senators,  decree  this,  which 
to  realms  and  to  nations  is  manifest,  that  we  are  the 
Senate.  For  whether  Fortune  shall  lead  us  beneath  the  icy 
Wain  of  the  Hyperborean  Bear,  or  where  the  burning  region 
and  the  clime  shut  up  in  vapours  permits  not  the 
nights  nor  yet  the  days,  unequal,  to  increase,  the  dominion 
of  the  world  will  attend  us,  and  empire  as  our  attendant. 
When  the  Tarpeian  seat  was  consumed  by  the  torches 
of  the  Gauls,  and  when  Camillus  was  dwelling  at  Veiic, 

1  The  daughter  of  Atlas)  ver.  4.  "Atlantis;"  "the  Atlantis,"  or 
"  daughter  of  Atlas,"  is  here  used  for  the  "  Allan  tides"  or  "  Pleiades,"  who 
were  fabled  to  have  been  originally  the  seven  daughters  of  Atlas.  He  alludes 
to  the  middle  of  November,  when  the  Pleiades  set  cosmically. 

3  dives  a  new  name  to  the  Calendar)  ver.  5.  The  Calends  or  first  day 
of  January,  on  which  the  new  Consuls  came  into  office  and  gave  their  name 
to  the  commencing  year  in  the  "  Fasti "  or  Calendar.  See  the  Fasti  of  Ovid, 
B.  i.  1.  53,  et  seq. 

3  To  worship  Janus)  ver.  6.  The  month  of  January  was  sacred  to  the 
God  Janus.  See  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  i.  1.  63,  et  seq. 

*  So  many  fasces)  ver.  12.  He  alludes  to  the  presence  at  the  camp  of 
the  Consuls  with  the  fasces  and  axes,  the  emblems  of  state. 

5  Lentulus)    ver.  16.      This   was    L.   Cornelius    Lentulus,    one   of  the 
Consuls  for  that  year.     He  raised  two  legions  for  Pompey  in  Asia.     He 
was  finally  put  to  death  by  Ptolemy,  the  tyrant  of  Egypt. 

6  Dwelling  at  Veit)  ver.  28.     Veii,  now  called  laola  Farnese,  was  one 


166  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  29-51. 

there  was  Rome.  Never  by  change  of  place  has  our  order 
lost  its  rights. 

"  Sorrowing  abodes  does  Csesar  possess,  and  deserted 
houses,  and  silenced  laws,  and  judgment  seats  shut  up  in 
sad  cessation  from  the  law.  That  Senate-house  beholds 
those  Senators  alone ',  whom  from  the  full  City  it  banished. 
Whoever  was  not  expelled  ly  us  from  an  order  so  mighty, 
is  here.  Unacquainted  with  crimes,  and  at  rest  during  a 
lengthened  peace,  the  first  fuiy  of  warfare  dispersed  us ; 
once  again  do  all  the  members  of  the  state  return  to 
their  place.  Behold !  with  all  the  might  of  the  world 
do  the  Gods  above  recompense  us  for  Hesperia  lost; 
the  enemy  lies  overwhelmed  in  the  Illyrian  waves2;  in 
the  loathsome  fields  of  Libya,  Curio,  a  large  portion  of 
Caesar's  Senate :f,  has  fallen.  Generals,  raise  your  standards  ; 
urge  on  the  course  of  fate ;  entrust  to  the  Gods  your  hopes, 
and  let  fortune  give  us  courage  as  great,  as  the  cause  gave 
when  you  fled  from  the  foe.  Our  rule  is  closing  with  the 
finished  year ;  you,  whose  power  is  destined  to  experience 
no  limit,  Senators,  consult  for  the  common  welfare,  and 
bid  Magnus  be  your  leader." 

With  joyous  applause  the  Senate  received  the  name,  and 
entrusted  to  Magnus  his  own  and  his  country's  fate.  Then 
honors  were  distributed  among  kings  and"  nations  that 
deserved  them;  both  Ehodes  sacred  to  Phcebus4  and  powerful 
by  sea,  was  decorated  with  gifts,  and  the  unpolished  youth 

of  the  most  ancient  cities  of  Etruria,  situate  on  the  river  Cremera,  about 
twelve  miles  from  Rome.  It  was  here  that  the  Senate  were  convened 
when  the  Gauls  had  destroyed  Rome,  on  which  they  appointed  Camillas 
Dictator.  The  Romans  at  this  time  were  anxious  to  make  Veil  their 
capital,  and  were  only  dissuaded  by  the  eloquence  of  Camillus. 

1  Those  Senators  alone)  ver.  32-4.  The  meaning  is  that  "the  Senate- 
house  at  Rome  now  only  beholds  those  Senators  whom  the  senate  ha*  ex- 
pelled as  enemies  to  the  state  at  the  time  when  the  City  was  full,  and 
not  deserted  as  it  now  is." 

3  In  the  Illyrian  waves)  ver.  39.  He  alludes  to  the  fate  of  Yulteius 
and  his  Opitergians,  related  in  the  last  Book. 

3  A  large  portion  of  Casar's  Senate)  ver.  40.     By  reason  of  his  eloquence 
and  activity  in  Caesar's  cause. 

4  Rhodes  sacred  to  Phoebiu)  ver.  51.     The  isle  of  Rhodes,  off  the  coast 
of  Caria  in  Asia  Minor,  was  said  to  be  especially  beloved  by  Phosbus,  who 
raised  it  from  beneath  the  waves.     There  was  a  splendid  temple  of  Apollo 
there,  and  the  Colossus  erected  there  was  a  statue  of  that  God. 


B.  v.  52-63.]  PHARSALIA.  167 

of  cold  Taygetus1.  In  fame  is  ancient  Athens  praised,  and 
for  her  own  Massilia2  is  Phocis  presented  with  freedom 
from  tribute.  Then  do  they  extol  Sadales 3,  and  brave 
Cotys,  and  Deiotaras4  faithful  in  arms,  and  Ehasipolis  5, 
the  ruler  of  a  frozen  region ;  and,  the  Senate  decreeing 
it,  they  bid  Libya  pay  obedience  to  the  sceptre-bearing 
Juba.  Alas,  sad  destinies !  behold  !  Ptolemy,  to  thee  °, 
most  worthy  of  the  sway  of  a  faithless  race,  the  shame  of 
Fortune  and  the  disgrace  of  the  Gods 7,  it  is  permitted  to  bind 
thy  pressed  locks  with  the  Pellsean  diadem.  A  remorseless 
sword,  0  boy,  dost  thou  receive  over  thy  people ;  and  would 
it  were  over  thy  people  alone !  The  palace  of  Lagus  has 
been  given;  to  this  the  life  of  Magnus  is  added;  and  by 

1  Youth  of  cold  Taygttus)  ver.  52.  The  Lacedaemonians  are  here  meant, 
whose  country  was  separated  from  Messenia  by  the  mountain  range  of 
Taygetus. 

a  For  Iter  oien  Massilia)  ver.  53.  This  could  not  in  reality  be  the  ground 
for  the  honours  paid  to  Phocis  in  Greece,  inasmuch,  as  has  been  already 
remarked,  Massilia  was  a  colony  from  Phocrea  in  Asia  Minor.  See  B.  iii.  1.  340. 

3  Extol  Sadales)  ver.  54.     Sadales  was  the  son  of  Cotys,  king  of  Thrace, 
and  was  sent  with  his  father  at  the  head  of  some  cavalry,  to  assist  Pompey. 
He  was  forgiven  by  Caesar  after  the  battle  of  Pharsalia,  and  left  his  king- 
dom   to    the    lioman   people.      Of    his   father,    Cotys,   nothing   further   is 
known. 

4  And  Deiotarus)  ver.  55.     Deiotarus  was  Tetrarch  and  king  of  Galatia, 
who,  though  extremely  advanced  in  years,  came  to  the  aid  of  Pompey  with 
six  hundred  horsemen.    He  was  afterwards  pardoned  by  Caesar,  but,  according 
to  Cicero,  Caesar  deprived  him  of  his  Tetrarchy  and  kingdom,  though  he 
suffered  him  to  retain  his  title. 

5  And   RJtasipolis)  ver.   55.     This   person,   whose   name   is   also   spelt 
"  Rhascuporis,"  was  chieftain  of  a  Thracian    tribe,  lying  between  Mount 
Pthodope   and   the   sea.     He  joined  Pompey  with  two  hundred  horse  at 
Dyrrhachium.     Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  iv.,  speaks  of  his  troops  as 
coming  from  Macedonia,  and  as  being  of  extraordinary  valour. 

6  Ptolemy,  to  tkee)  ver.   59.     This  was  Ptolemy  XII.,  king  of  Egypt, 
by  some  said  to  have  been  gurnamed  Dionysus.     Lucan  justly  expresses 
his  disgust  that  this  unprincipled  youth  should  succeed  to  a  throne  founded 
by  "  him  of  Pella,"  Alexander  the  Great.     More  particulars  relative  to  this 
king  will  be  found  in  the  Ninth  Book.    He  was  accidentally  drowned  in  the 
Alexandrian  war  against  Caesar. 

7  Disgrace  of  tite  Gods)  ver.  60.     By  his  father's  will,  the  throne  was 
given  to  Ptolemy  and  his  sister  Cleopatra  jointly ;  but  he  succeeded  in  ex- 
pelling her  after  she  had  reigned  jointly  with  him  for  three  years.     By  his 
murder  of  Pompey,  he  saved  Caesar,   doubtless  to  our  Poet's  sorrow,  the 
criminality  of  having  murdered  his  son-in-law  Pompey. 


163  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  63-78. 

this  a  realm  has  been  snatched  away  from  a  sister,  and 
crime  from  a  father-in-law. 

Now,  the  assembly  broken  up,  the  multitude  takes  up 
arms.  When  the  people  and  the  chieftains  were  resorting 
to  these  with  uncertain  chances,  and  with  indiscriminate 
allotment,  alone  did  Appius1  fear  to  embark  upon  the 
doubtful  events  of  the  warfare  ;  and  he  entreated  the  Gods 
of  heaven  to  unfold  the  destiny  of  events,  and  opened  again 
the  Delphic  shrine  of  fate-foretelling  Phoebus,  that  had  been 
closed  for  many  a  year. 

Just  as  far  removed 2  from  the  western  as  from  the 
eastern  clime,  Parnassus  with  its  twofold  summit  •'  reaches 
to  the  skies,  a  mountain  sacred  to  Phoebus  and  to 
Bromius 4 ;  on  which,  the  Deities  united,  the  Theban 
Bacchanals  celebrate  the  triennial  Delphic  festival 5. 
This  peak  alone,  when  the  deluge  covered  the  earth0, 
rose  aloft,  and  was  the  mid  division  of  the  sea  and  the 
stars.  Thou  even,  Parnassus,  raised  above  the  sea,  didst 

1  Alone   did   Appius)   ver.    68.     This   was    Appius   Claudius    Pulcher, 
noted  for  his  avarice  and  rapacity.     He  sided  with  Pompey,  and  died  in 
the  isle  of  Eubrca,  before  the  battle  of  Pharsalia.     He  was  distinguished  for 
his  legal  and  antiquarian  knowledge,  and  was  a  firm  believer  in  augury  and 
divination,  in  which  he  was  deeply  skilled. 

2  Just  as  far  removed)  ver.  71.     Delphi  was  said  to  be  in  the  very  centre 
of  the  earth,  and  for  that  reason  was  called  the  "  navel  of  the  earth." 

3  With  its  twofold  summit)  ver.  72.     These  two  peaks  or  heights  were 
called  Hyampeum  and  Tithoreum. 

4  And  to  Bromius)  ver.  73.     Bacchus  was  said  to  be  called  "Bromius," 
from  the  Greek  verb  fytftvt,  "  to  make  a  noise,"  in  allusion  to  the  shouts  of 
his  devotees.     Macrobius,  in  the  Saturnalia,  B.  i.  c.  18,  tries  to  prove  that 
Apollo,  or  the  Sun,  and  Bacchus  were  the  same  deity. 

*  Triennial  Delphic  festival)  ver.  74.  The  "  Trieterica "  was  a  festival 
celebrated  in  honor  of  Bacchus  every  three  years,  probably  to  commemorate 
his  conquest  of  India.  Ovid,  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  vi.  1.  587,  et  seq., 
thus  speaks  of  these  rites : — "  It  was  now  the  time  when  the  Sithonian 
matrons  are  wont  to  celebrate  the  triennial  festival  of  Bacchus.  Night  is 
conscious  of  their  rites ;  by  night  Rhodope  resounds  with  the  tinkling  of 
the  shrill  cymbal."  See  the  Translation  of  tlie  Metamorphoses  in  Bohn's 
Classical  Library,  pp.  116  and  216. 

4  Deluge  covered  the  earth)  ver.  75.  He  alludes  to  the  tradition  that  in 
the  flood  of  Deucalion  the  peaks  of  Parnassus  alone  arose  above  the  waters. 
See  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  i.  1.  315,  et  seq.  The  height  called 
Tithoreum  was  afterwards  said  to  be  sacred  to  Bacchus,  while  Hyampeum 
was  devoted  to  Apollo  and  the  Muses. 


B.  v.  78-91.]  PHARSALIA.  169 

scarcely  lift  the  top  of  thy  rocks,  and  as  to  one  ridge 
thou  didst  lie  concealed.  There,  when  her  offspring  ex- 
tended her  womb,  did  Psean,  the  avenger  of  his  persecuted 
mother,  lay  Python  prostrate l,  with  his  darts  till  then  un- 
used, when  Themis  ~  was  occupying  the  sway  and  the 
tripods.  When  Psean  beheld  that  the  vast  chasms  of  the 
earth  breathed  forth  divine  truths,  and  that  the  ground 
exhaled  prophetic  winds :t,  he  enshrined  himself  in  the 
sacred  caves,  and  there,  become  prophetic,  did  Apollo 
abide  in  the  inmost  shrines. 

Which  of  the  Gods  of  heaven  lies  here  concealed? 
WTiat  Deity,  descended  from  the  skies,  deigns,  enclosed,  to 
inhabit  the  darkened  caverns  ?  What  God  of  heaven  puts 
up  with  the  earth,  preserving  all  the  secrets  of  the  eternal 
course  of  fate,  and  conscious  of  the  future  events  of  the 
world,  and  ready,  himself,  to  disclose  them  to  nations,  and 
enduring  the  contact  of  mortals 4,  both  mighty  and  power- 
ful, whether  it  is  that  he  prophesies  destiny,  or  whether  it 
is  that  that  becomes  destiny  which  by  prophesying  he 
commands  ?  Perhaps  a  large  portion 5  of  the  entire  Jove, 
pervading  the  earth  by  him  to  be  swayed,  which  sustains  the 

1  Lay  Python  prostrate)   ver.   79.      He  alludes  to   the  slaughter  by 
Apollo  with  his  arrows  of  the  serpent  Python,  which  had  been  sent  by 
the  malignant  Juno  to  persecute  Latona  when  pregnant  with  Apollo  and 
Diana. 

2  When  Themis)  ver.  81.     Themis  was  said  to  have  preceded  Apollo  in 
giving  oracular  responses  at  Delphi.     She  was  the  daughter  of  Coelus  and 
Terra,  and  was  the  first  to  instruct  men  to  ask  of  the  Gods  that  which  was 
lawful  and  right,  whence  she  received  the  name  of  Themis,  signifying  in 
Greek  "  that  which  is  just  and  right." 

3  Prophetic  winds)  ver.  83.     "  Ventos  loquaces."     These  were  cold  ex- 
halations which  were  said  to  arise  from  a  hollow  cleft  in  the  mountain 
rock,  and,  when  received  into  the  body  of  the  priestess,  to  inspire  her  with 
prophetic  frenzy. 

4  Contact  of  mortals)  ver.  91.     In  allusion  to  the  divine  spirit  animating 
a  mortal,  the  Pythia,  or  priestess  of  the  God. 

4  Perhaps  a  large  portion)  ver.  93.  He  suggests  that  possibly  that 
divine  spirit  which  pervades  all  things  and  keeps  the  earth  poised  in  air, 
finds  a  vent  in  the  Cirrhaean  caverns  or  shrines  of  Parnassus.  So  Virgil,  in 
the  JEneid,  B.  vi.  1.  726,  speaks  of  a  spirit  "  perviiding  all  things,"  "  spiritus 
intus  alii."  See  also  Ji.  i.  1.  89.  Lemaire  somewhat  fancifully  suggests  that 
this  passage  refers  to  a  supposed  axis  of  the  earth,  which  the  Poet  imagined 
to  run  through  it  at  Delphi,  its  so-called  navel,  and  to  be  connected  with  the 
heavens. 


170  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  94-110. 

globe  poised  in  the  empty  air,  passes  forth  through  the 
Cirrhsean  caves,  and  is  attracted,  in  unison  with  the  sethereal 
Thunderer1.  When  this  divine  inspiration  has  been  con- 
ceived in  the  virgin's  breast,  coming  in  contact  with  the 
human  spirit,  it  re-echoes,  and  opens  the  mouth  of  the 
prophetess*,  just  as  the 'Sicilian  peaks  undulate  when  the 
flames  press  upon  ./Etna ;  or  as  Typhoeus,  buried  beneath 
the  everlasting  mass  of  Inarime  ',  roaring  aloud,  heats  the 
Campanian  rocks. 

This  Deity,  however,  made  manifest  to  all  and  denied 
to  none,  alone  denies  himself  to  the  pollution  of  human 
criminality.  Not  there  in  silent  whispers  do  they  conceive 
impious  wishes.  For,  prophesying  what  is  destined  and 
to  be  altered  for  no  one,  he  forbids  mortals  to  wish,  and, 
benignant  to  the  just,  full  oft  has  he  assigned  an  abode 
to  those  quitting  entire  cities,  as  to  the  Tynans 4 ;  he  has 
granted  to  drive  back  the  threats  of  war,  as  the  sea  of  Sala- 
mis6  remembers;  he  has  removed  the  wrath  of  the  earth6 

1  With  the  cetfureal  Thunderer)  ver.  96.     The  meaning  probably  is  that 
an  inspiration  is  derived  thence,  which,  being  an  emanation  from  Jupiter,  is 
still  connected  with  him,  and  derives  its  vigour  from  him. 

2  The  mouth  of  the  prophetess)  ver.  99.     It  has  been  suggested  that  in 
this  passage  there  is  a  hiatus  after  "  solvit,"  and  that  probably  some  lines 
are  lost,  as  the  likening  of  the  Fythia  to  Mount  .ZEtna  seems  forced  and 
unnatural. 

3  Of  Inarime)  ver.  101.     Inarime,  now  called  Ischia,  and  formerly  called 
JEnaria  as  well,  was  an  island  not  far  from  the  coast  of  Campania.    The  name 
is  supposed  by  some  to  have  been  coined  by  Virgil  from  the  expression  of 
Homer,  2»  ' Asians,  as  that  writer  is  the  first  found  to  use  it,  and  is  followed 
by   Ovid   and  our  Poet   in   the   present   instance.     Strauss   tells   us   that 
"aremus"  was  the  Etrurian  name  for  an  ape;  if  so,  the  name  of  the  island 
may  have   been  derived  from,  or  have   given   name  to,  certain  adjoining 
islands  which  were  called  "  Pithecusae,"  or  the  "  Ape  islands." 

4  At  to  the   Tyrians)  ver.   108.     He  alludes  to  the  Tyrians,  who  were 
said  to  have  built  Sidon  and  Tyre  and  Gadea  by  the  command  of  the 
Delphic  oracle. 

5  At  the  sea  of  Salami*)  ver.  109.     In  the  war  of  Xerxes  against  Greece, 
the  Athenians  were  advised  by  the  oracle  to  put  their  trust  in  wooden  walls ; 
on  which  they  forthwith  took  to  their  ships,  and  soon  afterwards,  under  the 
command  of  Themistocles,  conquered  the  fleet  of  Xerxes  at  Salamis. 

6  Removed  Vie  wrath  of  the  earth)  ver.  110.     Egypt  was  said  to  have 
been  relieved  from  famine  by  following  the  directions  of  the  oracle,  on 
Thmsius   being   killed   by  Busiris.     Phrygia  was,  according   to    Diodorus 
Siculus,  similarly  relieved  on  burying  Atys.     So  was  Attica  after  it  had,  by 
direction  of  the  oracle,  given  satisfaction  to  Minos,  whose  son  Androgeua 
had  been  slain  by  the  Athenians. 


B.  v.  110-130.]  PHAESALIA.  in 

when  barren,  the  end  of  it  being  shown ;  he  has  cleared 
the  air  when  generating  pestilence 1.  Our  age  is  deprived 
of  no  greater  blessing  of  the  Deities,  than  that  the  Delphic 
seat  has  become  silent,  since  monarchs  have  dreaded2 
events  to  come,  and  have  forbidden  the  Gods  of  heaven 
to  speak.  Nor  yet,  a  voice  denied  them,  do  the  Cirrhaean 
prophetesses  mourn;  and  they  have  the  benefit  of  the 
cessation  of  the  Temple's  rites.  For  if  the  God  enters 
any  breast,  a  premature  death  is  either  the  punishment3 
of  the  Deity  being  received,  or  the  reward;  inasmuch 
as  under  the  vehemence  and  the  fitfulness  of  the  frenzy 
the  human  frame  sinks,  and  the  impulses  of  the  Gods 
shake  the  frail  spirit. 

Thus  does  Appius,  an  enquirer  into  the  remotest  secrets 
of  the  Hesperian  destiny,  make  application  to  the  tripods 
for  a  length  of  time  unmoved,  and  the  silence  of  the  vast 
rocks.  The  priest,  requested  to  open  the  dreaded  seats, 
and  to  admit  to  the  Gods  a  trembling  prophetess,  seizes 
Phemonoe4,  roving  amid  her  wanderings  around  the 
streams  of  Castalia  and  the  recesses  of  the  groves,  and 
compels  her  to  burst  open  the  doors  of  the  Temple.  The 
maid  inspired  by  Phoebus,  dreading  to  stand  within  the 
awful  threshold,  by  a  vain  stratagem  attempts  to  wean  the 
chieftain  from  his  ardent  longing  to  know  the  future. 

1  When  generating  pestilence)  ver.  111.  The  Thebans  were  delivered 
from  a  plague  on  banishing,  by  advice  of  the  oracle  of  Delphi,  the  mur- 
derer of  Laius.  The  Lucanians  experienced  a  similar  relief  on  appeasing 
the  shade  of  Palinurus.  Livy,  B.  ix.,  and  Ovid  in  the  Metamorphoses, 
B.  xv.  1.  622,  et  seq.,  speak  of  the  delivery  of  the  Romans  from  pestilence 
on  sending  to  Epidaurus  for  the  God  ..-Esculapius. 

3  Monarchs  have  dreaded)  ver.   113.     One   of  the   Scholiasts  suggests 
that  Lucan  alludes  to  Pyrrhus,  king  of  Epirus ;  while  another  says  that  the 
Emperor  Nero   is  here  alluded  to,  and  that  on  his  making  enquiries  of 
the  oracle,  the  answer  was  that  a  matricide  ought  not  to  be  let  into  the 
knowledge   of  the   future,   on  which   Nero,  fearing   the   oracle   might   be 
harder  still  upon  his  crimes,  sacrificed  an  ass  to  the  God,  and  forbade  any 
sacrifices  to  be  offered  to  him  in  future,  on  which  the  oracle  ceased.     Ac- 
cording to  another  account,  the  oracle  gave  answer  that  Nero  would  be  slain 
by  the  populace,  which  caused  him  to  order  the  temple  to  be  closed. 

a  Either  the  punishment)  ver.  117.  Death  being  deemed  a  punishment 
or  reward,  according  as  the  priestess  was  attached  to  or  weary  of  life. 

4  Seizes  Phemonoe)  ver.  126.     This  is  probably  intended  as  a  general 
appellation  for  the  Pythia  or  priestess  of  Apollo,  as  it  was  the  name  given 
to  his  first  priestess  at  Delphi  before  the  times  of  Homer. 


172  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  130-158. 

"  Wliy,  Roman,"  says  she,  "  does  an  unbecoming  hope 
of  hearing  the  truth  attract  thee?  Its  chasms  dumb, 
Parnassus  holds  its  peace,  and  has  silenced  the  God; 
whether  it  is  that  the  spirit  has  forsaken  these  yawning 
clefts,  and  has  turned  its  changed  course  towards  the  far 
regions  of  the  world;  or  whether,  when  Python  was  con- 
sumed by  the  barbarian  torch ',  the  ashes  entered  the  im- 
mense caverns,  and  obstructed  the  passage  for  Phoebus; 
or  whether,  by  the  will  of  the  Gods,  Cirrha  is  silent,  and 
it  is  sufficient  that  the  secrets  of  future  fate  have  been 
entrusted  to  yourselves  in  the  lines  of  the  aged  Sibyl ;  or 
whether  Paean,  wont  to  drive  the  guilty  from  his  temples, 
finds  not  in  our  age  mouths  by  which  to  disclose  the  Fates." 

The  deceit  of  the  maiden  is  manifest,  and,  the  Deities 
being  denied,  her  very  fear  imparts  confidence.  Then 
does  the  wreathed  fillet2  bind  her  locks  in  front,  and, 
her  hair  streaming  down  her  back  a  white  head-dress 
encircles  with  Phocsean  laurel.  She,  dreading  the  fate- 
foretelling  recess  of  the  deep-seated  shrine,  in  the  first  part 
of  the  Temple  comes  to  a  stop,  and,  feigning  the  inspiration 
of  the  God,  utters  from  her  breast,  undisturbed  beneath, 
fictitious  words,  testifying  a  spirit  moved  by  no  divine  frenzy 
with  no  murmurs  of  a  hurried  voice,  and  not  so  much 
about  to  injure  the  chieftain  to  whom  she  is  prophesying 
falsely,  as  the  tripods  and  the  credit  of  Phoebus. 

Her  words  broken  with  no  trembling  sound,  her  voice 
not  sufficing  to  fill  the  space  of  the  capacious  cavern, 
the  laurels  shaken  off,  with  no  standing  of  her  hair  on  end, 
and  the  summits  of  the  Temple  without  vibration,  the 
grove,  too,  unshaken,  all  tJiese  betrayed  that  she  dreaded  to 
yield  herself  to  Phoebus.  Appius  beheld  the  tripods  un- 
occupied, and  raging,  exclaimed : — 
"  Impious  woman,  thou  shalt  both  pay  the  deserved  penalty 

'  By  the  barbarian  torch)  ver.  134.  This  has  been  generally  said  to  refer 
to  the  plunder  and  burning  of  the  Temple  at  Delphi  by  firennus  and  his 
Gauls,  who  invaded  Greece  from  Fannonia,  B.C.  279;  but  on  examination  it 
•would  appear  that  Brennus  was  utterly  thwarted  in  his  attempts  by  the 
bravery  of  the  Delphians,  4000  in  number.  The  passage  may  possibly  refer 
to  the  attack  made  by  Fyrrhus,  king  of  Epirus,  upon  the  Temple. 

2  The  meathed  JUiet)  ver.  143.  The  "  vittae,"  "  fillets,"  and  "  infulae," 
"  bands,"  formed  an  especial  part  of  the  costume  of  the  priestesses  who  were 
devoted  to  the  worship  of  the  Gods.  The  Vestal  virgins  at  Home  wore  them. 


B.  v.  158-183.]  PHARSALIA.  173 

to  me  and  to  the  Gods  of  heaven,  whom  thou  art  feigning 
as  inspiring  thee,  unless  thou  art  hidden  in  the  caverns,  and, 
consulted  upon  the  tumults  so  vast  of  the  trembling  world, 
dost  cease,  thyself,  to  speak." 

At  length,  the  affrighted  maiden  flies  for  refuge  to  the 
tripods,  and,  led  away  within  the  vast  caverns,  there  re- 
mains, and  receives  the  Deity  in  her  unaccustomed  breast ; 
who  pours  forth  the  spirit  of  the  rock,  now  for  so  many 
ages  unexhausted,  into  the  prophetess ;  and  at  length 
having  gained  the  Cirrhsean  breast1,  never  more  fully  did 
Psean  enter  into  the  limbs  of  female  inspired  by  him; 
and  he  banishes  her  former  mind,  and  throughout  her 
whole  breast  bids  the  mortal2  give  way  to  himself. 
Frantic,  she  rages  throughout  the  cave,  bearing  her  neck 
possessed,  and,  shaking  from  her  upright  hair  both  the 
fillets  of  the  God  and  the  garlands  of  Phcebus,  through  the 
empty  space  of  the  Temple  she  whirls  round  with  her  neck 
shaking  to  and  fro,  and  throws  prostrate  the  tripods  that 
stand  in  her  way  as  she  roams  along,  and  boils  with 
mighty  flames,  enduring  thee,  Phoebus,  raging  with  wrath. 

Nor  dost  thou  employ  the  lash  alone  and  goads  3,  flames, 
too,  dost  thou  bury  in  her  entrails ;  and  the  bridle  she 
submits  to;  nor  is  it  permitted4  the  prophetess  to  disclose 
as  much  as  to  know.  All  time  comes  in  a  single  mass;  and 
ages  so  many  press  upon  her  afflicted  breast.  Such  a  vast 
chain  of  events  is  disclosed,  and  all  the  future  struggles  for 
the  light  of  day ;  arid  fates  are  striving  that  demand 
utterance:  not  the  first  day,  not  the  last  of  the  world; 
not  the  laws  of  ocean,  not  the  number  of  the  sands,  is 
wanting.  Such  did  the  Curnsean  prophetess5,  in  the  Eubcean 

1  Gained  the  Cirrkcean  breast)  ver.  165.  The  God  now  fully  inspiring  the 
priestess. 

2  Bids  the  mortal)  ver.  168.     The  mortal  part,  or  human  mind. 

3  The  lash  alone  and  goads)  ver.  175.     The  meaning  is,  that  in  her 
frenzy  the  priestess  seems  to  be  driven  along  with  whips  and  goads. 

*  Nor  is  it  permitted)  ver.  177.     You  hinder  her  from  disclosing  more 
than  you  wish  the  enquirer  to  be  informed  of. 

*  The  Cumaan  proplietess)  ver.  183.     According  to  some  accounts,  Cumae 
in  Italy,  which  was  the  abode  of  one  of  the  Sibyls,  was  founded  by  a  colony 
from  Chalcis  in  the  isle  of  Eubcea.     He  alludes  to  the  occasion  on  which 
the  Sibyl  offered  the  books  which  revealed  the  destinies  of  Home  for  sale  to 
Tarquinius  Superbus,  and  says  that  she  favoured  the  Roman  people  alone 
by  putting  the  prophecies  in  writing,  which  bore  reference  to  them. 


174  PHARSALIA.  [a  v.  183-211. 

retreat,  indignant  that  her  frenzy  should  be  at  the  service 
of  many  nations,  cull  with  proud  hand  the  Roman  from 
the  heap  of  destinies  so  vast. 

Thus  does  Phemonoe,  filled  with  Phoebus,  struggle, 
•while  thee,  O  Appius,  consulter  of  the  Deity  hidden  in 
the  Castalian  land,  with  difficulty  she  discovers,  long  amid 
fates  so  mighty  seeking  thee  concealed.  Then,  first  the 
foaming  frenzy  flows  forth  about  her  maddened  lips,  and 
groans  and  loud  murmurs  from  her  gasping  mouth ;  then 
are  there  mournful  yells  in  the  vast  caverns,  and  at  last 
voices  resound,  the  maiden  now  overcome : — 

"  O  Roman,  thou  dost  escape  from  the  vast  threatenings 
of  war,  free  from  dangers  so  great;  and  alone  shalt  thou 
take  thy  rest  in  the  wide  valley  of  the  Eubcean  quarter."1 
The  rest  Apollo  suppresses,  and  stops  her  speech. 

Ye  tripods,  guardians  of  the  Fates,  and  ye  secrets  of  the 
world,  and  thou,  Psean,  powerful  in  the  truth,  uninformed 
by  the  Gods  of  heaven  of  no  day  of  the  future,  why  dost 
thou  hesitate  to  reveal  the  latest  moments  of  the  falling 
state,  and  the  slaughtered  chieftains,  and  the  deaths  of  poten- 
tates, and  nations  so  numerous  falling  amid  Hesperian 
bloodshed  ?  Is  it  that  the  Deities  have  not  yet  decreed 
mischief  so  great,  and  are  destinies  so  numerous  withheld, 
while  the  stars  yet  hesitate  to  doom  the  head  of  Pompey  ? 
Or  art  thou  silent  upon  the  crimes  of  the  avenging  sword  2, 
and  the  penalties  of  civic  frenzy  and  tyrannies  falling 
to  the  avenging  Bruti3  once  again,  that  Fortune  may  fulfil 
Tier  aim  ? 

Then,  smitten  by  the  breast  of  the  prophetess  the  doors 
open,  and,  hurried  on,  she  leaps  forth  from  the  Temple. 
Her  frantic  fit  still  lasts ;  and  the  God  whom  as  yet  she  has 

1  Of  the  Eubcean  quarter)  ver.  196.  "  Lateris;"  literally,  "side,"  in 
allusion  to  the  situation  of  the  long  narrow  island  of  Eubtca,  which  skirts 
the  eastern  side  of  Greece.  According  to  Lucan  and  some  other  authors, 
Appius  thought  that  this  prophecy,  which  was  really  significant  of  where  he 
should  die,  bore  reference  to  a  kingdom  reserved  for  him  by  destiny. 

8  Of  the  avenging  sword)  ver.  206.  He  alludes  to  the  swords  of  Brutus 
and  his  fellow  conspirators. 

3  Falling  to  the  avenging  Bruti)  ver.  207.  By  alluding  to  the  Bruti,  he 
means  that  .Tuning  Brutus  is  to  take  the  same  part  in  ridding  his  country  of 
Caesar's  tyranny  that  Junius  Brutus,  of  the  same  family,  did  in  the  expulsion 
of  the  tyrant  Tarquins. 


B.  v.  211-233.]  PHARSALIA.  175 

not  expelled  still  remains  in  her  not  having  said  the 
whole.  She  still  rolls  her  fierce  eyes,  and  her  looks 
•wandering  over  the  whole  sky,  now  with  timid,  now  stern 
with  threatening,  features ;  a  fiery  blush  tints  her  face  and 
her  livid  cheeks,  and  a  paleness  exists,  not  that  which  is 
wont  to  he  in  one  who  fears,  but  inspiring  fear.  Nor  does 
her  wearied  heart  find  rest ;  but,  as  the  swelling  sea  after 
the  hoarse  blasts  of  Boreas  moans,  so  do  silent  sighs 
relieve  the  prophetess.  And  while  from  the  sacred  light  by 
which  she  has  beheld  the  Fates  she  is  being  brought  back 
to  the  sunbeams  of  ordinary  day,  shades,  intervening,  come 
on.  Psean  sends  Stygian  Lethe  into  her  entrails,  to  snatch 
from  her  the  secrets  of  the  Gods.  Then  from  her  breast 
flies  the  truth,  and  the  future  returns  to  the  tripods  of 
Phoebus,  and,  hardly  come  to  herself,  she  falls  to  the  ground. 
Nor  yet,  Appius,  does  the  nearness  of  death  alarm  thee, 
deceived  by  ambiguous  responses;  but,  the  sway  of  the 
world  being  matter  of  uncertainty,  hurried  on  by  vain 
hopes  thou  dost  prepare  to  found  the  kingdom  of  Euboean 
Chalcis.  Alas,  madman !  what  one  of  the  Gods,  Death 
excepted,  can  possibly  grant  for  thee  to  be  sensible  of  no 
crash  of  warfare,  to  be  exempt  from  the  woes  so  numerous 
of  the  world  ?  The  secret  recesses  of  the  Eubosan  shore  thou 
shalt  possess,  buried  in  a  memorable  tomb,  where  rocky  Ca- 
rystos1  straitens  the  outlets  of  the  sea,  and  where  Khamnus2 

1  Rocky  Carystos)  ver.  232.     Carystos  was  a  town  on  the  south-eastern 
coast  of  Eubcea,  looking  towards  the  Cyclades ;  consequently  Lucan  is  wrong 
in  representing  it  as  situate  on  the  straits  of  Eubcea.     It  was  situate  at  the 
foot  of  Mount  Oche,  and  was  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Dryopes ;  and, 
according  to  tradition,  it  was  named  after  Carystus,  son  of  Chiron.     The 
mineral  called  "asbestus"  was  found  in  the  neighbourhood.     The  spot  is 
now  called  Karysto  or  Castel  Rosso. 

2  Where  Rhamnits)  ver.  233.     Rhamnus  was  a  demns  or  borough  of 
Attica,   situate  on  a  rocky  peninsula  on  the   eastern    coast,   about  seven 
miles    from   Marathon.      The   Poet   refers   to   the  worship    in    this    place 
of  Nemesis,  the  Goddess  of   Retribution,  the  avenger    of  crime  and  the 
punisher  of  presumption.     She  had  a  famous  temple  here,  in  which  was  her 
statue  carved  by   Phidias  out  of  a  block  of  marble  which  the  Persians 
brought  to  Greece  for   the  purpose   of  making  a   statue  of  Victory,  and 
which    was   thus   appropriately   devoted    to   the    Goddess   of   Retribution. 
It  wore  a  crown  and  had  wings,  and,  holding  a  spear  of  ash  in  the  right 
hand,  was  seated  on  a  stag.     According  to  another  account  the  statue  was 
the  work  of  Agoracritus,  the  disciple  of  Phidias. 


176  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  v.  233-257. 

worships  the  Deity  hostile  to  the  proud;  where  the  sea 
boils,  enclosed  in  its  rapid  tide,  and  the  Euripus1  hurries 
along,  with  waves  that  change  their  course,  the  ships  of 
Chalcis  to  Aulis,  hostile  to  fleets2. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Iberians  subdued,  Caesar  returned, 
about  to  cany  his  eagles  into  another  region ;  when  almost 
did  the  Gods  turn  aside  the  course  so  mighty  of  fate 
amid  his  prosperity.  For,  in  no  warfare  subdued,  within 
the  tents  of  his  camp  did  the  chieftain  fear  to  lose  the 
profit3  of  his  excesses;  when  almost,  the  bands,  faithful 
throughout  so  many  wars,  satiated  with  blood,  at  last  forsook 
their  leader:  whether  it  was  that  the  trumpet-call  ceas- 
ing for  a  time  from  its  melancholy  sound,  and  the  sword 
sheathed  and  cold,  had  expelled  the  mania  for  war;  or 
whether,  while  the  soldier  looked  for  greater  rewards,  he 
condemned  both  the  cause  and  the  leader,  and  even  then 
held  on  sale  his  sword  stained  with  crime.  Not  in  any 
danger4  was  Caesar  more  tried,  as  now,  not  from  a  firm 
height,  but  from  a  trembling  one,  he  looked  down  on 
everything,  and  stood  propped  up  upon  a  stumbling  spot ; 
deprived  of  hands  so  many,  and  left  almost  to  his  own 
sword,  he  who  dragged  so  many  nations  to  war,  was  sensible 
that  it  is  the  sword  not  of  the  general,  but  of  the  soldier, 
that  is  unsheathed. 

There  was  now  no  timid  murmuring,  nor  yet  anger  con- 
cealed in  the  secret  breast ;  for  the  cause  which  is  wont  to 

check  doubting  minds,  while  each  is  afraid  of  those  to  whom 

• 

1  And  the  Euripits)  ver.  235.     He  is  alluding  to  that  part  of  the  Euripus, 
or   straits  of  Eubcea,  which  was  the  "  Coele,"  or  "  Hollows  of  Eubcea," 
between  the  promontories  Caphareus  and   Chersonesus,  which  were  very 
dangerous    to    ships ;    here   a   part   of    the   Persian   fleet    was    wrecked, 
B.O.  480. 

2  Aulis,  hostile  to  fleets)  ver.  236.     He  alludes  to  the  violence  of  the  tide, 
which,  flowing  and  ebbing  seven  times  each  day  and  night,  was  in  the 
habit  of   carrying   ships,   in   spite   of   the    wind,   away  from   Chalcis,   in 
Eubcea,  towards  Aulis,  on  the  opposite  coast  of  Boeotia. 

3  To  lose  the  profit)  ver.  242.      Through  the  mutinous   spirit  of  his 
soldiers. 

4  Not  in  any  danger)  ver.  249.     Suetonius  tells  us  that  during  his  ten 
years'  campaigns  against  the  Gauls,  Caesar  had  not  experienced  nny  mutiny 
or  sedition  among  his  troops,  but  that  he  had  several  times  to  encounter  it 
during  the  Civil  Wars.     The  mutiny  here  described  took  place  at  Placentia, 
in  the  north  of  Italy. 


B.  v.  257-288.]  PHAKSALIA.  177 

he  is  a  cause  of  fear,  and  thinks  that  the  injustice  of  tyranny 
oppresses  himself  alone,  does  not  withhold  them ;  inasmuch 
as  the  daring  multitude  itself  has  laid  all  its  fears  aside. 
Whatever  offence  is  committed  hy  many  goes  unpunished. 
Thus  they  pour  forth  their  threats : — 

"  Let  it  he  permitted  us,  Csesar,  to  depart  from  the 
frantic  career  of  crime.  By  land  and  by  sea  thou  dost  seek 
a  sword  for  these  throats,  and  our  lives,  held  so  cheap,  thou 
art  ready  to  throw  away  upon  any  foe.  Gaul  has  snatched 
from  thee  a  part  of  us ;  Spain,  with  her  severe  wars,  a  part ; 
a  part  lies  in  Hesperia;  and  the  whole  world  over,  thee 
being  the  conqueror,  does  the  army  perish.  What  profits  it 
to  have  poured  forth  our  blood  in  the  northern  regions,  the 
Rhone  and  the  Rhine  subdued?  In  return  for  so  many 
woes  to  me  thou  hast  given  civil  war.  When,  the  Senate 
expelled,  we  captured  the  abodes  of  our  country,  which  of 
mortals  or  which  of  the  Gods  was  it  allowed  us  to  spoil? 
Guilty  with  hands  and  weapons  we  incur  eveiy  crime, 
pious,  however,  in  our  poverty.  What  limit  is  sought  for 
our  arms  ? 

"  What  is  enough,  if  Rome  is  too  little  ?  Now  look  upon 
our  hoary  locks  and  our  weak  hands,  and  behold  our  feeble 
arms.  The  prime  of  our  life  is  past,  our  years  we  have 
consumed  in  wars ;  dismiss  us,  aged  men,  to  die.  Behold 
our  unreasonable  request !  to  allow  us  not  to  lay  our  dying 
limbs  upon  the  hard  turf;  not  with  our  breath  as  it  flies 
to  beat  against  the  clod1,  and  to  seek  in  death  the  right 
hand  that  shall  close  our  eyes2;  to  sink  amid  the  tears  of 
our  wives,  and  to-  know  that  a  pile  is  prepared  for  each. 
May  it  be  allowed  us  by  disease  to  end  our  old  age  Be- 
sides the  sword  let  there  be  under  Caesar's  rule  some  other 
death.  Why  by  hopes  dost  thou  draw  us  on,  as  though 
ignorant  for  what  monstrous  crimes  we  are  being  trained  ? 
As  though,  indeed,  we  alone  are  not  aware,  amid  civil  war, 
of  which  treason  the  reward  is  the  greatest?  Nothing  has 
been  effected  by  the  wars,  if  he  has  not  yet  discovered  that 
these  hands  are  capable  of  doing  everything. 

1  To  leat  against  the  clod)  ver.  279.     With  the  violent  pulsation  or 
palpitation  consequent  on  the  struggles  of  death. 

2  Shall  close  our  eyes)  ver.  280.     He  alludes  to  the  custom  of  the  nearest 
relative  closing  the  eyes  of  the  dying  person. 

N 


178  PHAK3ALIA.  [B.  v.  288-318. 

"  Nor  do  right  or  the  bonds  of  law  forbid  us  to  attempt 
this.  Amid  the  waves  of  the  Rhine  Ccesar  was  my  chieftain, 
here  he  is  my  comrade.  Those  whom  criminality  defiles,  it 
renders  equal.  Add  that,  under  a  thankless  estimator  of  our 
deserts,  our  valour  is  lost ;  whatever  we  do  is  entitled  '  for- 
tune.' Let  him  be  aware  that  we  are  his  destiny.  Though 
thou  shouldst  hope  for  every  favour  of  the  Gods,  the  soldiers 
enraged,  Csesar,  there  will  be  peace."  Thus  having  said, 
they  began  to  rush  to  and  fro  throughout  all  the  camp,  and 
with  hostile  looks  to  demand  the  chief. 

Thus  may  it  be,  0  Gods  of  heaven!  when  duty  and 
fidelity  forsake  us,  and  it  is  left  to  place  our  hopes  in  evil 
ways,  let  discord  make  an  end  in  civil  war.  What  chieftain 
could  not  that  tumult  alarm?  But  Caesar  comes,  accus- 
tomed headlong  to  meet  the  Fates,  and  rejoicing  to  exercise 
his  fortunes  amid  extreme  dangers ;  nor  does  he  wait  until 
their  rage  may  abate :  he  hastens  to  tempt  their  fury  in  full 
career.  Not  to  them  would  he  have  denied  cities  and  temples 
to  be  spoiled,  and  the  Tarpeian  abode  of  Jove,  and  the  ma- 
trons of  the  Senate T,  and  brides  doomed  to  suffer  disgraceful 
indignities.  He  wishes  indeed  for  everything  to  be  asked  of 
him ;  he  wishes  the  rewards  of  warfare  to  be  courted ;  only 
the  recovered  senses  of  the  disobedient  soldiery  are  feared. 

Alas !  Csesar,  art  thou  not  ashamed  for  wars  now  to  prove 
pleasing  to  thyself  alone  that  have  been  condemned  by  thy 
own  bands  ?  Shall  these  be  weary  first  of  bloodshed  ?  Shall 
the  law  of  the  sword  prove  burdensome  to  them  ?  Wilt  thou 
thyself  rush  through  all  right  and  wrong  ?  Be  tired  at  last, 
and  learn  to  be  able  to  endure  existence  without  arms ;  let  it 
be  possible  for  thee  to  put  an  end  to  criminality.  Barbarous 
man,  why  dost  thou  press  on?  Why  now  dost  thou  urge  on 
the  unwilling?  Civil  war  is  flying  from  thee.  On  a  mound2 
of  turf  built  up  he  stood,  intrepid  in  countenance,  and  not 
alarmed,  deserved  to  be  feared ;  and,  anger  dictating,  thus 
he  spoke : — 

1  And  the  matront  of  the  Senate)  ver.  305.  For  his  own  purposes,  the 
Poet  does  not  scruple  to  libel  the  memory  of  Caesar,  and  in  no  instance 
more  so  than  in  the  present  passage. 

a  On  a  mound)  ver.  316.  It  was  the  usual  custom  in  the  Roman 
camp  to  erect  a  tribunal  formed  of  turf,  from  which  the  commander 
harangued  his  soldiers. 


B.  v.  319-346.]  PHARSALIA.  179 

"  Him,  against  whom,  when  absent,  soldiers,  just  now  with 
countenance  and  right  hands  you  were  raging,  you  have, 
with  breast  bared  and  exposed  to  wounds.  Fly,  if  an  end  of 
the  warfare  pleases  you,  your  swords  left  here1.  Sedition, 
that  dares  nothing  bravely,  proves  faint  hearts,  and  youths 
that  meditate  flight  alone,  and  wearied  with  the  prospering 
successes  of  their  unconquered  general.  Go,  and  leave  me, 
with  my  own  destinies,  to  the  warfare ;  these  weapons  will 
find  hands,  and,  yourselves  rejected,  Fortune  will  give  in 
return  heroes  as  many  as  the  weapons  that  shall  be  un- 
employed. Do  the  nations  of  Hesperia  attend  the  flight  of 
Magnus  with  a  fleet  so  great,  and  shall  victory  give  us  no 
attending  multitude,  to  bear  off  the  rewards  of  the  shortened 
warfare,  only  receiving  the  concluding  stroke,  and,  the  price 
of  your  labours  snatched  away,  to  attend  with  no  wound 
the  laurel-bearing  chariot?  You,  aged  men,  a  crowd  neg- 
lected and  destitute  of  blood,  then  the  commonalty  of  Borne, 
shall  behold  my  triumphs. 

"  Do  you  suppose  that  the  career  of  Caesar  can  possibly 
feel  ill  results  from  your  flight  ?  Just  as,  though  all  the  rivers 
should  threaten  to  withdraw  the  streams  which  they  mingle 
with  the  deep,  the  sea  would  never  decrease  the  more,  its 
waters  diminished,  than  now  it  swells.  Do  you  suppose  that 
you  have  imparted  any  weight  to  me  ?  Never  does  the  care 
of  the  Gods  thus  lower  itself,  that  the  Fates  should  have 
leisure  to  attend  to  your  death  and  your  safety.  On  the  move- 
ments of  the  great  do  ah1  these  things  attend.  Through  a 
few  does  the  human  race  exist.  Soldiers,  beneath  my  fame 
the  terror  of  the  Iberian  and  of  the  native  of  the  north, 
certainly,  Pompey  your  leader,  you  would  have  fled.  Amid 
the  arms  of  Caesar  Labienus  was  brave2;  now,  a  worthless 

1  Your  swords  left  here)  ver.  321.  "  Bun  away,  your  swords  being  left 
here,"  pointing  to  his  breast. 

3  Lalienus  was  brave)  ver.  345.  T.  Labienus  had  been  an  able  and  active 
officer  under  Caesar  in  his  campaigns  against  the  Gauls,  by  whom  he  was 
amply  rewarded  for  his  services.  Notwithstanding  the  favours  he  had  re- 
ceived from  Caesar,  he  took  the  earliest  opportunity  of  deserting  him,  and 
became  a  zealous  adherent  of  Pompey,  who  appointed  him  one  of  his  legates 
during  the  campaign  in  Greece.  Caesar  relates  that  he  obtained  from  Pom- 
pey all  the  soldiers  of  Caesar  who  had  been  taken  prisoners  at  Dyrrhachium, 
and  after  parading  them  before  the  army  of  Pompey,  and  taunting  them  as 
his  "  fellow  soldiers,"  and  upbraiding  them  with  asking  if  it  was  the  cus- 

K  3 


180  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  346-370. 

runaway,  with  the  chief  whom  he  has  preferred  he  wanders 
over  land  and  sea. 

"  Nor  more  pleasing  to  me  will  be  your  fidelity,  if,  myself 
neither  your  foe  nor  your  leader,  you  do  not  carry  on  the  war. 
Whoever  deserts  my  standards,  and  does  not  deliver  up  his 
arms  to  Pompey's  party,  he  never  wishes  to  be  on  my  side. 
Undoubtedly  this  camp  is  a  care  to  the  Gods,  who  liavc 
been  desirous  only  to  intrust  me  to  wars  so  mighty  upon  a 
change  of  my  soldiers.  Alas !  how  vast  a  weight  does  For- 
tune now  remove  from  my  shoulders,  wearied  with  the 
burden !  It  is  granted  me  to  disarm  right  hands  that  hope 
for  everything,  for  which  this  earth  does  not  suffice.  Now 
at  least,  for  myself  will  I  wage  the  war;  depart  from  the 
camp,  base  Quirites,  deliver  up  my  standards  to  men.  But 
the  few,  in  whom  as  the  prompters  this  madness  has  raged, 
not  Cffisar,  but  retribution,  detains  liere.  Fall  down  upon 
the  earth,  and  extend  your  faithless  heads  and  your  necks 
to  suffer  the  stroke ;  and  you,  raw  recruits,  by  whose 
strength  alone  my  camp  shall  henceforth  stand,  be  wit- 
nesses of  the  punishment,  and  learn  how  to  strike,  learn 
how  to  die." 

The  motionless  throng  trembled  beneath  his  stern  voice 
as  he  threatened;  and  of  one  person  did  a  force  so  great, 
able  to  make  him  a  private  man,  stand  in  awe ;  as  though 
he  could  command  the  swords  themselves,  able  to  wield 
the  weapons  hi  spite  of  soldiers.  Caesar  himself  is  ap- 
prehensive lest  weapons  and  right  hands  may  be  denied 
him  for  this  dreadful  deed ;  their  endurance  surpasses  the 
hopes  of  their  stern  leader,  and  affords  throats  \  not  swords 

torn  for  veterans  to  run  away,  put  them  to  death  in  the  presence  of  the 
assembled  troops.  By  his  overweening  confidence  he  contributed  to  the 
disastrous  issue  of  the  battle  of  Pharsalia.  After  that  battle,  flying  from 
place  to  place,  he  at  last  arrived  in  Africa,  and  joined  Scipio  and  Cato,  after 
whose  defeat  at  Thapsus  he  fled  into  Spain  and  joined  Cneius,  the  son  of 
Pompey.  He  fell  at  the  battle  of  Munda,  which,  very  probably,  was  lost 
through  his  carelessness. 

1  And  affords  throats)  yer.  370.  Suetonius  thus  mentions  this  cir- 
cumstance : — "  He  disbanded  the  entire  ninth  legion  at  Placentia,  with 
ignominy ;  and  only  with  difficulty  after  many  prayers  and  entreaties,  and 
not  without  punishing  the  guilty,  did  he  reinstate  it."  Appian,  in  his  Second 
Book  on  the  Civil  War,  says, — "  A  decimation  being  ordered  of  the  ninth 
legion,  which  had  been  the  first  mover  in  the  sedition,  amid  the  lamentations 
of  all,  the  Praetors  on  their  knees  suppliantly  asked  pardon  of  him.  Caesar, 


B.  v.  371-380.]  PHARSALIA.  181 

alone.  Nothing  does  he  fear  more  than  to  lose  spirits 
inured  to  crime,  and  that  they  should  be  lost ;  with  ratifica- 
tion so  dire1  of  the  treaty  is  peace  obtained,  and,  appeased 
by  punishment,  the  youths  return  to  their  duty. 

This  force,  after  ten  encampments2,  he  orders  to  reach 
Brundisium,  and  to  call  hi  all  the  shipping,  which  the 
winding  Hydrus',  and  the  ancient  Taras4,  and  the  secret 
shores  of  Leuca6,  which  the  Salapian  fens0  receive,  and 
the  Sipus7,  situate  below  the  mountains;  where  the  fruitful 
Garganus8  from  Apulia,  winding  through  the  Ausonian 

with  difficulty  getting  the  better  of  his  feelings  of  irritation,  granted  that 
only  one  hundred  and  seventy  of  the  seditious  should  be  selected  from  the 
principal  ones,  out  of  whom  twelve  were  selected  by  the  rest  for  punishment." 

1  Ratification  so  dire)  ver.  372.  This  is  said  sarcastically,  and,  not  im- 
probably, there  is  a  play  intended  upon  the  use  of  the  word  "  ictus,"  in 
allusion  to  the  resemblance  between  "  ictus  jugulorum,"  the  "  blows  on  the 
necks"  of  those  punished,  and  the  "ictus  feederis,"  the  "conclusion"  or  "ra- 
tification "  of  the  treaty. 

3  After  ten  encampments)  ver.  374.  "  Decimis  castris,"  literally,  "  in  ten 
encampments,"  meaning  ten  days'  inarch. 

3  Winding  Hydras)  ver.  375.     Hydrus  was  a  winding  river  of  Calabria, 
which  flowed  past  Hydrus,  or  Hydruntum,  an  ancient  town  of  that  district, 
with  a  good  harbour,  and  near  a  mountain  called  Hydrus.   It  was  frequently 
a  place  of  transit.     The  town  is  now  called  Otranto. 

4  Tlie  ancient  Taras)  ver.  376.     Taras  was  the  Greek  name  of  the  city  of 
Tarentum,  situate  on  the  western  coast  of  the  Peninsula  of  Calabria.     Near 
its  walls  flowed  a  river  named  Taras.     It  was  said  to  have  been  founded  by 
the  lapygians  and  Cretans,  and  to  have  derived  its  name  from  Taras,  a  son 
of  Neptune,  or  Poseidon.     Its  present  name  is  Taranto. 

5  Shores  of  Leuca)  ver.  376.     Leuca  was  a  town  at  the  extremity  of  the 
lapygian  Promontory,  in  Calabria,  with  a  fetid  spring,  under  the  bed  of 
which  the  Giants  who  were  vanquished  by  Hercules  were  said  to  have  been 
buried. 

8  The  Salapian  fens)  ver.  377.  Salapia  was  an  ancient  town  of  Apulia, 
in  the  Daunian  district,  situate  on  a  lake  which  was  named  after  it.  Accord- 
ing to  the  common  tradition,  it  was  founded  by  Diomedes.  In  the  second 
Punic  war  it  revolted  to  Hannibal  after  the  battle  of  Cannse,  who  is  said 
here  to  have  indulged  in  the  debaucheries  of  Campania.  It  afterwards  sur- 
rendered to  the  Romans,  and  delivered  up  to  them  its  Carthaginian  garrison. 
The  original  site  was  at  some  distance  from  the  sea,  but  in  consequence  of  its 
unhealthy  situation  it  was  removed  to  a  new  town  on  the  sea-coast,  which 
was  built  by  M.  Hostilius,  about  B.C.  200. 

7  And  the  Sipus)  ver.  377.     Sipus  was  the  Grecian  name  of  Sipuntum,  a 
town  of  Apulia,  between   Mount  Garganus  and  the  sea-shore.     It  was  a 
.Roman  colony,  and  a  place  of  considerable  commercial  importance. 

8  The  fruitful  Garganus)  ver.  380.     Garganus  was  the  name  of  a  moun- 
tain and  promontory  of  Apulia,  famous  for  its  forests  of  oak. 


182  PHARSALIA.  [R  v.  380-394. 

land,  enters  into  the  Adriatic  waves,  opposed  to  the  Dalma- 
tian Boreas  and  the  southern  breeze  of  Calabria. 

In  safety,  without  his  soldiers,  he  himself  repairs  to 
trembling  Rome,  now  taught  to  obey  the  requirements  of 
peace1;  and,  indulgent  to  the  entreating  people,  forsooth, 
as  Dictator2  he  attains  the  highest  honor,  and,  himself 
Consul,  renders  joyous  the  annals.  For  all  the  expressions3 
by  means  of  which  now  for  long  we  have  lied  to  our  rulers 
this  age  was  the  first  to  invent.  That  in  no  way  any 
legality  in  wielding  weapons  might  be  wanting  to  him, 
Ceesar  was  desirous  to  unite  the  Ausonian  axes  with  his 
swords.  He  added  the  fasces,  too,  to  the  eagles ;  and, 
seizing  the  empty  name  of  authority,  stamped  the  sad 
times  with  a  worthy  mark.  For  by  what  Consul  will  the 
Pharsalian  year  be  better  known?  The  Field  of  Man 
feigns4  the  solemnity,  and  divides  the  suffrages5  of  the 
commonalty  not  admitted,  and  cites  the  tribes,  and  to  no 
purpose  turns  the  votes  into  the  urn. 

1  Obey  the  requirements  of  peace)  ver.  382.     "  Servire  togae."     This  is 
said  ironically,  meaning,  "  now  ready  to  be  enslaved  by  him  while  pretend- 
ing to  exercise  the  arts  of  peace." 

2  As  Dictator)  ver.  383.     Caesar  had  himself  appointed  Dictator,  and  Con- 
sul with  P.  Servilius  Vatia  Isauricus ;  but  thinking  that  his  continuing  to 
hold  the  Dictatorship  was  likely  to  alienate  the  affections  of  many  of  his  own 
party,  he  resigned  it  in  eleven  days  after.     See  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  2. 

1  All  the  expressions)  ver.  385.  This  line  must  have  been  penned  in  R 
bitter  spirit  against  Nero  :  his  meaning  is,  that  this  year  was  the  first  one  of 
the  despotism  of  the  Caesars,  from  which  all  those  titles  of  honour  which  fear 
and  adulation  heaped  upon  the  tyrant  took  their  rise.  Some  of  these  titles 
•were  "  Divus,"  "  the  divine  ;"  "  Semper  augustus,"  "  the  ever  venerable  ;" 
"  Pater  patriae,"  "  the  father  of  his  country  j"  "  Dominus,"  "  the  lord ;" 
"  Fundator  quietis,"  "  author  of  repose." 

4  The  Field  of  Mars  feigns)  ver.  392.  By  the  use  of  the  word  "fingit," 
he  means  to  say  that  the  proceedings  were  spurious  and  illegal,  and  that 
Caesar  and  Servilius  were  not  Consuls,  but  only  Pseudo-Consuls.  The  votes 
for  the  Consulship  were  given  by  the  tribes  assembled  on  the  Campus 
Martius, 

*  Divides  the  suffrages)  ver.  393.  He  means  that  Caesar,  in  which  example 
he  was  followed  by  the  succeeding  emperors,  cited  the  tribes  of  the  people  to 
the  election  of  the  Consuls  on  the  Campus  Martius,  but  that  he  did  not 
admit  them  to  give  their  votes,  although,  "  dirimebat,"  he  distributed  the 
pebbles  or  ballots  among  them  as  though  for  the  purpose,  although,  too,  the 
herald  cited  (decantabat)  the  tribes  by  name,  and  although  he  drew  lots 
(versabat)  from  the  urn,  as  to  the  order  in  which  the  tribes  were  to  give 
their  votes. 


B.  v.  395-412.]  PHARSALIA.  183 

Nor  is  it  allowed  to  prognosticate  from  the  heavens  ;  the 
augur  remaining  deaf,  it  thunders,  and  the  birds  are  sworn 
to  be  propitious,  the  ill-omened  owl  presenting  itself.  From 
that  time  first  fell  a  power  once  venerated,  stripped  of  its 
rights ;  only,  lest  time  should  be  wanting  an  appellation,  the 
Consul  of  the  month1  distinguishes  the  ages  in  the  annals. 
Besides,  the  Divinity  who  presides  at  Ilian  Alba2,  not  de- 
servedly3, Latium  subdued,  still  beholds  the  solemn  rites, 
the  Latin  sacrifices4  performed  in  the  flaming  night. 

Then  he  hurries  on  his  course,  and  speeds  across  the 
fields  which  the  inactive  Apulian  has  deserted  with  his 
harrows,  and  has  yielded  up  to  slothful  grass,  quicker  than 
both  the  flames  of  heaven  and  the  pregnant  tigress ;  and, 
arriving  at  the  Minoian  abodes  of  the  winding  Brundisium6, 
he  finds  the  waves  pent  up  by  the  winds  of  winter,  and  the 
fleets  alarmed  by  the  wintry  Constellation6.  Base  does  it 
seem  to  the  chieftain  for  the  moments  for  hurrying  on  the 
war  to  pass  in  slow  delay,  and  to  be  kept  in  harbour  while 
the  sea  is  open  in  safety,  even  to  those  who  are  unsuc- 
cessful. Spirits  unacquainted  with  the  sea  thus  does  he 
fill  with  courage : — 

1  Consul  of  the  month)  ver.  399.     He  laments  that  from  this  time  the 
office  of  Consul  was  entirely  stripped  of  its  authority,  and  that  only  for  the 
purpose  of  giving  a  name  to  the  periods  in  the  "  Fasti  Consulates,"  or  annals, 
from  their  Consulships,  were  the  Consuls  elected ;  and  in  many  instances 
only  for  a  month,  according  to  the  whim  of  the  emperor.     Suetonius  speaks 
of  Caligula,  Claudius,  and  Nero  as  acting  thus,  and  Tacitus  mentions  the 
same  practice  with  regard  to  the  Emperor  Otho. 

2  At  Ilian  Alba)  ver.  400.     Alba  was  said  to  have  been  founded  by 
Ascanius,  or  lulus,  the  son  of  Jineas,  the  Trojan. 

3  Not  deservedly)  ver.  401.     He  means  that  Jupiter  Latialis  was  not 
worthy  of  this  sacrifice  being  performed  in  his  honor,  in  consequence  of  his 
neglect  in  having  allowed  Latium  to  be  subjected  to  the  tyranny  of  Caesar. 

4  The  Latin  sacrifices)  ver.  402.     As  to  the  Latinae,  or  rites  of  Jupiter 
Latialis,  see  the  First  Book,  1.  550,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

5  Winding  Brundisium)  ver.  406.     See  a  description  of  the  shores  of 
Brundisium  in  the  Second  Book,  1.  613  :  Lucan  calls  them  "  Minoi'a"  from 
the  tradition  which  represented  the  Cretans,  over  whom  Minos  reigned,  as 
being  the  founders  of  the  colony. 

'  Wintry  Constellation)  ver.  408.  "  Hiberno  sidere."  It  is  not  precisely 
known  to  which  of  the  heavenly  bodies  he  refers  as  the  "Hibernum  sidus." 
The  Constellations  of  the  Dolphin  and  the  Pleiades  have  been  suggested  ;  but 
it  is  not  unlikely  that  he  alludes  to  the  wintry  aspect  of  the  sun,  which,  by 
reason  of  his  absence  during  the  prolonged  nights  of  winter,  causes  cold. 


184  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  413-432. 

"More  constantly  do  the  wintry  blasts  possess  the 
heavens  and  the  main,  when  they  have  once  begun,  than 
those  which  the  perfidious  inconstancy  of  the  cloudy 
spring  forbids  to  prevail  with  certainty.  No  windings  are 
there  of  the  sea,  and  no  shores  are  there  to  be  surveyed 
by  us,  but  straight  onward  are  the  waves  to  be  cleaved, 
and  by  the  aid  of  the  north  wind  alone.  0  that  he  would 
bend  the  head  of  our  topmost  mast,  and  press  on  hi  his 
fury,  and  waft  us  to  the  Grecian  walls,  lest  the  partisans  of 
Pompey  should  come  with  impelled  oars  from  all  the  shore 
of  the  Phseacians  *  upon  our  languid  sails ;  sever  the  cables 
which  retain  our  conquering  prows;  already  are  we  losing3 
the  clouds  and  the  raging  waves." 

The  first  stars  of  the  skyy,  Phoebus  concealing  himself 
beneath  the  waves,  had  come  forth,  and  the  moon  had  now 
spread  her  shadows,  when  they  both  unmoored  the  ships, 
and  the  ropes  unfurled  the  full  sails ;  and  the  sailor,  the 
end  of  the  yard  being  bent  by  the  rope  towards  the  left, 
slants  the  canvass  to  catch  the  wind,  and  expanding  the 
loftiest  top-sail,  catches  the  gales  that  might  die  away. 
When  first  a  slight  breeze  has  begun  to  move  the  sails, 
and  they  swell  a  little,  soon,  returning  to  the  mast,  they 

1  Of  the  Pkceacians)  ver.  420.  The  Phaeacians  were  the  ancient  inhabit- 
ants of  the  island  of  Corcyra,  now  Corfu.  His  fear  is  lest  the  ships  of 
war  of  Pompey  should  be  enabled  to  overtake  his  heavy  transports.  Caesar 
says,  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  5, — "  Pompey  had  resolved  to  fix  his 
winter  quarters  at  Dyrrhachium,  Apollonia,  and  the  other  seaports,  to 
hinder  Caesar  from  passing  the  sea,  and  for  this  purpose  had  stationed  his 
fleet  along  the  sea-coast." 

*  Already  are  ice  losing)  ver.  423.  He  means  that  they  are  losing  the 
opportunity  afforded  them  by  the  stormy  weather,  which  will  hinder  the 
enemy  from  obstructing  their  passage  over. 

1  First  stars  of  the  tky)  ver.  424.  This  important  period  is  thus  referred 
to  by  Caesar  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  6 : — "  When  Cassar  came  to 
Brundisium,  he  made  a  speech  to  the  soldiers : — '  That  since  they  were 
now  almost  arrived  at  the  termination  of  their  toils  and  dangers,  they 
should  patiently  submit  to  leave  their  slaves  ar.d  baggage  in  Italy,  and  to 
embark  without  luggage,  that  a  greater  number  of  men  might  be  put  on 
board:  that  they  might  expect  everything  from  victory  and  his  liberality.' 
They  cried  out  with  one  voice,  that  he  might  give  what  orders  he  pleased, 
that  they  would  cheerfully  fulfil  them.  He  accordingly  set  sail  the  fourth 
day  of  January,  with  seven  legions  on  board,  as  already  remarked.  The 
next  day  he  reached  Land,  between  the  Ceraunian  rocks  and  other  dangerous 
•pots." 


B.  v.  432452.]  PHARSALIA.  185 

fall  into  the  midst  of  the  ship ;  and,  the  land  left  behind, 
the  wind  itself  is  not  able  to  accompany  the  vessels  which 
has  brought  them  out.  The  sea  lies  becalmed,  bound  by  a 
heavy  torpor.  More  sluggish  do  the  waves  stand  than  un- 
moved swamps. 

So  stands  the  motionless  Bosporus1  that  binds  the 
Scythian  waves,  when,  the  ice  preventing,  the  Danube  does 
not  impel  the  deep,  and  the  boundless  sea  is  covered  with 
ice ;  whatever  ships  they  have  overtaken  the  waves  keep 
fast ;  and  the  horseman  breaks  through  the  waters  not  per- 
vious to  sails,  and  the  wheel  of  the  migrating  Bessan  -  cleaves 
the  Mffiotis,  resounding  with  its  waves  lying  concealed. 
Fearful  is  the  calm  of  the  sea,  and  sluggish  are  the  stagnant 
pools  of  becalmed  water  on  the  dismal  deep;  as  though 
deserted  by1  stiffened  nature  the  seas  are  still,  and  the 
ocean,  forgetful  to  observe  its  ancient  laws,  moves  not  with 
its  tides,  nor  shudders  with  a  ripple,  nor  dances  beneath  the 
reflection  of  the  sun. 

Detained,  to  dangers  innumerable  were  the  barks  exposed. 
On  the  one  side  were  fleets  hostile  and  ready  to  move  the 
sluggish  waves  with  their  oars ;  on  the  other  was  famine 
threatening  to  come  on  them  blockaded  by  the  calm  on  the 
deep.  Unwonted  vows  were  found  for  unwonted  fears,  both 
to  pray  for  the  billows  and  the  exceeding  might  of  the  winds, 

1  The  motionless  Bosporus)  ver.  436.  Under  this  name  it  is  probable  that 
be  refers  to  the  Black  Sea,  or  Pontus  Euxinus  in  general.  The  name  was 
given  by  the  ancients  to  two  places : — 1.  The  Thracian  Bosporus,  now  the 
"  Straits  of  Constantinople,"  uniting  the  Propontis,  or  sea  of  Marmora,  with 
the  Euxine  or  Black  Sea ;  which  received  its  name,  according  to  the  tradition, 
from  lo,  when  changed  by  Jupiter  into  an  heifer.  2.  The  Cimmerian 
Bosporus,  now  the  Straits  of  (Jaffa,  which  unites  the  Palus  Mseotis,  or 
sea  of  Azof,  with  the  Black  Sea.  It  derived  its  name  from  the  Cimmerii,  a 
nation  supposed  to  live  in  the  neighbourhood. 

3  The  migrating  Bessan)  ver.  441.  The  Bessi  were  a  fierce  people  of 
Thrace,  who  dwelt  in  the  districts  extending  from  Mount  Haemus  to  the 
Euxine.  Ovid  mentions  them  in  his  Tristia,  or  Lament,  B.  iii.  El.  10, 
1.  5 : — •'  The  Sauromatae,  a  savage  race,  the  Bessi,  and  the  Getse  surround 
me,  names  how  unworthy  of  my  genius  to  mention ! "  The  Poet  here 
alludes  to  the  custom  of  the  migratory  nations  passing  over  the  Palus  Maeotia 
when  frozen,  with  their  waggons. 

3  As  though  deserted  by)  ver.  443-4.  "  Veluti  deserta  rigente  sequora 
natura,  cessant."  Lemaire  suggests  that  this  is  the  proper  translation  of  this 
passage  : — "  Just  like  places  rendered  uninhabited  by  frozen  nature  the  sea 
is  still." 


186  PHARSALIA.  [u.  v.  452-469. 

so  long  as  the  waves  should  release  themselves  from  their 
torpid  stagnation,  and  there  should  be  a  sea.  Clouds  and 
indications  of  waves  are  there  nowhere ;  the  sky  and  the 
sea  languid,  all  hope  of  shipwreck  departs1.  But,  the  night 
dispersed,  the  day  sends  forth  its  beams  obscured  by  clouds, 
and  by  degrees  arouses  the  depths  of  the  ocean,  and  for  the 
mariners  sets  Ceraunia  in  motion2.  Then  do  the  ships 
begin  to  be  borne  along,  and  the  furrowed  waves  to  follow 
the  fleet,  which  now  moving  on  with  fair  wind  and  tide, 
pierces  with  its  anchors  the  sands  of  Palseste:l. 

The  region  was  the  first  to  see  the  generals  pitch  their 
adjoining  camps,  which  the  swift  Genusus  *  and  which  the 
more  gentle  Apsus5,  surround  with  their  banks.  The  cause 
for  the  Apsus  being  able  to  carry  ships  is  a  fen,  which, 
deceiving  by  its  water  slowly  flowing,  it  empties.  But  the 
Genusus,  snows,  now  dissolved  by  the  sun,  and  now 
dissolved  by  showers,  render  of  headlong  course;  neither 
wearies  itself  by  a  long  course,  but,  the  sea-shore  being 
near,  is  acquainted  with  but  very  little  land.  In  this  spot 
did  Fortune  bring  together  two  names  of  a  fame  so  great, 
and  the  hopes  of  the  wretched  world  were  deceived,  that 

1  All  hope  of  shipwreck  departs)  ver.  455.  Amid  the  calm  they  despair 
of  a  storm  which  may  cause  them  the  risk  of  shipwreck. 

3  Sets  Ceraunia  in  motion)  ver.  457.  Probably  this  expression  is  used  in 
reference  to  the  optical  illusion  which  appears  to  represent  the  ship  as  sta- 
tionary to  those  on  board,  and  the  shore  as  though  in  motion. 

*  Sands  of  Palceste)  ver.  460.     Palaeste  was  a  town  of  Epirus,  on  the 
coast  of  Chaonia,  to  the  south  of  the  Acroceraunian  Mountains.     From  a  line 
in  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  it  would  seem  that  the  Furies  had  a  temple  at  this 
place,   B.  iv.   1.  236.     The  town  on  its  site  at  the  present  day  is  called 
Palasa. 

*  The  smft  Genvsus)  ver.  462.     The  Genusus  is  a  river  of  Illyria,  which 
separated  Dyrrhachium  from  Apollonia.     It  is  now  called  the  Iskumi. 

*  More  gentle  Apsus)    ver.  462.     The  Apsus,  a  river  of  Illyria,  now 
called  the  Crevasta,  flows  into  the  Ionian  Sea,     This  period  of  the  War, 
•when   the   rivals  first   met   each    other,  is   thus   referred  to  in  the  Civil 
War,  B.  iii.  c.  15: — "  Caesar,  finding  the  road  to  Dyrrhachium  already  in 
the  possession  of  Pompey,  was  in  no  great  haste,  but  encamped  by  the  river 
Apsus,  in  the  territory  of  Apollonia,  that  the  states  which  had  deserved  his 
support  might  be  certain  of  protection  from  his  outposts  and  forts :  and  there 
he  resolved  to  await  the  arrival  of  his  other  legions  from  Italy,  and  to  winter 
in  tents.     Pompey  did  the  same,  and  pitching  his  camp  on  the  other  side  of 
the  river  Apsus,  collected  there  all  his  troops  and  auxiliaries."     The  trans- 
actions in  Illyria,  from  the  time  of  Caesar's  landing  up  to  this  period,  are 
related  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  7-13. 


B.  v.  470-485.]  PHAKSALIA.  187 

the  chieftains  might  possibly,  when  separated  by  the  trifling 
distance  of  a  plain,  condemn  the  criminality  now  brought 
home.  For  they  have  the  opportunity  to  see  their  coun- 
tenances and  to  hear  their  voices ;  and  for  many  a  year, 
Magnus,  not  personally  did  thy  father-in-law,  beloved  by 
thee,  after  pledges  so  great1  of  blood,  the  birth  and  the 
death  of  a  luckless  grandson,  behold  thee,  except  upon  the 
sands  of  the  Nile. 

A  part  of  his  forces  2  left  behind  compelled  the  mind  of 
Ctesar,  aroused  for  mingling  in  the  conflict,  to  submit  to- 
delay  in  crime.  Antony  was  the  leader,  daring  in  all 
warfare,  even  then,  in  civil  war,  training  for  Leucas3. 
Him  delaying  full  oft  by  threats  and  by  entreaties4  does- 
Csesar  summon  forth : — 

"  O  cause  of  woes  so  mighty  to  the  world,  why  dost  thou 
retard  the  Gods  of  heaven  and  the  Fates  ?  The  rest  has 
been  effected  by  my  speed ;  Fortune  demands  thee  as 
the  finishing  hand  to  the  successes  of  the  hastened  war- 
fare. Does  Libya,  sundered  with  her  shoaly  quicksands, 

1  After  pledges  so  great)  ver.  473-4.     "  Pignora  tanta"  refers  to  the 
marriage  of  Julia,  the  daughter  of  Caesar,  with  Pompey,  and  in  the  word 
"soboles"  he  refers  to  the  child  of  which  she  was  delivered,  but  which  lived 
only  for  a  very  short  period. 

2  A  part  of  his  forces)  ver.  477.     He  alludes  to  the  several  legions  which 
he  had  left  behind  him  at  Brundisium,  under  the  command  of  Marc  Antony. 

s  Training  for  Leucas)  ver.  479.  "  Jam  tune  civili  meditatus  Leucada 
bello."  This  is  said  ironically,  and  the  Poet  means  to  say  that  even  then 
Antony  was  practising,  by  engaging  in  civil  warfare,  for  the  part  he  was  to- 
take  at  the  battle  of  Actium,  which  he  fought  against  Augustus  off  the  Leu- 
cadian  Promontory. 

4  By  threats  and  by  entreaties)  ver.  480.  This  is  thus  expressed  by  Caesar 
himself  in  his  account  of  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  25  : — "  Those  who 
commanded  Pompey's  fleet  received  frequent  reproofs  from  him  by  letter, 
that  as  they  had  not  prevented  Caesar's  arrival  at  the  first,  they  should  at 
least  stop  the  remainder  of  his  army ;  and  they  were  expecting  that  the 
season  for  transporting  troops  would  every  day  become  more  unfavorable,  as 
the  winds  grew  calmer.  Caesar,  feeling  some  trouble  on  this  account,  wrote 
in  severe  terms  to  his  officers  at  Brundisium,  and  gave  them  orders  that  as 
soon  as  they  found  the  wind  to  answer,  they  should  not  let  the  opportunity 
of  setting  sail  pass  by,  if  they  were  even  to  steer  their  course  to  the  shore  of 
Apollonia,  because  there  they  might  run  their  ships  aground.  That  these 
parts  principally  were  left  unguarded  by  the  enemy's  fleet,  because  they 
dared  not  venture  too  far  from  the  harbour." 


188  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  v.  485  518. 

divide  us  with  uncertain  tides?  Have  I  in  any  way  en- 
trusted thy  arms  to  an  untried  deep,  and  art  thou  dragged 
into  dangers  unknown  ?  Sluggard,  Ceesar  commands  thee 
to  come,  not  to  go.  I  myself,  the  first,  amid  the  foe  touched 
upon  sands  in  the  midst  of  them,  and  under  the  sway  of 
others.  Dost  thou  fear  my  camp  ?  I  lament  that  the  hours 
of  fate  are  wasting;  upon  the  winds  and  the  waves  do  I 
expend  my  prayers.  Keep  not  those  back  who  desire  to  go 
on  the  shifting  deep ;  if  I  judge  aright,  the  youths  would 
be  willing  by  shipwreck  even  to  repair  to  the  arms  of  Csesar. 
Now  must  I  employ  the  language  of  grief;  not  on  equal 
terms  have  we  divided  the  world.  Csesar  and  the  whole 
Senate  occupy  Epirus;  thou  alone  dost  possess  Ausonia." 

After  he  sees  that  he,  summoned  three  or  four  times 
in  this  language,  is  still  delaying,  as  he  believes  that  it  is 
he  himself  who  is  wanting  to  the  Gods,  and  not  the  Deities 
to  him,  of  his  accord  amid  the  unsafe  shades  of  night  he 
dares  to  try  the  sea,  which  they,  commanded,  stand  in  fear 
of,  having  experienced  that  venturous  deeds  have  prospered 
under  a  favoring  Divinity ;  and  waves,  worthy  to  be  feared 
by  fleets,  he  hopes  to  pass  over  in  a  little  bark. 

Night  with  its  languor  had  noio  relaxed  the  wearied  care 
of  arms ;  rest  was  obtained  for  the  wretched,  into  whose 
breasts  by  sleep  a  more  humble  lot  inspires  strength.  Now 
was  the  camp  silent ;  now  had  its  third  hour  l  brought 
on  the  second  watch ;  Caesar  with  anxious  step  amid  the 
vasty  silence  attempted  things  hardly  by  his  servants2  to  be 
dared ;  and,  all  left  behind,  Fortune  alone  pleased  him  as  his 
companion.  After  he  had  gone  through  the  tents,  he  passed 
over  the  bodies  of  the  sentinels  which  had  yielded  to  sleep, 
silently  complaining  that  he  was  able:t  to  elude  them.  He 

1  Now  had  its  third  hour)  ver.  507.  This  would  be  from  11  to  12  o'clock 
nt  night,  as  the  "  vigiliae,"  or  watches,  of  the  Roman  armies  were  divided 
into  four,  of  three  hours  each,  the  first  beginning  at  six  o'clock  in  the  evening. 

1  Hardly  by  his  servants)  ver.  509.  Plutarch  says  that  Caesar  disguised 
himself  in  the  dress  of  a  servant.  Appian  states  that  he  sent  three  servants 
before  to  get  ready  the  vessel,  as  though  for  the  use  of  a  messenger  from 
Csesar. 

*  Complaining  that  he  was  able)  ver.  51 2.  That  they  were  tasting  of 
tranquil  slumbers  to  which  he  himself  was  a  stranger ;  or  perhaps  it  may 
mean  that  he  was  sorry  to  find  the  watch  so  badly  kept. 


B.  v.  513-537.]  PHARSALIA.  189 

passed  along  the  winding  shore,  and  at  the  brink  of  the  waves 
found  a  bark  attached  by  a  cable  to  the  rocks  eaten  away. 

Not  far  from  thence  a  house,  free  from  all  cares,  propped 
up  with  no  stout  timbers,  but  woven  with  barren  rushes 
and  the  reeds  of  the  marsh,  and  covered  on  its  exposed 
side  with  a  boat l  turned  bottom  upwards,  sheltered  the  pilot 
and  the  owner  of  the  bark.  Csesar  twice  or  thrice  knocked 
with  his  hand  at  this  threshold,  that  shook  the  roof. 
Amyclas  arose  from  the  soft  couch,  which  the  sea-weed 
afforded.  "  What  shipwrecked  person,  I  wonder,"  said  he, 
"  repairs  to  my  abode  ?  Or  whom  has  Fortune  compelled 
to  hope  for  the  aid  of  our  cottage?"  Thus  having  said, 
the  tow  now  raised2  from  the  dense  heap  of  warm  ashes, 
he  nourished  the  small  spark  into  kindled  flames ;  free 
from  care  of  the  warfare,  he  knew  that  in  civil  strife 
cottages  are  no  prey.  O  safe  the  lot  of  a  poor  man's  life, 
and  his  humble  home !  O  gifts  of  the  Deities  not  yet 
understood !  What  temples  or  what  cities  could  this 
befall,  to  be  alarmed  with  no  tumult,  the  hand  of  Caesar 
knocking  ? 

Then,  the  door  being  opened,  the  chieftain  says : — 
"  Look  for  what  is  greater  than  thy  moderate  wishes,  and 
give  scope  to  thy  hopes,  0  youth.  If,  obeying  my  com- 
mands, thou  dost  carry  me  to  Hesperia,  no  more  wilt  tliou 
be  owing  everything  to  thy  bark,  and  by  thy  hands  dragging 
on  a  needy  old  age.  Hesitate  not  to  entrust  thy  fate  to 
the  God  who  wishes  to  fill  thy  humble  abode  with  sudden 
wealth." 

1  With  a  boat)  ver.  518.    "Phaselo."    The  vessel  which  was  called  "phase- 
lus"  was  long  and  narrow,  and  probably  received  its  name  from  its  resem- 
blance to  the  shape  of  a  kidney-bean,  which  was  called  "  phaselus."     They 
were  especially  used  by  the  Egyptians,  and  were  of  various  sizes,  from  that 
of  a  mere  boat  to  a  vessel  suited  for  a  long  voyage.     Appian  mentions  them 
as  being  a  medium  between  ships  of  war  and  merchant  vessels.     Being  built 
for  speed,  they  were  more  noted  for  their  swiftness  than  their  strength. 
Juvenal,  Sat.   xv.  1.  127,  speaks  of  them  as  being  made  of  clay ;  but  of 
course  that  can  only  refer  to  "  phaseli "  of  the  smallest,  kind.     The  one 
here  mentioned  was  perhaps  of  this  description. 

2  The  tow  now  raised)  ver.  524.     Among  the  poor  it  was  the  custom  to 
keep  a  log  of  wood  smouldering  beneath  a  heap  of  embers  on  the  hearth 
from  day  to  day,  to  be  in  readiness  for  cooking  or  giving  a  light  when 
•wanted.     In  the  present  instance  we  find  an  old  rope  or  piece  of  tow  used 
for  a  similar  purpose. 


190  PHAR3ALIA.  [B.  v.  538-569. 

Thus  he  says,  unable  to  be  taught  to  speak  as  a  private 
man,  though  clad  in  a  plebeian  garb.  Tlien  says  the  poor 
Amyclas,  "  Many  things  indeed  forbid  me  to  trust  the  deep 
to-night.  For  the  sun  did  not  take  down  into  the  seas 
ruddy  clouds,  and  rays  of  one  hue1;  one  portion  of  Phoebus 
invited  the  southern  gales,  another,  with  divided,  light,  the 
northern.  Dimmed,  too,  and  languid  hi  the  middle  of  his 
orb,  he  set,  not  dazzling  the  eyes  that  looked  on  lu'm,  with 
his  weakly  light.  The  moon,  also,  did  not  rise,  shining 
•with  slender  horn,  or  hollowed  with  clear  cavities  in  her 
mid  orb ;  nor  did  she  describe  tapering  points  on  her 
straitened  horn,  and  with  the  signs  of  wind  she  was  red ; 
besides,  pallid,  she  bears  a  livid  aspect,  sad  with  her  face 
about  to  sink  beneath  the  clouds. 

"But  neither  does  the  waving  of  the  woods,  nor  the 
lashings  of  the  sea-shore,  nor  the  fitful  dolphin,  that 
challenges  the  waves 2,  please  me ;  nor  yet  that  the  sea-gull 
loves  the  diy  land ;  the  fact,  too,  that  the  heron  ventures 
to  fly  aloft,  trusting  to  its  hovering  wing ;  and  that, 
sprinkling  its  head  with  the  waves,  as  though  it  would 
forestall  the  rain,  the  crow  paces  the  sea-shore  with  infirm 
step.  But  if  the  weight  of  great  events  demands,  I  would 
not  hesitate  to  lend  my  aid.  Either  I  will  touch  the  com- 
manded shore,  or,  on  the  other  hand,  the  seas  and  the  winds 
shall  deny  it." 

Thus  having  said  and  unmooring  his  craft,  he  spreads 
the  canvass  to  the  winds ;  at  the  motion  of  which,  not  only 
meteors  gliding  along  the  lofty  ah*,  as  they  fall,  describe 
tracks  in  all  quarters  of  tJie  heavens ;  but  even  the  stars  which 
are  held  fixed  in  the  loftiest  skies,  appear  to  shake.  A 
dusky  swell  pervades  the  surface  of  the  sea ;  with  many  a 
heaving  along  their  lengthened  track  the  threatening  waves 
boil  up,  uncertain  as  to  the  impending  blasts ;  the  swelling 
seas  betoken  the  winds  conceived.  Then  says  the  master 
of  the  quivering  bark : — 

"  Behold,  how  vast  dangers  the  raging  sea  is  preparing. 
Whether  it  presages  the  Zephyrs,  or  whether  the  east 

1  Rays  of  one  hue)  ver.  542.     "Concordes  radii"  may  mean  either  "rays 
of  like  colour,"  or  "  rays  pointing  in  the  same  direction,"  which  latter  meaning 
is  amplified  in  the  succeeding  words. 

2  Challenga  the  tcaves)  ver.  652.    Burmann  remarks  that  the  dolphins  seem 
by  their  gambols  to  challenge  the  ocean  to  rise  in  waves. 


B.  v.  569-605.]  PHAESALIA.  191 

winds,  it  is  uncertain.  On  every  side  the  fitful  waves  are 
beating  against  the  bark.  In  the  clouds  and  in  the  heavens 
are  the  southern  blasts  ;  if  we  go  by  the  murmurs  of  the 
sea,  Corus  is  skimming  along  the  deep.  In  a  storm  thus 
mighty  neither  will  bark  nor  shipwrecked  person  reach  the 
Hesperian  shores.  To  despair  of  making  our  way,  and  to 
turn  from  the  forbidden  course,  is  our  only  safety.  Let  it 
be  allowed  me  to  make  for  shore  with  the  tossed  bark,  lest 
the  nearest  land  should  be  too  distant." 

Csesar,  confident  that  all  dangers  will  give  way  for  him, 
says,  "  Despise  the  threats  of  the  deep,  and  spread  sail  to 
the  raging  winds.  If,  heaven  prompting  thee,  thou  dost 
decline  Italy,  myself  thy  prompter,  seek  it.  This  alone  is 
thy  reasonable  cause  for  fear,  not  to  have  known  thy  freight ; 
one  whom  the  Deities  never  forsake;  of  whom  Fortune 
deserves  badly  then,  when  after  his  wishes  expressed  she 
comes.  Secure  in  my  protection,  burst  through  the  midst 
of  the  storms.  This  is  the  labour  of  the  heavens  and  of 
the  sea,  not  of  our  bark ;  that,  trod  by  Caesar,  the  freight 
will  protect  from  the  waves.  Nor  will  long  duration  be 
granted  to  the  raging  fury  of  the  winds ;  this  same  bark  will 
advantage  the  waves.  Turn  not  thy  hands ;  avoid,  with 
thy  sails,  the  neighbouring  shores ;  believe  that  then  thou 
hast  gained  the  Calabrian  port,  when  no  other  land  can  be 
granted  to  the  ship  and  to  our  safety.  Art  thou  ignorant 
what,  amid  a  tempest  so  great,  is  preparing?  Amid  the 
tumult  of  the  sea  and  sky,  Fortune  is  enquiring  how  she 
shall  favour  me." 

No  more  having  said,  a  furious  whirlwind,  the  stern 
being  struck,  tears  away  the  shrouds  rent  asunder,  and 
brings  the  flapping  sails  upon  the  frail  mast;  the  joints 
overstrained,  the  vessel  groans.  Then  rush  on  perils 
gathered  together  from  the  whole  universe.  First,  moving 
the  tides,  Corus,  thou  dost  raise  thy  head  from  the  Atlantic 
Ocean ;  now,  as  thou  dost  lift  it,  the  sea  rages,  and  uplifts 
all  its  billows  upon  the  rocks.  The  cold  Boreas  meets  it, 
and  beats  back  the  ocean,  and  doubtful  stands  the  deep,  un- 
decided which  wind  to  obey.  But  the  rage  of  the  Scythian 
north  wind  conquers  and  hurls  aloft  the  waves,  and 
makes  shallows  of  the  sands  entirely  concealed.  And 
Boreas  does  not  carry  the  waves  on  to  the  rocks,  and  he 


192  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  605-636. 

dashes  his  own  seas  against  the  billows  of  Corns ;  and  the 
aroused  waves,  even  with  the  winds  lulled,  are  able  to  meet 
in  conflict. 

I  would  surmise  that  the  threats  of  Eurus  were  not  with- 
held, and  that  the  winds  of  the  South,  black  with  showers, 
did  not  lie  beneath  the  dungeons  of  the  ^Eolian  rocks ;  that 
all,  rushing  from  their  wonted  quarters,  with  violent  whirl- 
winds defended  their  own  regions,  and  that  thus  the  ocean 
remained  in  its  place.  No  small  seas  do  they  speak  of 
as  having  been  carried  along  by  the  gales ;  the  Tyrrhenian 
runs  into  the  ^Egean  waves ;  the  wandering  Adriatic  echoes 
in  the  Ionian  sea.  O  how  often  did  that  day  overwhelm 
mountains  before  beaten  in  vain  by  the  waves  !  What  lofty 
summits  did  the  subdued  earth  permit  to  be  overcome! 
Not  on  that  shore  do  waves  so  tremendous  rise,  and,  rolling 
from  another  region  of  the  earth,  from  the  vast  ocean  have 
they  come,  and  the  waves  that  encircle  the  world  speed  on 
their  monstrous  billows. 

Thus  did  the  ruler  of  Olympus l  aid  his  wearied  light- 
nings against  the  world  with  his  brother's  trident,  and  the 
earth  was  added  to  the  secondary  realms  of  Neptune,  when 
Tethys  was  unwilling  to  submit  to  any  shores,  content  to  be 
bounded  by  the  skies  alone.  Now  as  well  would  the  mass 
of  sea  so  vast  have  increased  to  the  stars,  if  the  ruler  of  the 
Gods  of  heaven  had  not  kept  down  the  waves  with  clouds. 
That  was  not  a  night  of  the  heavens';  the  air  lay  concealed 
infected  with  the  paleness  of  the  infernal  abodes,  and,  op- 
pressed with  storms,  was  kept  down,  and  the  waves  received 
the  s.howers  in  the  clouds.  Even  the  light  so  dreadful  is 
lost,  and  the  lightnings  flash  not  with  their  brilliance,  but 
the  cloudy  atmosphere  obscurely  divides  for  their  flashes. 

Then  do  the  convex  abodes  of  the  Gods  of  heaven  resound, 
and  the  lofty  skies  re-echo,  and,  the  structure  strained,  the 
poles  re-echo.  Nature  dreads  Chaos,  the  elements  seem  to 
have  burst  from  their  concordant  repose,  and  night  once  more1 

1  Did  the  ruler  of  Olympus)  ver.  620.     The  meaning  is,  that  with  storms 
like  this  Jupiter  determined  to  punish  the  world  for  its  wickedness,  both  by 
means  of  his  own  lightnings  and  the  seas,  the  realms  of  his  brother  Neptune. 

2  Not  a  night  of  the  heavens)  ver.  627.     It  was  not  a  common  darkness 
aloft,  overspreading  the  heavens,  but  as  though  brought  from  the  shades  of  hell. 

3  And  Hiyht  once  more)  ver.  636.   "  Nor."  Night,  in  the  sense  of  Chaos. 


B.  v.  636-665.]  PHARSALIA.  193 

to  return  about  to  mingle  the  shades  below  with  the  Gods  of 
heaven.  The  sole  hope  of  safety  is,  that  not  as  yet  have  they 
perished  amid  ruin  of  the  universe  so  great.  As  far  as  from 
the  Leucadian  heights  the  calm  deep  is  beheld  below,  so  far 
do  the  trembling  mariners  look  down  upon  the  headlong 
sea  from  the  summits  of  the  waves ;  and  when  the  swelling 
billows  gape  open  once  again,  hardly  does  the  mast  stand 
above  the  surface.  The  clouds  are  touched  by  the  sails,  and 
the  earth  by  the  keel.  For  the  sea,  in  the  part  where  it  is 
at  rest,  does  not  conceal  the  sands  ;  it  arises  in  mountains, 
and  all  the  waters  are  in  waves.  Fears  conquer  the  resources 
of  art,  and  the  pilot  knows  not  which  to  break,  to  which 
wave  to  give  way. 

The  discord  of  the  sea  comes  to  then"  aid  in  their  dis- 
tress, and  billow  is  not  able  to  throw  over  the  vessel  against 
billows ;  the  resisting  wave  supports  the  yielding  side,  and 
the  bark  rises  upright  amid  all  the  winds.  They  dread 
not  the  lowly  Sason *  with  its  shallows,  nor  yet  the  rocky 
shores  of  curving  Thessaly,  and  the  dangerous  harbours  of 
the  Ambracian  coast  - ;  of  the  summits  of  rocky  Ceraunia 
the  sailors  are  in  dread.  Now  does  Caesar  believe  there  to 
be  a  danger  worthy  of  his  destiny. 

"  Is  it  a  labour  so  great,"  says  he,  "  with  the  Gods  above 
to  overwhelm  me,  whom,  sitting  in  a  little  bark,  they  have 
assaulted  with  seas  so  vast  ?  If  the  glory  of  my  end  has 
been  granted  to  the  deep,  and  I  am  denied  to  the  warfare, 
fearlessly  will  I  receive  whatever  death,  ye  Deities,  you  send 
me.  Although  the  day  hurried  on  by  the  Fates  should  cut 
short  my  mighty  exploits,  things  great  enough  have  I  done. 
The  nations  of  the  north  have  I  conquered ;  hostile  arms 
have  I  subdued  with  fear ;  Home  has  beheld  Magnus  second 
to  me.  The  commonalty  ordered  by  me,  I  have  obtained  by 
warfare  the  fasces  which  were  denied  unto  me.  No  Roman 
dignity  will  be  wanting  to  my  titles. 

"  No  one  will  know  this,  except  thee,  Fortune,  who  alone 

1  The  loicly  Sason)  ver.  650.     See  the  Note  to  B.  ii.  1.  627. 

2  The  Ambracian,  coast)  ver.  652.     Ambracia  was  a  town  of  Epirus, 
situate  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  Aracthus,  to  the  north  of  the  Ambracian 
Gulf.     It  was  originally  colonized    by   the    Corinthians   about   B.C.    660. 
Pyrrhus,  king  of  Epirus,  made  it  the  capital  of  his  dominions.     The  Cerau- 
nia, or  Acroceraunia,  "  the  heights  of  thunder,"  were  precipitous  rocks  of 
the  coast  of  Epirus. 

0 


194  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  665-691. 

art  conscious  of  my  wishes,  that  I,  although  I  go  loaded  with 
honors  and  Dictator  and  Consul,  to  the  Stygian  shades,  die 
as  a  private  person.  There  is  need,  O  Gods  of  heaven,  of 
no  funereal  rites  for  me ;  retain  my  mangled  carcase  in  the 
midst  of  the  waves ;  let  tomb  and  funeral  pile  be  wanting 
to  me,  so  long  as  I  shall  be  always  dreaded  and  looked  for 
by  every  land." 

Him,  having  thus  said,  a  tenth  wave1,  wondrous  to  be  said, 
lifts  with  the  frail  bark  on  high ;  nor  again  does  it  hurl  it 
down  from  the  lofty  heights  of  the  sea,  but  the  wave  bears 
it  along,  and  casts  it  on  dry  land,  where  the  narrow  shore 
is  free  from  rugged  cliffs.  At  the  same  moment,  the  land 
being  touched,  realms  so  many,  cities  so  many,  and  his  own 
fortune  does  heTegain. 

But  not  so  easily  did  Caesar,  now  returning  2,  on  the  fol- 
lowing day  deceive  his  camp  and  his  adherents,  as  on  the 
occasion  of  his  silent  flight.  Thronging  around  their  general 
the  multitude  wept,  and  accosted  him  with  their  lamenta- 
tions and  not  displeasing  complaints 3.  "  Whither,  cruel 
Csesar,  has  thy  rash  valour  carried  thee,  or  to  what  fate 
abandoning  us,  valueless  lives,  didst  thou  give  thy  limbs  to 
be  scattered  by  the  reluctant  storm  ?  Since  the  existence  and 
the  safety  of  so  many  nations  depend  upon  this  life  of  thine, 
and  the  world  so  great  has  made  thee  its  head,  it  is  cruelty 
to  wish  to  die.  Did  no  one  of  thy  followers  deserve,  not  to 
be  able  to  be  a  survivor  of  thy  fate?  When  the  sea  was 
hurrying  thee  along,  slothful  slumber  was  in  possession  of 
our  bodies.  Alas !  we  are  ashamed !  This  was  the  cause 
of  thy  seeking  Hesperia ;  it  seemed  cruel  to  commit  any 

1  A  tenth  icave)  ver.  672.     It  was  a  notion  among  the  ancients  that  every 
tenth  wave  (probably  reckoning  from  the  beginning  of  the  storm)  was  more 
violent  than  the  others.      Thus  Ovid  says,  in  his  Tristia,  or  Lament,  B.  i. 
El.  2, 11.  49,  50  : — "  The  wave  that  is  now  coming  on  o'ertops  all  the  others ; 
'tis  the  one  that  comes  after  the  ninth  and  before  the  eleventh."     He  also 
refers  to  the  same  belief  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  xi.  1.  530. 

2  Did  Ccesar,  now  returning)  ver.  678.     The  meaning  is,  that  having 
landed  at  Brundisium  he  returned  forthwith  to  his  army  in  Epirus,  but  thnt, 
coming  ashore  in  the  broad  light  of  day,  his  return  could  not  be  so  easily 
concealed  from  his  army  as  his  departure  had  been. 

3  Not  ditpleasing  complaints)  ver.  681.     Inasmuch  as  they  attested  their 
affection  for  him.     Appian  says  that  on  this  occasion  some  expressed  their 
admiration  of  Cajsar's  boldness,  while  others  complained  to  him  aloud  that  be 
had  done  what  rather  befitted  a  brave  soldier  than  a  considerate  general. 


B.  V.  692-713.]  PHARSALIA.  195 

one  to  a  sea  so  boisterous.  The  last  lot  of  events  is  wont 
to  precipitate  men  into  doubtful  dangers  and  the  headlong 
perils  of  death. 

"  For  one  now  holding  the  rule  of  the  world  to  have 
entrusted  himself  to  the  sea  !  Why  thus  greatly  dost  thou 
tempt  the  Deities?  Is  this  favour  and  effort  of  Fortune 
sufficient  for  the  crisis  of  the  war,  which  has  impelled  thee 
to  our  sands  ?  Has  this  service  of  the  Deities  pleased  thee, 
not  that  thou  shouldst  be  ruler  of  the  world,  not  chief  of 
the  state,  but  fortunate  in  shipwreck?"  Uttering  such 
things,  the  night  dispersed,  the  day  with  its  sunshine  came 
upon  them,  and  the  wearied  deep  lulled  the  swelling  waves, 
the  winds  permitting. 

The  captains  also  l  in  Hesperia,  when  they  beheld  the 
sea  weary  of  waves,  and  the  clearing  Boreas  ~  rising  in  the 
heavens  to  subdue  the  deep,  unmoored  the  barks,  which 
the  wind  and  the  right  hands,  plied  with  equal  time,  long 
kept  mingled ;  and  over  the  wide  sea,  the  ships  keeping 
close  together,  the  fleet  united,  just  as  a  troop  on  land.  But 
relentless  night  took  away  from  the  sailors  the  steadiness  of 
the  breeze,  and  the  eyen  course  of  the  sails,  and  threw  the 
barks  out  of  their  line. 

Thus,  Nile,  do  the  cranes,  about  to  drink  of  thee,  the 
winter  driving  them  away,  leave  the  frozen  Strymon,  and  at 
their  first  flight  describe  various  figures 3  as  chance  directs 

1  The  captains  also)  ver.  703.     Those  chiefs  of  the  Caesarian  party  who 
were  at  Brundisium,  namely,  Antony,  Gabinius,  Posthumius,  and  Calenus. 

2  The  clearing  Boreas)  ver.  705.     This  is  contrary  to  Caesar's  account, 
who  says  that  they  passed  over  with  a  southerly  wind.     He  thus  relates  the 
circumstance  of  their  setting  sail,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  26  : — "  Caesar's 
officers  exerting  boldness  and  courage,  aided  by  the  instructions  of  Antony  and 
of  Funus  Calenus,  and  animated  by  the  soldiers  strongly  encouraging  them, 
and  declining  no  danger  for  Caesar's  safety,  having  got  a  southerly  wind, 
weighed  anchor,  and  the  next  day  were  carried  past  Apollonia  and  Dyrrha- 
chium,  and  being  seen  from  the  main  land,  Quintus  Coponius,  who  commanded 
the  Ilhodian  fleet  at  Dyrrhachium,  put  out  of  port  with  his  ships  ;  and  when 
they  had  almost  come  up  with  us,  in  consequence  of  the  breeze  dying  away, 
the  south  wind  sprang  up  afresh  and  rescued  us.    However,  he  did  not  desist 
from  his  attempt,  but  hoped  by   the  labour  and  perseverance  of  his  seamen 
to  be  able  to  bear  up  against  the  violence  of  the  storm ;  and  although  we 
were  carried  beyond  Dyrrhachium  by  the  violence  of  the  wind,  he  neverthe- 
less continued  to  chase  us." 

3  Describe  various  figrires)  ver.  713.    He  alludes  to  the  straggling  flight  of 
crimes  in  winter  from  the  banks  of  the  Strymon,  in  Thrace,  towards  the 

o  2 


196  P1I.VRSALIA.  [u.  v.  7H-725. 

them.  Afterwards,  when  the  south  wind  prevailing  more  on 
high  has  impelled  their  spread  wings,  mixed  indiscriminately 
they  are  crowded  into  confused  masses,  and  the  letter,  dis- 
arranged1, is  destroyed  by  their  wings  scattered  in  all  di- 
rections. When  first,  the  day  returning,  a  stronger  breeze 
blew  upon  the  ships,  aroused  at  the  rising  of  Phoebus,  they 
passed  by  the  shores  of  Lissus  •  attempted  in  vain,  and 
made  for  Nymphaeum ;f.  Already  had  the  south  wind,  suc- 
ceeding Boreas,  made  into  a  harbour  the  waves  exposed4  to 
the  north. 

The  arms  of  Csesar  being  collected  in  strength  from  every 
side,  Magnus,  beholding  the  extreme  dangers  of  the  dreadful 
warfare  now  drawing  near  his  own  camp,  determined  to 

wanner  regions  of  the  Nile.  The  figures  described  by  them  in  their  flight 
are  said  to  have  been  of  the  shape  of  V,  A,  or  L. 

1  And  the  letter,  disarranged)  ver.  716.  The  figures  alluded  to  in  the 
last  Note. 

8  The  shores  of  Lissus)  ver.  719.  Lissus,  now  called  Elisso,  was  a  town 
on  the  const  of  Epirus,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Drilon.  It  was  situate  on 
a  hill,  and  had  a  strongly-fortified  citadel,  which  was  considered  impregnable. 
Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  26,  thus  relates  the  circumstances  here 
referred  to : — "  Our  men,  taking  advantage  of  the  favour  of  fortune,  for  they 
were  still  afraid  of  being  attacked  by  the  enemy's  fleet,  if  the  wind  abated, 
having  come  near  a  port  called  Nymphsum,  about  three  miles  beyond  Lissus, 
put  into  it  (this  port  is  protected  from  a  south-west  wind,  but  is  not  secure 
against  a  south  wind) ;  and  they  thought  less  danger  was  to  be  apprehended 
from  the  storm  than  from  the  enemy.  But  as  soon  as  they  were  in  harbour, 
the  south  wind,  which  had  blown  for  two  days,  by  extraordinary  good  luck 
veered  round  to  the  south-west.  Here  one  might  observe  the  sudden  turn  of 
Fortune.  \Ve  who,  a  moment  before,  were  alarmed  for  ourselves,  were 
safely  lodged  in  a  very  secure  harbour;  and  they  who  had  threatened  ruin  to 
our  fleet  were  forced  to  be  uneasy  on  their  own  account;  and  thus,  by  a 
change  of  circumstances,  the  storm  protected  our  ships,  and  damaged  the 
Rhodian  fleet  to  such  a  degree  that  all  their  decked  ships,  sixteen  in  number, 
foundered  without  exception,  and  were  wrecked ;  and  of  the  prodigious  num- 
ber of  seamen  and  soldiers,  some  lost  their  lives  by  being  dashed  against  the 
rocks,  others  were  taken  by  our  men ;  but  Ca:sar  sent  them  all  safe  home." 

3  Made  for  Nympltaeum)  ver.  720.    Nymphaeum  was  the  name  of  several 
places.     The  one  here  mentioned  was  a  port  and  Promontory  on  the  coast  of 
Illyricum,  three  Roman  miles  from  Lissus. 

4  The  waves  exposed)  ver.  720.    By  "  undas,"  literally  "  waves,"  the  Poet 
means  the  harbour  of  Nymphseum.     His  meaning  is  that  the  harbour  was 
exposed  to  the  north  wind,  by  means  of  which  Csesar's  ships  had  entered  it; 
immediately  after  which  the  wind  veered  to  the  south,  by  reason  of  which 
the  ships  were  secure.     Caesar  makes  the  wind  to  veer  from  south  to  south- 
west, Lucan  from  north  to  south. 


B.  v.  725-752.]  THARSALIA.  197 

deposit  in  safety  the  charge  of  wedlock,  and  to  conceal  thee, 
Cornelia,  removed  to  Lesbos',  afar  from  the  din  of  cruel 
warfare.  Alas  !  how  greatly  does  virtuous  passion  prevail  in 
well-regulated  minds  !  Even  thee,  Magnus,  did  love  render 
doubtful  and  anxious  as  to  the  result  of  battles ;  thy  wife 
alone  thou  wast  unwilling  to  be  subject  to  the  stroke  of  For- 
tune, beneath  which  was  the  world  and  the  destiny  of  Rome. 

Now  do  words  forsake  his  mind,  made  up,  and  it  pleases 
him,  putting  off  what  is  about  to  come,  to  indulge  a  pleasing 
delay,  and  to  snatch  the  moment  from  the  Fates.  Towards 
the  close  of  the  night,  the  repose,  of  slumber  banished,  whife 
Cornelia  cherishes  in  her  embrace  his  breast  weighed  down 
with  cares,  and  seeks  the  delightful  kisses  of  her  husband 
who  turns  away ;  wondering  at  his  moistened  cheeks,  and 
smitten  with  a  secret  wound,  she  dares  not  to  arraign  Mag- 
nus with  weeping.  He,  sighing,  says : — 

"  Wife,  dearer  to  me  than  life,  not  now  when  tired  of 
life,  but  in  joyous  times  ;  the  sad  day  is  come,  and  one 
which  both  too  much  and  too  little  we  have  deferred  :  now 
is  Caesar  at  hand  for  battle  with  all  his  might.  To  war 
must  we  give  way ;  during  which  for  thee  Lesbos  will  be  a 
safe  retreat.  Forbear  making  trial  of  entreaty ;  already 
have  I  denied  myself2.  Thou  wilt  not  have  to  endure  a 
prolonged  absence3  from  me.  Events  will  succeed  with 
headlong  speed;  ruin  hastening  on,  the  highest  interests 
are  downward  speeding.  'Tis  enough  to  have  heard  of 
the  dangers  of  Magnus  ;  and  thy  love  has  deceived  me,  if 
thou  canst  be  witness  of  the  civil  war.  For  I  am  ashamed 
now,  the  line  of  battle  drawn  up,  to  have  been  enjoying 
tranquil  slumbers  together  with  my  wife,  and  to  arise  from 
thy  bosom,  when  the  trumpet-call  is  shaking  the  distracted 
world. 

1  Removed  to  Lesbos)  ver.  725.     Lesbos,  now  called  Metelin,  was  the 
largest  of  the  islands  of  the  .ZEgean  along  the  coast  of  Asia  Minor.     The 
inhabitants  were  greatly  favoured  by  Pompey,  and  were  restored  by  him  to 
the  enjoyment  of  freedom  after  the  Mithridatic  war,  in  consideration  of  the 
sufferings  they  had  undergone. 

2  Have  /  denied  myself)  ver.  744.     He  exercises  self-denial,  as  he  feels 
anxious  to  retain  her  with  him  in  Epirus. 

3  A  prolonged  absence)  ver.   745.     "  Lor  gas"  is  supposed  by  some  to 
apply  to  the  distance  between  Lesbos  and  Thessaly.     It  is  more  probable 
however,  that  it  relates  to  the  duration  of  their  separation. 


198  PHARSALIA.  [B.  v.  752-781. 

"I  dread  to  engage  Pompey  in  civil  warfare  sorrowing 
with  no  loss.  More  safe  meantime  than  nations,  and  more 
safe  than  every  king,  far  and  wide,  and  removed  afar,  the 
fortune  of  thy  husband  may  not  overwhelm  thee  with  all  its 
weight.  If  the  Deities  shall  overthrow  my  ranks,  let  the 
better  part  of  me  survive ;  and  let  there  be  for  me,  if  the 
Fates  and  the  blood-stained  victor  shall  overwhelm  me, 
whither  I  may  desire  to  fly." 

In  her  weakness  hardly  did  she  sustain  grief  so  great, 
and  her  senses  fled  from  her  astounded  breast.  At  length, 
with  difficulty  was  she  able  to  utter  her  sorrowing  com- 
plaints : — 

"  Nothing,  Magnus,  is  left  me  to  say  in  complaint  of  the 
destiny  of  our  union  and  of  the  Gods  of  heaven ;  death  does 
not  divide  our  love,  nor  the  closing  torch  of  the  sad  funereal 
pile ;  but,  sent  away,  by  a  common  and  too  vulgar  lot l  am 
I  separated  from  my  husband.  At  the  approach  of  the  foe 
let  us  sever  the  union  of  our  marriage  torch ;  let  us  appease 
thy  father-in-law.  Has,  Magnus,  my  fidelity  been  thus  ex- 
perienced by  thee  ?  And  dost  thou  believe  that  anything 
can  be  more  safe  to  me  than  to  thee?  Have  we  not  for 
long  depended  on  one  lot  ?  Dost  thou,  relentless  one,  com- 
mand me,  absent,  to  expose  my  life  to  lightnings  and  to 
ruin  so  mighty?  Does  my  lot  seem  a  tranquil  one  to  thee, 
to  be  perishing  with  apprehension,  when  even  now  thou  art 
entertaining  hopes  ?  As  I  shall  be  reluctant  to  be  the  slave 
of  the  wicked,  still,  by  a  ready  death,  I  shall  follow  thee  to 
the  shades ;  until  the  sad  report  reaches  the  regions  removed 
afar,  I,  forsooth,  shall  be  living,  the  survivor  of  thee. 

"  Add  this,  that  thou  dost  accustom  me  to  my  fate,  and, 
in  thy  cruelty,  to  endure  grief  so  great.  Pardon  me  con- 
fessing it ;  I  fear  to  be  able  to  endure  it.  But  if  my  prayers 
are  realized,  and  I  am  heard  by  the  Gods,  last  of  all  will  thy 
wife  know  the  result  of  affairs.  The  rocks  will  be  detaining 
me,  full  of  anxiety,  thou  being  already  the  conqueror ;  and 
I  shall  be  dreading  the  ship  which  may  be  bringing  destinies 

1  Too  vulgar  lot)  ver.  765.  By  the  use  of  the  word  "plebeia"  she  pro- 
bably refers  to  the  divorces  or  separations  which  were  of  every-day  occur- 
rence among  the  Roman  people.  One  of  the  Scholiasts  thinks  that  Cornelia 
alludes  to  the  life  of  rustics  who  separate  themselves  from  their  wives  for 
the  purpose  of  sending  them  to  market  or  to  work  iu  the  fields. 


B.  v.  781-807.]  PHAKSALIA.  199 

so  joyous.  Nor  will  the  successes  'of  the  war,  heard  of  by 
me,  end  my  fears,  when,  exposed  in  an  undefended  place,  I 
may  be  taken  by  Caesar  even  in  his  flight.  The  shores  will 
grow  famous  through  the  exile  of  a  famous  name,  and,  the 
wife  of  Magnus  abiding  there,  who  will  possibly  be  ignorant 
of  the  retreat  of  Mitylene '  ?  This,  the  last  thing  do  I 
entreat,  if  thy  conquered  arms  shall  leave  thee  nothing 
more  safe  than  flight,  when  thou  hast  entrusted  thyself  to 
the  waves,  to  any  quarter  in  preference  turn  thy  unlucky 
bark ;  on  my  shores  thou  wilt  be  sought  for." 

Thus  saying,  distractedly  she  leaps  forth,  the  couch2 
abandoned,  and  wishes  to  defer  her  woes  by  no  delay.  In 
her  sweet  embrace  she  does  not  endure  to  clasp  the  breast  of 
the  sorrowing  Magnus,  nor  yet  his  neck;  and  the  last  enjoy- 
ment of  love  so  prolonged  passes  away;  and  their  own  sor- 
rows they  hasten  on,  and  neither  on  withdrawing  can  endure 
to  say,  "farewell;"  and  throughout  all  their  lives  no  day 
has  there  been  so  sad.  For  other  griefs  with  a  mind  now 
strengthened  by  woes,  and  resolute,  did  they  submit  to. 
She  falls  fainting  in  her  wretchedness,  and,  received  in  the 
hands  of  her  attendants,  is  carried  down  to  the  sands  of 
the  sea,  and  there  prostrates  herself,  and  clings  to  the  very 
shore,  and  at  length  is  borne  to  the  ship. 

Not  thus  unhappy3  did  she  leave  her  country  and  the 
Hesperian  harbours,  when  the  arms  of  ruthless  Coesar  were 
pressing.  The  faithful  companion  of  Magnus  now  goes  alone, 
the  chieftain  left  behind,  and  from  Pompey  does  she  fly. 

The  next  night  that  came  to  her  was  without  sleep.  Then 
for  the  first  time  was  her  rest  chilled  and  not  as  usual,  alone 

1  Retreat  of  Mitylene)  ver.  786.     Mitylene  was  the  chief  city  of  the  isle 
of  Lesbos,  situate  on  a  Promontory,  and  having  two  excellent  harbours.    Its 
foundation  was  ascribed  to  the  Carians  and  Pelasgians. 

2  The  coiich)  ver.  791.   "Stratis:"  literally  "  bed-clothes,"  which  consisted 
of  blankets  or  counterpanes  called  "  peristromata,"  or  "  peripetasmata."     In 
the  houses  of  the  wealthy  Romans  these  were  of  a  costly  description,  and 
generally  of  a  purple  colour,  and  embroiqered  with  beautiful  figures  in  gold. 
They  were  called  "  peripetasmata  Attalica,"  from  having  been  first  used  at 
the  court  of  King  Attains. 

3  Not  thus  unhappy)  ver.  802.     From  the  beginning  of  this  line  to  the 
end  of  the  Fifth  Book  is  considered  by  Weise  not  to  have  been  the  compo- 
sition of  Lucan,  but  an  addition  by  some  later  hand.     The  use  of  the  word 
"  vadit"  in  1.  804,  of  "sibi"  in  1.   805,  "  frigida  quies"  in  1.  807,  and  the 
silly  remarks  in  11.  811,  12,  seem  to  him  to  justify  such  a  conclusion. 


200  I'll  A  US  ALIA.  [B.  v.  807-815. 

in  her  widowed  bed,  and  with  no  husband  pressing  her 
unprotected  side.  How  often,  overpowered  with  sleep,  with 
deceived  hands  l  did  she  embrace  the  empty  couch,  and, 
forgetful  of  her  flight,  seek  her  husband  in  the  ni^ht! 
For,  although  the  flame  •  in  silence  pervaded  her  marrow, 
it  pleased  her  not  to  extend  her  body  over  all  the  bed ;  the 
one  part  of  the  couch :1  was  kept. 

She  was  afraid  of  losing  Pompey ;  but  the  Gods  above 
did  not  ordain  things  so  joyous.  The  hour  was  pressing 
011  which  was  to  restore  Magnus  to  her  in  her  wretched- 
ness. 

1  With  deceived  hands)  ver.  809.  There  is  a  similar  passage  in  the 
Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  xi.  1.  674,  where  Alcyone,  on  being  sepa- 
rated from  Ceyx,  her  husband,  "  groans  aloud  and  moves  her  arms  in  her 
sleep,  and,  catching  at  his  body,  grasps  the  air." 

3  Although  the  flame)  ver.  811.  The  meaning  of  this  passage,  which  has 
been  censured  by  Weise  as  either  spurious  or  corrupt,  seems  to  be,  that  in 
her  sleep  she  deceived  herself  by  stretching  out  her  arms  to  touch  her  hus- 
band, for,  although  penetrated  by  grief,  from  habit  and  from  a  sort  of  impres- 
sion that  her  husband  was  still  with  her,  she  kept  to  her  own  side  of  the 
couch  when  surrendering  herself  to  sleep. 

3  The  one  part  of  the  concA.)  ver.  813.  She  was  afraid,  when  laying  her- 
self on  her  couch,  to  act  as  though  she  were  fully  certain  of  the  loss  of  Pom- 
pey ;  and  was,  unconsciously,  reluctant  to  acknowledge  to  herself  the  full  ex- 
tent of  her  bereavement. 


201 
BOOK  THE  SIXTH. 

CONTENTS. 

Caesar,  being  unable  to  bring  Pompey  to  a  battle,  marches  to  seize  Dyrr- 
hachium,  1-14.  Pompey  intercepts  him  on  his  march,  15-18.  The 
situation  of  the  city  is  described,  19-28.  Caesar  surrounds  the  city 
and  the  forces  of  Pompey  with  vast  outworks,  29-63.  Pompey  sal- 
lies forth  to  interrupt  the  works,  64-79.  A  famine  and  pestilence  arise 
in  his  army,  80-105.  The  army  of  Caesar  also  suffers  from  famine,  106- 
117.  Pompey  attempts  to  break  through  the  outworks,  118-124.  He  is 
at  first  successful  in  his  attempts,  125-139.  But  is  driven  back  by  Scaeva, 
140-144.  Whose  praises  are  sung  by  the  Poet,  145-148.  Scseva  exhorts 
his  comrades,  149-165.  While  bravely  fighting,  he  is  pierced  by  an 
arrow,  166-227.  He  requests  to  be  carried  to  the  camp  of  Pompey,  228- 
235.  Deceived  by  his  stratagem,  Aulus  is  slain  by  him,  235-239.  The 
words  of  Scseva,  240-246.  His  wounds  are  described,  and  his  praises  de- 
scanted upon,  247-262.  Pompey  attacks  the  outworks  nearer  to  the  sea, 
263-278.  Caesar  prepares  to  renew  the  engagement,  278-289.  At  the 
approach  of  Pompey,  the  troops  of  Caesar  are  in  alarm,  290-299.  Pompey 
neglects  to  follow  up  his  successes,  299—313.  Caesar  repairs  to  Thessaly, 
and  is  followed  by  Pompey,  314-332.  The  situation  of  Thessaly  is 
described,  333-412.  Both  sides  pitch  their  camps,  the  troops  anxiously 
awaiting  the  event,  413-419.  Sextus,  the  son  of  Pompey,  is  urged  by 
fear  to  enquire  into  the  destinies  of  futurity  by  means  of  magic  arts,  420- 
434.  The  Thessalian  incantations  are  described,  434-506.  Erictho,  a 
Thcssalian  enchantress,  and  her  rites,  are  described,  507-569.  Sextus 
repairs  to  her  at  night,  570-588.  He  addresses  her,  and  requests  her  to 
disclose  to  him  the  future,  589-603.  She  promises  him  that  she  will  do 
so,  604-623.  A  dead  body  is  chosen  for  her  to  restore  to  life,  and  is 
dragged  to  her  cave,  624-641.  The  cave  of  Erictho  is  described,  642-653. 
Commencing  her  incantations,  she  reproaches  the  attendants  of  Sextus, 
654  666.  By  her  incantations  and  magic  skill  she  raises  the  dead  body 
to  life,  667-761.  She  requests  it  to  disclose  the  future,  762-774.  It 
discloses  the  woes  of  Rome,  and  of  the  adherents  of  Pompey  in  particular, 
775-820.  The  body  is  then  burned,  and  Sextus  returns  to  the  camp, 
820-830. 

AFTER  the  chieftains1,  now  nearing  each  other  with  an  in- 
tention of  fighting,  had  pitched  their  camps  on  the  hills, 
and  arms  were  brought  hand  to  hand,  and  the  Gods  be- 

1  After  the  chieftains)  ver.  1.  The  events  which  happened  after  they  left 
the  camps  at  the  river  Apsus  (B.  v.  1.  481),  and  which  are  here  omitted,  are 
thus  related  by  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  30  : — "  Caesar  and  Pom- 
pey received  intelligence  [of  the  arrival  of  Antony]  almost  at  the  same  time; 


202  PHARSALIA.  [u.  vi.  3-15. 

held  their  equals,  Coesar  scorned  to  take  all  the  towns  of 
the  Greeks,  and  now  refused  to  be  indebted  to  the  Fates  for 
any  prosperous  warfare  except  against  his  son-in-law.  In 
all  his  prayers  he  asks  for  the  hour  so  fatal  to  the  world, 
that  is  to  bring  everything  to  a  crisis.  The  die  of  destiny 
that  is  to  sink  the  head  of  the  one  or  the  other  alone  pleases 
him.  Three  times  on  the  hills  he  draws  out  all  his  troops l 
and  his  standards  that  threaten  battle,  testifying  that  he  is 
never  wanting  to  the  downfall  of  Latium. 

When  he  beholds  that  his  son-in-law  can  be  aroused  by 
no  alarms  to  battle,  but  confides  in  his  close  entrench- 
ments, he  moves  his  standards,  and,  sheltered  by  a  path 
through  fields  o'erspread  with  woods,  with  headlong  haste 
he  marches  to  seize  the  towers  of  Dyrrhachium 2.  This 
march  Magnus  forestalls  by  following  the  sea-line,  and 

for  they  had  seen  the  ships  sail  past  Apollonia  and  Dyrrhachium.  They 
directed  their  march  after  them  by  land  j  but  at  first  they  were  ignorant  to 
what  part  they  had  been  carried ;  but  when  they  were  informed  of  it,  they 
each  adopted  a  different  plan  :  Caesar,  to  form  a  junction  with  Antony  as 
soon  as  possible ;  Pompey,  to  oppose  Antony's  forces  on  their  march  to 
Caesar,  and,  if  possible,  to  fall  upon  them  unexpectedly  from  ambush ;  and 
the  same  day  they  both  led  out  their  armies  from  their  winter  encampment 
along  the  river  Apsus,  Pompey  secretly  by  night,  Caesar  openly  by  day. 
But  Caesar  had  to  march  a  longer  distance  round,  along  the  river,  to  find  a 
ford.  Pompey's  route  being  clear,  because  he  was  not  obliged  to  cross 
the  river,  he  advanced  rapidly  and  by  forced  marches,  against  Antony,  and 
being  informed  of  his  approach,  chose  a  convenient  situation,  where  he  posted 
his  forces ;  and  kept  his  men  close  within  camp  and  forbade  fires  to  be 
kindled,  that  his  arrival  might  be  the  more  secret.  An  account  of  this  was 
immediately  carried  to  Antony  by  the  Greeks.  He  dispatched  messengers 
to  Cajsar  and  confined  himself  in  his  camp,  for  one  day.  The  next  day 
Caesar  came  up  with  him.  On  learning  his  arrival,  Pompey,  to  prevent  his 
being  hemmed  in  between  two  armies,  quitted  his  position,  and  moved  with 
all  his  forces  to  Asparagium,  in  the  territory  of  Dyrrhachium,  and  there  en- 
camped in  a  convenient  situation." 

1  Draws  out  all  fiis  troops)  ver.  8.  These  circumstances  are  thus  related 
by  Caesar  in  the  Civil  War,  13.  iii.  c.  41 : — "  As  soon  as  Caesar  heard  that 
Pompey  was  at  Asparagium,  he  set  out  for  that  place  with  his  army,  and 
having  taken  the  capital  of  the  Parthenians  on  his  march,  where  there  was 
a  garrison  of  Pompey's,  he  reached  Pompey  in  Macedonia  on  the  third  day, 
and  encamped  beside  him ;  and  on  the  day  following,  having  drawn  out  all 
his  forces  before  his  camp,  he  offered  Pompey  battle.  But  perceiving  that 
he  kept  within  his  trenches  he  led  his  army  back  to  the  camp,  and  thought 
about  pursuing  some  other  plan." 

3  DyrrfMchium)  ver.  14.  This  is  the  same  city  which  is  called  Epidarnnai 
in  the  Second  Book,  1.  264.  See  the  Note  to  that  passage. 


B.  vi.  10-31.]  PHAESALIA.  203 

the  hill  -which  the  native  Taulantian1  calls  Petra  he  pitches 
upon  with  his  camp2,  and  guards  the  walls3  of  Ephyre4, 
defending  a  city  safe  even  in  its  towers  alone5.  No  work 
of  the  ancients  or  bulwark  erected  defends  this  city,  or 
human  labour,  liable,  though  it  should  elevate  on  high,  to 
yield  either  to  wars  or  to  years  that  move  everything  ;  but 
it  has  fortifications  able  to  be  shaken  by  no  iron,  the  nature 
and  the  locality  of  the  spot.  For,  enclosed  on  every  side 
by  the  deep  sea  and  by  rocks  that  discharge  the  waves, 
it  owes  to  a  small  hill  that  it  is  not  an  island.  Rocks 
terrible  to  ships  support  the  walls;  and  when  the  raging 
Ionian  sea  is  raised  by  the  boisterous  south  wind,  the 
ocean  shakes  temples  and  houses,  and  sends  its  foam  to 
their  summits. 

Hither   did   lawless   hopes  attract  the  mind  of   Csesar, 
greedy   of    the   warfare,    that    he    might    surround    the 

1  The  native    Taulantian)  ver.  16.     The  Taulantii   were   a   people   of 
Illyria  in  the  vicinity  of  Epidamnus  or  Dyrrhachium.    Glaucias,  one  of  their 
most  powerful  kings,  waged  war  against  Alexander  the  Great. 

2  He  pitches  upon  with  his  camp)  ver.  15.     From  the  present  passage  it 
would  appear  that  Pompey  was  the  first  to  arrive  at  Dyrrhachium.     Caesar, 
however,  says  that  he  himself  was  the  first  to  arrive,  and  that  Pompsy  was 
cut  off  from  the  city.     "  Pompey  at  first,  not  knowing  Caesar's  design,  be- 
cause  he   imagined    he   had   taken  a  route  in  a  different  direction  from 
that  country,  thought  that  the  scarcity  of  provisions  had  obliged  him  to 
shift  his  quarters ;   but  having  afterwards  got  true  intelligence  from  his 
scouts,  he  decamped  the  day  following,  hoping  to  prevent  him  by  taking  a 
shorter  road  by  the  sea  shore ;  which  Caesar  suspecting  might  happen,  en- 
couraged his  troops  to  submit  cheerfully  to  the  fatigue,  and  having  halted  a 
very  small  part  of  the  night,  he  arrived  early  in  the  morning  at  Dyrrhachium, 
when  the  van  of  Pompey's  army  was  visible  at  a  distance,  and  there  he  en- 
camped."— Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  41. 

3  And  guards  Uie  walls)  ver.  16.     Caesar  says,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii. 
c.  42  : — "  Pompey,  being  cut  off  from  Dyrrhachium,  as  he  was  unable  to  effect 
his  purpose,  took  a  new  resolution,  and  entrenched  himself  strongly  on  a 
rising  ground  which  is  called  Petra,  where  ships  of  a  small  size  can  come  in, 
and  be  sheltered  from  some  winds.     Here  he  ordered  a  part  of  his  gallies  to 
attend  him,  and  corn  and  provisions  to  be  brought  from  Asia,  and  from  all 
the  countries  of  which  he  kept  possession." 

4  Of  JEphyre)  ver.  17.     The  walls  of  Dyrrhachium  are  called  "  Ephyrean" 
because  it  was  supposed  to  have  been  colonized  from  Corcyra,  which  was 
originally  a  Corinthian  colony ;  and  the  city  of  Corinth  was  called  Ephyre, 
from  the  nymph  Ephyra,  the  daughter  of  Oceanus  and  Tethys. 

5  Kafe  even  in  its  towers  alone)  ver.  18.     He  means  to  say  that  it  was 
sufficiently  strong  in  its  natural  position  and  fortifications  to  resist  an  enemy 
without  the  aid  of  troops. 


204  THARSAL1A.  [a  vi.  31-50. 

enemy1  unawares  dispersed  on  the  vast  hills,  with  bul- 
warks  of  intrenchments  described  afar.  The  ground  he 
surveys  with  his  eyes;  and  not  content  with  frail  turf  alone 
to  construct  the  walls  so  suddenly  raised,  he  carries  across 
vast  rocks,  and  stones  dug  up  from  quarries,  and  the  houses 
of  the  Greeks,  and  the  walls  torn  asunder.  A  wall  is  built 
up,  which  not  the  ruthless  battering-ram,  nor  any  engine 
of  destructive  warfare,  is  able  to  throw  down.  Mountains 
are  broken  down,  and  Caesar  draws  the  work  on  a  level 
right  through  lofty  hills,  and  he  opens  fosses,  and  disposes 
towered  castles  on  the  highest  ridges,  and  with  a  great 
circuit  enclosing  boundaries,  thickets,  and  woody  lonesome 
spots,  and  forests  and  wild  beasts,  with  a  vast  net  he  shuts 
them  in. 

Fields  are  not  wanting,  pastures  are  not  wanting  to  Mag- 
nus, and,  surrounded  by  the  bulwarks  of  Ctesor,  he  shifts 
his  camp  at  pleasure'-.  Rivers  so  many  rising  there,  and 
ceasing  there,  exhaust  their  course ;  and  that  he  may  revisit 
the  most  distant  of  the  works,  Caesar,  wearied,  abides  in 
the  midst  of  the  fields.  Now  let  ancient  story  raise  the 
Ilian  walls3,  and  ascribe  them  to  the  Gods;  let  the  flying 

1  That  lie  might  surround  tlte  enemy)  ver.  30.  Caesar  thus  relates  these 
operations  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  43  : — "  Caesar,  on  being  informed  of 
these  matters,  pursued  measures  suggested  by  the  nature  of  the  country. 
For  around  Pompey's  camp  there  were  several  high  and  rugged  hills. 
These  he  first  of  nil  occupied  with  guards,  and  raised  strong  forts  on  them. 
Then  drawing  a  fortification  from  one  fort  to  the  other,  as  the  nature  of 
each  position  allowed,  he  began  to  draw  a  line  of  circumvallation  around 
Pompey ;  and  with  these  views,  as  he  had  but  a  small  quantity  of  corn, 
and  Pompey  was  strong  in  cavalry,  that  he  might  furnish  his  army  with 
corn  and  other  necessaries  from  all  sides  with  less  danger;  secondly,  to 
prevent  Pompey  from  foraging,  and  thereby  render  his  horse  ineffectual  in 
the  operations  of  the  war ;  and  thirdly,  to  lessen  his  reputation,  on  which 
he  saw  he  depended  greatly  among  foreign  nations,  when  the  report  should 
Lave  spread  throughout  the  world,  that  he  was  blockaded  by  Caesar  and 
dared  not  hazard  a  battle." 

8  He  thifts  his  camp  at  pleasure)  ver.  44.  "  Mutat ;"  literally  "  changes ;" 
meaning  that  he  has  the  power  or  opportunity  to  change  his  camp,  although 
surrounded  by  Caasar's  lines  ;  in  allusion  to  the  vast  extent  of  space  enclosed 
thereby. 

3  Ancient  story  raise  tlte  Ilian  vails)  ver.  48.  He  alludes  to  the  alleged 
extent  of  the  walls  of  Ilium  or  Troy,  which  were  said  to  be  forty  miles  in 
circumference,  and  to  have  been  built  by  the  hands  of  Apollo  and  Neptune 
for  King  Laomedon. 


B.  vi.  50-60.]  PHARSALIA.  205 

Parthians  admire  the  walls  of  Babylon,  surrounded  with 
frail  pottery1.  Lo,  as  much  as  Tigris,  as  much  as  swift 
Orontes  surrounds2,  as  much  as  suffices  for  their  realms 
to  the  Assyrian  nations  in  the  eastern  world,  does  a  work, 
suddenly  formed  and  hurried  on  amid  the  tumult  of  warfare, 
enclose.  There  perish  labours  as  mighty3. 

Hands  thus  many  had  been  able  to  unite  Sestos  to 
Abyclos4,  and,  by  heaping  earth  into  it  to  exclude  the  sea 
of  Phryxus',  or  to  sever  Ephyre  from  the  wide  realms  of 
Pelops,  and  to  cut  short  for  shipping0  the  circumnavigation 
of  the  lengthy  Malea7,  or  to  change  any  spot  of  the  world, 

1  Walls  of  Babylon,  surrounded  with  frail  pottery)  ver.  50.  He  alludes 
to  the  brick-built  walls  of  Babylon ;  which  city,  though  in  a  ruinous  state, 
was,  in  the  Poet's  day,  in  the  hands  of  the  Parthians.  In  the  time  of  Nebu- 
chadnezzar these  walls  surrounding  the  city,  which  was  in  form  of  a  square, 
were  forty-eight  miles  in  extent,  and  two  hundred  cubits  high,  and  fifty  thick. 
They  were  built  of  burnt  brick,  while  some  of  the  buildings  in  the  city 
were  only  constructed  with  bricks  sun-dried  and  cemented  with  bitumen  or 
mortar.  Ovid,  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  iv.  1.  68,  speaks  of  the  "coctiles 
muri,"  or  "  brick-built  walls,"  of  Babylon. 

*  As  muck  as  swift  Orontes  surrounds)  ver.  51.     The  meaning  is,  "as 
much  ground  as  the  Tigris  (into  which  the  Euphrates  discharges  itself)  sur- 
rounds at  Babylon,  as  much  as  the  Orontes  surrounds  at  Antioch,  and  as 
much  as  is  required  for  the  royal  city  of  Nineveh,  so  much  does  Caesar  on  a 
sudden  emergency  surround  with  lines  of  circumvallation."     These  lines  were 
fifteen  miles  in  circumference. 

3  There  perish  labours  as  mighty)  ver.  54.     "Periere"  may  either  mean 
that  these  lines  were  thrown  away  as  failing  in  their  object  of  hemming  in 
Pompey,    or  that   they  were   soon    destroyed  in  the  sallies  of  Pompey's 
troops. 

4  Unite  Sestos  to  Abydos)  ver.   55.     He  alludes  to  the  bridges  which 
Xerxes  constructed  across  the  Hellespont  from  Sestos  to  Abydos.     See  the 
Second  Book,  1.  674,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

*  To  exclude  the  sea  of  Phryxus)  ver.  56.     In  allusion  to  Xerxes  building 
up  large  mounds  of  earth  in  the  Hellespont.     Phryxus  was  the  brother  of 
Helle,  who  gave  her  name  to  the  Hellespont.     See  the  Fourth  Book,  J.  57, 
and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

6  To  cut  short  for  shipping)  ver.  57.     He  says  that  it  would  have  been 
about  an  equal  labour  to  cut  off  Corinth,  or  Ephyre,  from  the  Peloponnesus, 
by  cutting  through  the  Isthmus. 

7  Circumnavigation  of  the  lengthy  Malea}  ver.  58.  Malea  was  a  Promontory 
on  the  south  of  Laconia,  extending  many  miles  into  the  sea,  the  passage  round 
which  was  much  dreaded  by  sailors.     By  the  use  of  the  word  "  donare," 
meaning  "  to  save  the  passage  of,"  he  probably  means  by  cutting  through  the 
promontory  where  it  commences  to  project,  and  thus  save  the  necessity  of 
going  round  it.     Famaby,  however,  takes  the  passage  to  be  only  an  ampli- 
fication of  the  last  line,  and  to  mean  that  the  result  of  cutting  through  the 


206  PHABSALIA.  [B.  vi.  60-73. 

although  Nature  should  forbid  it,  for  the  better.  The  quar- 
ters of  the  warfare  are  contracted ;  here  is  nourished  blood 
destined  to  flow  in  all  lands ;  here  both  the  Thessalian  and 
the  Libyan  slaughters1  are  kept  in  store.  The  civil  fury 
rages  on  a  narrow  slip  of  sand. 

First  indeed,  on  rising,  the  structure  of  the  works  escapes 
Porapey ;  just  as  he  who,  safe  in  the  fields  of  mid  Sicily, 
knows  not  that  ravening  Pelorus  is  barking 2 ;  or  as,  when 
roaming  Tethys  and  the  Rutupian  shores :*  are  raging,  the 
waves  aroused  escape  the  ears  of  the  Caledonian  Britons. 
When  first  he  beholds  the  earth  enclosed  with  a  vast 
rampart,  he  himself  also  leading  forth  his  troops4  from 
secure  Petra  scatters  them  over  the  different  hills,  that  he 
may  weaken  the  arms  of  Ceesar,  and  extend  his  line,  as  he 
hems  him  hi,  with  his  soldiers  spread  far  and  wide ; 
and  as  much  of  the  land  enclosed  in  the  trenches  does  he 

Isthmus  of  Corinth  would  be  to  save  sailors  the  necessity  of  going  round 
the  Peloponnesus  and  rounding  the  Malean  promontory. 

1  Both,  the  Thessalian  and  the  Libyan  slaughters)  ver.  62.    "  Here  in  this 
space  are  enclosed  persons  who  are  doomed  to  fall,  some  at  Thessalian  Phar- 
salia,  some  at  African  Munda." 

2  Knows  not  that  ravening  Pelorus  is  barking)  ver.  66.     Just  as  the 
person  who  lives  in  the  interior  of  Sicily  does  not  hear  the  howling  of  the 
whirlpools  of  Scylla  and  Charybdis,  which  are  in  the  vicinity  of  Pelorus,  a 
Promontory  of  that  island. 

3  And  the  Rutupian  shores)  ver.  67.     Rutupiae,  or  Rutupac,  was  a  Roman 
town  on  the  coast  of  Kent,  supposed  to  have  been  the  present  Richborough. 
It  was  a  place  of  transit  for  Haul,  and  was  famed  for  the  goodness  of  its 
oysters,  which  were  much  prized  by  the  Roman  epicures.    The  Poet's  mean- 
ing is,  "just  as  the  native  of  Caledonia  (now  Scotland)  does  not  hear  the 
roaring  of  the  ocean  on  the  Rutupian  shore  (the  coast  of  Kent)." 

4  Leading  forth  his  troops)  ver.  71.     These  operations  on  the  part  of 
Pompey  are  thus  fully  explained  in  Csesar's  narrative  of  the  Civil  War, 
B.  iii.  c.  44  : — "  Nothing  was  left  to  Pompey  but  to  adopt  the  last  resource, 
namely,  to  possess  himself  of  as  many  hills  as  he  could,  and  cover  as  great  an 
extent  of  country  as  possible  with  his  troops,  and  divide  Caesar's  forces  as  much 
as  possible ;  and  so  it  happened ;  for  having  raised  twenty-four  forts,  and  taken 
in  a  compass  of  fifteen  miles,  he  got  forage  in  this  space,  and  within  this  circuit 
there  were  several  fields  lately  sown,  in  which  the  cattle  might  feed  in  the 
meantime.     And  as  our  men,  who  had  completed  their  works  by  drawing  lines 
of  communication  from  one  fort  to  another,  were  afraid  that  Pompey '3  men 
would  sally  out  from  some  part  and  attack  us  on  the  rear ;  so  the  enemy  were 
making  a  continued  fortification  in  a  circuit  within  ours,  to  prevent  us  from 
breaking  in  on  any  side,  or  surrounding  them  in  the  rear.     But  they  com- 
pleted their  wokrs  first ;  both  because  they  had  a  greater  number  of  men,  and 
because  they  had  a  smaller  compass  to  enclose.'' 


B.  TI.  73-88.]  PHARSALIA.  207 

claim  for  himself,  as  little  Aricia  of  the  grove,  consecrated 
to  Diana  of  Mycene,  is  distant  from  lofty  Rome ' ;  and  the 
distance  at  which3  Tiber,  gliding  by  Rome,  descends  into 
the  sea,  if  it  were  not  to  wind  in  its  course. 

No  trumpet-call  re-echoes 3,  and,  contrary  to  orders,  the 
darts  roam  ;  and  full  oft,  while  the  arm  tries  the  javelin,  is 
a  crime  committed.  Greater  anxieties  deter  the  chieftains 
from  engaging  in  arms.  Pompey  care  deters  by  reason  of 
the  land  being  exhausted  for  affording  fodder,  which  the 
horseman  in  his  course  has  trodden  down,  and  with 
quickened  steps  the  horny  hoof  has  beaten  down  the  shoot- 
ing field.  The  warlike  charger  wearied  in  the  fields  cropped 
short,  while  the  full  racks  are  holding  the  sedge  that  has 
been  brought4,  falls  dying,  requiring  for  his  mouth  fresh 
grass,  and  cuts  short  with  faltering  knees  the  exercises  of 
the  ring  in  the  midst  of  them. 

While  consumption  wastes  their  bodies5  and  relaxes  their 

1  Aricia  is  distant  from  lofty  Rome)  ver.  75.     He  says  that  the  extent 
of  ground  which  Pompey  enclosed  within  his  lines  was  the  same  as  the  dis- 
tance from  Aricia  to  Home ;  namely,  about  sixteen  miles.     In  speaking  of 
the  Mycenaean  Diana,  he  alludes  to  the  worship  of  Diana,  which  was  said 
to  have  been  brought  from  Tauris  to  Aricia  by  Iphigenia  and  Orestes,  the 
children  of  Agamemnon,  king  of  Mycenae.     See  the  Third  Book,  1.  86,  and 
the  Note  to  that  passage. 

2  And  the  distance  at  which)  ver.  76.     "Modo"  signifies  "measure"  or 
"  distance  "  here.     His  meaning  is,  that  the  extent  is  the  same  as  that  of  the 
Tiber  would  be  from  Rome  to  Ostia,  where  it  discharges  itself  into  the  sea, 
if  it  flowed  in  a  straight  line.     This  can  hardly  be  correct,  for  Ostia  was 
generally  said  to  be  but  fourteen  miles  from  Home. 

3  No  trumpet  call  re-echoes)  ver.  78.     "  When  Caesar  attempted  to  gain 
any  place,  though  Pompey  had  resolved  not  to  oppose  him  with  his  whole  force, 
or  to  come  to  a  general  engagement ;  yet  he  detached  archers  and  slingers, 
•with  which  his  army  abounded,  and  several  of  our  men  were  wounded  and 
•were  filled  with  great  dread  of  the  arrows." — Civil  War,  B.  iii.  1.  46. 

*  The  sedge  that  has  been  "brought)  ver.  85.  "  Culmos  "  here  signifies, 
according  to  some,  "  hay,"  or  else  "  straw,"  while  others  take  it  to  mean 
"  sedge."  The  passage  has  caused  considerable  discussion,  but  its  meaning 
clearly  is,  that  although  the  racks  are  full  of  hay,  or  straw,  or  sedge,  as  the 
case  may  be,  the  horses  pine  away  for  want  of  fresh  grass. 

4  While  consumption  wastes  their  bodies)  ver.  88.     These  circumstances 
are  thus  alluded  to  in  Caesar's  narrative  of  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  49  : — 
"  Caesar's  troops  were  often  told  by  deserters,  that  they  could  scarcely  main- 
tain their  horses,  and  that  their  other  cattle  were  dead ;  that  they  them- 
selves were  not  in  good  health,  from  their  confinement  within  so  narrow  a 
compass,  from  the  noisome  smell,  the  number  of  carcases,  and  the  constant 


208  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vi.  88-106. 

limbs,  the  close  atmosphere  contracts  the  contagion  of  the 
flouting  pestilence  in  a  dense  cloud.  With  such  an  exhala- 
tion does  Nesis1  send  forth  the  Stygian  air  from  its  clouded 
rocks,  and  the  caves  of  the  deadly  Typhon-  putt'  forth  his 
rage.  Thence  do  the  multitudes  perish,  and  the  water, 
more  ready  than  the  air  to  contract  all  infection,  hardens 
the  entrails  with  mud  collecting  there.  Now  the  blackened 
skin  grows  hard,  and  bursts  the  distended  eyes :  fiery 
throughout  the  features11,  and  glowing  with  erysipelas  tin- 
disease  breaks  out,  and  the  weary  head  refuses  to  support 
itself.  Now  more  and  more  suddenly  does  destiny  sweep 
away  everything,  nor  do  intervening  diseases  separate  life 
and  death,  but  the  weakness  comes  on  with  death ;  and  by 
the  multitude  of  the  perishing  is  the  pestilence  increased, 
while  the  bodies  are  lying  unburied,  mingled  with  the  living. 
For  to  throw  the  wretched  citizens  outside  of  the  tents  is 
their  burial.  Still,  these  woes,  the  sea  at  their  backs,  and 
the  air  stirred  by  the  north  winds,  and  the  sea-shore  and  the 
ships  filled  with  foreign  harvests,  relieve4. 

But  ranging  upon  the  expansive  hills  the  enemy  is  not 

fatigue  to  them,  being  men  unaccustomed  to  work,  and  labouring  under  a 
great  want  of  water." 

1  With  such  an  exhalation  does  Nesis)  ver.  90.  Nesis,  now  called  "  Nisita," 
is  a  small  island  on  the  coast  of  Campania,  not  far  from  Puteoli.     It  was  a 
favorite  residence  of  some  of  the  Roman  nobles.     The  elder  Pliny  speaks  of 
it  as  in  certain  places  emitting  fetid  vapours,  probably  by  reason  of  its  vol- 
canic origin.     Cicero,  Seneca,  and  Statius  also  make  mention  of  it. 

2  The  caves  of  (he  deadly  Typhon)  ver.   92.     He  alludes  to   the  sul- 
phureous vapours  of  the  isle  of  Inarime,  beneath  which  the  giant  Typhoeus, 
or  Typhon,  was  said  to  be  buried.     It  is  mentioned  in  the  Fifth  Book, 
1.  101 ;  see  the  Note  to  that  passage. 

3  Fiery  throughout   the  features)   ver.    96.     They  were  attacked   with 
erysipelas,  or  Saint  Anthony's  fire,  which  the  Romans  called  the  "  Sacer 
niorbus,"    or   "Sacred   disease."     Celsus  mentions  this  malady  as  a  fore- 
runner of  the  plague.     Some  authorities,  however,  consider  '•  sacer  morbus" 
to  mean  "  epilepsy." 

*  Filled  with  foreign  harvests,  relieve)  ver.  105.  Probably  because,  as 
one  of  the  Scholiasts  says,  that  which  grew  on  the  spot  was  tainted  with 
the  plague.  These  supplies  are  thus  referred  to  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii. 
c.  47  : — "  The  usual  design  of  a  siege  is  to  cut  off  the  enemy's  supplies. 
On  the  contrary,  Caesar,  with  an  inferior  force,  was  enclosing  troops  sound 
and  unhurt,  and  who  had  abundance  of  all  things.  For  there  arrived  every 
day  a  prodigious  number  of  ships,  which  brought  them  provisions.  Nor 
could  the  wind  blow  from  any  quarter  that  would  not  be  favourable  to  some 
of  them." 


B.  vi.  107-127.]  PHARSALIA.  209 

distressed  by  pent-up  air  or  stagnant  water ;  but  he  endures 
cruel  famine,  as  though  surrounded  in  strict  siege.  The 
blades  not  as  yet  rising  to  a  crop,  the  wretched  multitude 
he  sees  falling  down '  to  the  food  of  cattle,  and  gnawing 
the  shrubs,  and  spoiling  the  grove  of  its  leaves,  ami 
tearing  from  unknown  roots-  doubtful  herbs  that  threaten 
death.  Whatever  they  are  able  to  soften  with  flames,  what- 
ever to  pull  asunder  by  biting,  and  whatever  to  put  into 
their  stomachs  through  their  chafed  throats,  that  they  devour, 
and  the  soldiers  tearing  asunder  many  a  thing  before  this 
unknown  to  human  tables,  still  besiege  a  well-fed  foe. 

When  first,  the  barriers  burst,  it  pleased  Pompey  to  escape, 
and  to  open  to  himself  all  lands,  he  did  not  choose  for 
himself  the  obscure  hours  of  stealthy  night,  and  he  disdained 
a  march  stolen  by  theft,  the  arms  of  his  father-in-law  delay- 
ing ;  with  ruin  brought  upon  him  he  sought  to  come  forth, 
and,  the  trenches  attacked,  to  break  down  the  towers,  and 
amid  all  his  swords,  and  where  by  slaughter  a  way  must  be 
made.  However,  a  part  of  the  entrenchment  close  at  hand 
seems  fit,  which  they  call  the  tower  of  Minutius  ',  and  a 
shrubbery  rough  with  trees  thick  set  conceals.  Hither,  be- 

1  Sees  falling  down)  ver.  110.  "  Cecidisse  ;"  falling  flat  on  tho  ground, 
after  the  manner  of  cattle.  This  passage  hardly  corresponds  with  what 
we  learn  from  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  49  : — "  But  Csesar's 
army  enjoyed  perfect  health  and  abundance  of  water,  and  had  plenty 
of  all  sorts  of  provision,  except  corn ;  and  they  had  a  prospect  of  better 
times  approaching,  and  saw  greater  hopes  laid  before  them  by  the  ripening 
of  the  grain."  Caesar,  however,  acknowledges,  in  c.  47,  that,  "  having 
consumed  all  the  corn  far  and  near,  he  was  in  very  great  distress,  but  his 
soldiers  bore  all  with  uncommon  patience." 

'  And  tearing  from  unknown  roots)  ver.  113.  He  probably  refers  to 
the  same  root  which  is  mentioned  by  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  48  : 
"  There  was  a  kind  of  root  called  '  chara,'  discovered  by  the  troops  which 
served  under  Valerius.  This  they  mixed  up  with  milk,  and  it  greatly  con- 
tributed to  relieve  their  want.  They  made  it  into  a  sort  of  bread. — Having 
great  plenty  of  it,  loaves  made  thereof,  when  Pompey 's  men  upbraided  ours 
with  want,  they  frequently  threw  among  them,  to  damp  their  hopes."  It  was 
on  this  occasion  that  Pompey,  on  seeing  the  loaves,  exclaimed  that  surely  he 
must  be  fighting  with  wild  beasts. 

3  They  call  the  tower  of  Minutius)  ver.  126.  Appian  seems  to  consider 
this  Minutius  as  the  same  person  with  the  centurion  Scaeva,  whose  exploits 
are  afterwards  recounted  by  the  Poet,  and  whose  shield  Caesar  speaks  of 
as  being  pierced  in  two  hundred  and  thirty  places,  while  Appian  mentions  a 
hundred  and  twenty  arrows  as  sticking  in  it.  They  'hardly,  however,  seem 
to  have  been  the  same  persons,  as  Suetonius  calls  the  latter  Cassius  Scaeva. 

P 


210  PHAKSALIA.  [&  vi.  127-151. 

trayed  by  no  dust,  he  speeds  his  band,  and  suddenly  comes 
to  the  walls.  At  the  same  moment  so  many  Latian  birds 
shine  from  the  plain1,  so  many  trumpets  sound. 

That  victory  might  not  be  owing  anything  to  the  sword, 
fear  had  stricken  the  astounded  foe.  What  valour  alone 
could  effect,  slain  they  lay,  on  the  spot  where  they  should 
be  standing;  those  to  endure  the  wounds  were  now  want- 
ing, and  the  cloud  that  bore  darts  so  many  was  of  no  avail. 
Then  did  the  hurled  torches  roll  down  pitchy  fires ;  then  did 
the  shaken  towers  nod  and  threaten  their  fall ;  the  bulwark 
groaned  at  the  frequent  blows  of  the  oak  battered  against 
it.  Now  over  the  heights  of  the  lofty  entrenchment  had 
Pompey's  eagles  gone  forth ;  now  was  the  rule  of  the  world 
open  to  him.  That  place  which  not  with  a  thousand  troops 
together,  nor  with  the  whole  force  of  Ccesar,  Fortune  had 
been  able  to  take  away,  a  single  man  snatched  from  the 
victors  and  forbade  to  be  captured ;  and,  himself  wielding 
arms,  and  not  yet  laid  prostrate,  he  denied  that  Magnus 
was  the  conqueror. 

Scffiva  was  the  name  of  the  hero ;  he  had  served  in  the 
ranks  of  the  camp  before  the  fierce  nations  of  the  Rhone '-' ; 
there,  amid  much  bloodshed,  promoted  in  the  lengthened 
rank,  he  wielded  the  Latian  vine1;  ready  for  all  daring4, 
and  one  who  knew  not  in  civil  warfare  how  great  cri- 
minality is  valour.  He,  when,  the  war  now  left  behind, 
he  beheld  his  companions  seeking  the  safety  of  flight, 
said : — 

"  Whither  does  an  unduteous  fear5  drive  you  and  one  un- 

1  So  many  Latian  birds  shine  from  tlte  plain.)  ver.  129.  He  alludes  to 
the  eagles  or  standards  of  the  legions. 

*  Before  tiie  fierce  nations  of  tJie  Rhone)  ver.  144.     He  means  that  Scaeva 
had  served  as  a  common  soldier  in  Caesar's  army,  in   the   wars   with  the 
Gauls,  during  which  he  had  been  promoted  to  the  rank  of  centurion. 

3  He  melded  the  Latian  vine)  ver.  146.     A  vine  sapling  was  one  of  the 
badges  of  office  of  the  centurion,  who  carried  it  for  the  purpose  of  punishing 
negligent  or  disobedient  soldiers.     "  Longo  ordine,"  the  "  lengthened  rank," 
probably  refers  to  the  troop  of  a  hundred  men  which  was  under  his  command. 

4  Ready  for  all  daring)  ver.  147.     "  Pronus  ad  omne  nefas."     By  the 
use  of  the  word  "  nefas  "  the  Poet  implies,  as  he  says  in  the  next  line,  that 
military  valour  exerted  in  civil  war  is  no  better  than  criminality. 

*  Whither  does  an  unduteous  fear)  ver.  150.  Caesar  thus  refers  to  the  ex- 
ploits of  Scaeva  on  this  occasion,  in  the  Civil  "War,  13.  iii.  c.  53  : — "  In  the 
shield  of  the  centurion  Scaeva,  which  was  brought  to  Caesar,  were  counted 


B.  vi.  1 51  - 1 78.]  PH  ARS  ALT  A.  21 1 

known  to  all  the  amis  of  Caesar?  0  base  slaves,  servile 
beasts ',  do  you,  without  bloodshed,  turn  your  backs  upon 
death?  Are  you  not  ashamed  to  be  wanting  in  the  heap 
of  heroes,  and  to  be  sought  in  vain  for  the  tomb  among  the 
carcases  ?  Will  you  not,  youths,  through  anger  at  least,  duty 
set  aside,  come  to  a  stand  ?  Out  of  all,  through  whom  the 
enemy  might  sally  forth,  have  we  been  chosen.  With  cost 
of  no  little  blood  to  Magnus  shall  this  day  pass.  More 
happily  before  the  face  of  Csesar  could  I  seek  the  shades. 
Him  as  a  Avitness  Fortune  has  denied;  Pompey  praising 
me,  I  shall  fall.  Break  their  weapons  by  opposing  your 
breasts,  and  with  your  throats  blunt  the  sword.  Now 
does  the  dust  reach  him  from  afar,  and  the  sound  of  the 
ruin,  and  the  crash  has  broken  upon  the  unsuspecting  ears 
of  Coesar.  We  conquer,  0  companions ;  he  will  come  to 
avenge  these  towers  while  we  die." 

That  voice  arouses  fury  as  great  as  the  trumpet-call,  not 
at  the  first  signal,  inflames ;  and  wondering  at  the  hero, 
and  eager  to  behold,  the  youths  follow  him  to  know  whe- 
ther valour,  exceeded  in  numbers  and  in  position,  can  give 
anything  more  than  death.  On  the  falling  rampart  he  takes 
his  stand,  and  first  of  all  rolls  down  carcases  from  the  tower 
full  of  them,  and  overwhelms  the  foes  with  dead  bodies  as  they 
come  on ;  the  whole  of  the  ruins,  too,  afford  weapons  to  the 
hero ;  both  wood,  and  heavy  masses,  and  himself  does  he 
threaten  to  the  foe2.  Now  with  stakes,  now  with  a  sturdy 
pole,  he  thrusts  down  opposing  breasts  from  the  walls, 
and  with  the  sword  he  cuts  off  the  hands  that  cling  to 
the  upper  parts  of  the  rampart ;  heads  and  bones  he 
dashes  to  pieces  with  stones,  and  knocks  out  brains  use- 
two  hundred  and  thirty  holes.  In  reward  for  this  man  s  services,  hoth  to 
himself  and  the  public,  Csesar  presented  him  with  a  reward  in  money,  and 
declared  him  promoted  from  being  eighth  to  first  centurion.  For  it  ap- 
peared that  the  fort  had  been  in  a  great  measure  preserved  by  his  exertions ; 
and  he  afterwards  very  amply  rewarded  the  cohorts  with  double  pay,  corn, 
clothing,  and  other  military  honors."  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  account 
of  the  commencement  of  this  attack  by  the  troops  of  Pompey  is  lost  in  the 
narrative  of  Caesar. 

7  0  base  slaves,  servile  beasb)  ver.  1 52.    "  0  famuli  turpes,  servum  pecus, 
absque  cruore."     This  line  is  universally  considered  to  be  spurious. 

8  And   himself  does   lie   threaten   to  the  foe)  ver.   173.      "  Seque  ipse 
minntur,"  meaning  that  he  threatens  that  he  himself  will  leap  down  upon 
them. 

p  2 


212  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vi.  178-201. 

lessly  defended  by  a  frail  construction ,  of  another  the  flame 
sets  on  fire  the  hair  and  the  cheeks;  their  eyes  burning,  the 
fires  crackle. 

As  soon  as,  the  heap  increasing,  the  carcases  made  the 
wall  level  with  the  ground,  a  leap  brought  him  down  and 
threw  him  upon  their  arms  in  the  midst  of  the  troops,  not 
less  nimble  than  that  which  hurries  the  swift  leopard  on  the 
tops  of  the  hunting  spears.  Then,  compressed  amid  the 
dense  masses  and  hemmed  in  by  all  the  war,  whatever  foe 
he  looks  upon  he  conquers.  And  now,  the  point  of  the 
sword  of  Scfeva,  blunted  and  through  clotted  blood  no 
longer  sharp,  bruises  the  smitten  foe,  and  wounds  him  not1. 
The  sword  loses  its  use,  and  breaks  limbs  without  a  wound-. 
Him  does  the  entire  mass  aim  at,  at  him  do  all  the  wea- 
pons aim;  no  hand  is  unerring,  no  javelin  not  fortunately 
aimed,  and  Fortune  beholds  a  new  pair  of  combatants 
meeting  together,  an  army  and  a  man.  The  stout  shield 
resounds  with  frequent  blows,  and  the  compressed  fragments 
of  the  hollow  helmet  bruise  his  temples ;  nor  does  anything 
now  protect1*  his  exposed  vitals,  except  the  darts  that  pro- 
trude on  the  surface  of  his  bones. 

Why  now,  madmen,  with  javelins  and  light  arrows  do 
you  waste  wounds  that  will  never  attach  to  the  vital  parts  ? 
Let  either  the  wild-fire4  hvfrled  from  the  twisted  cords  over- 
whelm him,  or  masses  of  vast  stone  torn  from  the  walls ;  let 
the  battering-ram  with  its  iron  head,  and  the  balista  remove 
him  from  the  threshold  of  the  gate.  He  stands,  no  frail  wall 

1  And  wounds  him  not)  ver.  187.     The  inelegant  repetition  of  "frangit" 
in  the  next  line,  which  is  also  found  in  this,  shows  that  most  probably  one 
of  them  is  spurious. 

2  Breaks  limbs  iritliout  a  wound)  ver.  188.     His  »word  was  so  blunted 
that  it  would  no  longer  pierce  and  make  wounds,  but  by  the  force  of  the 
blow  broke  the  limb  it  struck. 

3  Nor  does  anyUdng  now  protect)  ver.  194.     The  meaning  of  this  piece 
of  bombast  seems  to  be  that  the  weapons  of  the  enemy,  sticking  in  his  body 
in  nil  directions,  supply  the  place  of  his  armour,  which,  broken  to  pieces, 
now   leaves  his  body  exposed.     One  of  the   Scholiasts    suggests  that    the 
meaning  is  that  his  vitals  are  now  exposed,  but  are  prevented  from  falling 
out  by  reason  of  the  darts  pinning  his  flesh  to  his  bones. 

4  Let  eiilier  the  wild-fire)  ver.  198.      As  to  the  "phalarica"  see  the 
Third  Book,  1.  681,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage.     The  "tortiles  nervi"  are 
the  cords  used  to  give  impetus  to  the  balista,  which  was  used  to  discharge 
the  phalarica. 


B.  vi.  201  222.]  PHAESALIA.  213 

for  Caesar's  cause,  and  he  withstands  Pompey.  Now  he  no 
longer  covers  his  breast  with  amis,  and,  fearing  to  trust  his 
shield  and  to  be  inactive  with  the  left  hand, -or  to  live  by 
his  own  remissness,  alone  he  submits  to  the  wounds  so 
many  of  the  warfare,  and,  bearing  a  dense  thicket  of  darts 
on  his  breast,  with  now  flagging  steps  he  chooses  an  enemy 
on  whom  to  fall. 

Like  u-as  he  to  the  monsters  of  the  deep1.  Thus  the 
beast  of  the  Libyan  land,  thus  the  Libyan  elephant, 
overwhelmed  by  dense  arms,  breaks  every  missile  as  it 
bounds  off  from  his  rough  back,  and  moving  his  skin 
shakes  forth  the  darts  that  stick  there ;  his  entrails  lie  safe 
concealed  within,  and  without  blood  do  the  darts  stand  in 
the  pierced  wild  beast ;  wounds  made  by  arrows  so  many, 
by  javelins  so  many,  suffice  not  for  a  single  death.  Behold  ! 
afar,  a  Gortynian  shaft  is  aimed  against  Sca3va  by  a  Dictcean 
hand'-,  which,  more  unerring  than  all  expectation,  descends 
upon  his  head  and  into  the  ball  of  the  left  eye.  He  tears 
away  the  impediment  of  the  weapon  and  the  ligaments  of 
the  nerves,  fearlessly  plucking  forth  the  arrow  fastened  in 
the  eye-ball  hanging  to  it,  and  tramples  upon  the  weapon 
together  with  his  own  eye. 

Not  otherwise  does  the  Pannonian  she-bear3,  more  in- 
furiate after  a  wound,  when  the  Libyan  has  hurled  the  javelin 
retained  by  the  slender  thong4,  wheel  herself  round  upon  the 

1  Like  u-as  he  to  the  monsters  of  the  deep)  ver.  207.    This  is  most  probably 
a  spurious  line,  from  the  repetition  of  part  of  it  in  the  next.     "  Par  pelagi 
monstris"  is  supposed  by  Farnaby  to  mean,  that  he  acts  as  the  whale  does  in 
rushing  upon  a  ship  and  sinking  it  with  its  weight.     This,  if  connected  with 
what  precedes,  seems  to  be  the  right  sense  of  the  passage.     The  Scholiast  Sul- 
pitius,  however,  thinks  that  it  alludes  to  the  circumstance  of  trees  being  sup- 
posed to  grow  on  the  backs  of  whales,  which  cause  them  to  resemble  islands 
and  rocks  :   a  meaning  which  may  have  possibly  been  intended  if  taken  in 
connection  with  what  follows. 

2  A  Gortynian  shaft  is  aimed  against  Scceva  ly  a  Dictcean  ha7id)  ver.  214. 
Gortyna  or  Gortyn  was  one  of  the  most  ancient  cities  of  Crete,  situate  on  the 
river  Lethaeus.      It  was  the  second  city  of  the  island,  and  inferior  only  to 
Cnossus  ;  and  under  the  dominion  of  the  Romans  became  the  capital.     The 
Cretans  were  renowned  for  their  skill  in  the  use  of  the  bow. 

3  Pannonian    she-bear)  ver.  220.      Pannonia  was  one  of  the    Roman 
provinces,  embracing  the  eastern  part  of  the  present  Austria,  Styria,  Carin- 
thia,  Carniola,  the  whole  of  Hungary  between  the  Danube  and  the  Save, 
Slavonia,  and  a  part  of  Croatia  and  Bosnia. 

4  Has  hurled  the  javelin  retained  by  the  slender  thong)  ver.  221.     "Parva 


2U  PHARSALIA.  [a  VL  222-241. 

wound ',  and  infuriate  seek  the  dart  she  has  received,  and 
run  round  after  the  weapon  as  it  flies  together  with  herself-. 
His  fury  has  now  destroyed  his  features11,  with  the  bloody 
stream  his  face  stands  disfigured ;  a  joyous  shout  of  the  con- 
querors re-echoes  to  the  sky ;  a  wound  beheld  on  Caesar 
would  not  have  caused  greater  joyousness  to  the  men  by 
reason  of  a  little  blood.  He,  concealing  the  pangs  deeply 
seated  in  his  mind,  with  a  mild  air,  and,  fury  from  his 
features  entirely  removed,  says : — 

"  Spare  me,  fellow-citizens ;  far  hence  avert  the  war. 
Wounds  now  will  not  contribute  to  my  death ;  that  requires 
not  weapons  thrust  in,  but  rather  torn  away  from  my 
breast.  Lift  me  up,  and  alive  remove  me  to  the  camp  of 
Magnus ;  this  do  for  your  own  general ;  let  Scaeva  be 
rather  an  instance  of  Ctesar  deserted4,  than  of  a  glorious 
death." 

The  unhappy  Aulus  believed  these  deceitful  words,  and 
did  not  see  him  holding  his  sword  with  the  point  upright ; 
and,  about  to  bear  away  both  the  body  of  the  prisoner 
and  his  arms,  he  received  his  lightning  blade  in  the  middle 
of  his  throat.  His  valour  waxed  hot,  and  by  one  slaughter 
refreshed,  he  said  : — 

amentavit  habena."  The  spears  of  the  ancients,  both  those  used  in  war  and 
in  the  chase,  often  had  a  thong  of  feather  tied  to  the  middle  of  the  shaft, 
which  was  called  iyxiiKn  by  the  Greeks,  and  by  the  Romans  "amentum,'' 
and  was  of  assistance  in  throwing  the  spear.  It  is  not  known  how  the 
"amentum"  added  either  to  the  force  or  the  correctness  of  the  aim  in  the 
use  of  the  spear  ;  but  it  has  been  suggested  that  it  was  through  imparting 
volution  to  it,  and  perhaps  thereby  giving  it  steadiness  in  its  course.  This 
is  rendered  more  probable  from  the  frequent  use  of  the  verb  "  torquere,'' 
"  to  whirl." 

1  Wheels  herself  round  upon  the  wound)  ver.  222.  "  Se  rotat  in  vulnus  ; " 
wheels  round  and  round,  endeavouring  with  her  mouth  to  pull  out  the  arrow 
that  sticks  in  her  flanks. 

3  As  it  flies  togetlier  with  herself)  ver.  223.  "  Fugientem  "  may  either 
mean  that  the  lance  or  dart  is  borne  round  by  her,  and  eludes  her  endeavours 
as  she  wheels  round  and  round,  or  else  that  it  flies  with  her  as  she  flies. 

3  His  fury  has  now  destroyed  his  features)  ver.  224.     His  frantic  valour 
had  deformed  his  countenance  by  reason  of  his  tearing  out  his  eye  together 
with  the  arrow. 

4  An   instance  of  Casar  deserted)  ver.   234.     He  pretends  that  he  It 
ready  to  abandon  Caesar  and  join  Pompey's  party.     This  description  is  cer- 
tainly not  consistent  with   probability,  and  indeed  the  conduct  of  Scaeva, 
however  valorous,  merits  the  reproof  that  is  always  due  to  treachery,  for 
whatever  purpose  employed. 


B.  vi.  241-261.]  PHARSALIA.  215 

"  Let  him  pay  the  penalty,  whoever  has  hoped  that 
Screva  is  subdued ;  if  Magnus  seeks  for  peace  from  this 
sword,  let  him,  Coesar  being  entreated,  lower  his  standards. 
Do  you  think  me  like  yourselves,  and  afraid  of  death? 
Less  is  the  cause  of  Pompey  and  of  the  Senate  to  you, 
than  is  the  love  of  death  to  me." 

At  the  same  moment  he  thxts  says,  and  the  dust  raised 
on  high  attests  that  Caesar's  cohorts  are  at  hand.  He  re- 
moved from  Magnus  the  shame  and  the  disgrace  of  the  war, 
that  whole  troops,  Screva,  had  fled  from  thee  ;  who,  the  Avar- 
fare  withdrawn,  dost  sink;  for  while  blood  was  being  shed, 
the  combat  gave  thee  strength.  The  throng  of  his  comrades 
raise  him  as  he  falls,  and  are  delighted  to  bear  him  exhausted 
on  their  shoulders  ;  and  they  adore  as  it  were  a  Divinity  en- 
closed in  his  pierced  breast,  and  a  living  instance  of  trans- 
cendent valour ;  and  they  adorn  the  Gods l  and  Mars  with  his 
naked  breast,  Scceva,  with  thy  weapons  ;  happy  in  the  glories 
of  this  fame  2,  if  the  hardy  Iberian,  or  if  the  Cantabrian  with 
his  small :!,  or  the  Teutonian  with  his  long  weapons4,  had 
turned  his  back  on  thee.  Thou  canst  not  adorn  with  the 
spoils  of  warfare  the  Temples  of  the  Thunderer,  thou  canst 

1  And  they  adorn  the  Gods)  ver.  256.  Probably  this  means  that  they 
hung  up  his  arms  in  the  Temples  of  the  Gods,  and  placed  his  coat  of  mail 
on  the  statue  of  Mars,  which  before  was  without  one.  Sulpitius  thinks  it 
means  that  they  erected  statues  of  the  Gods  decorated  with  his  arms  in  the 
tower  or  fort  which  he  had  so  bravely  defended. 

8  Happy  in  the  glories  of  this  fame)  ver.  257.  From  the  account  given 
by  Caesar,  who  does  not  mention  the  loss  of  his  eye,  it  appears  that  Scaeva 
recovered  from  his  wounds.  He  is  made  mention  of  by  Cicero  in  his 
Epistles  to  Atticus,  B.  xiii.  Ep.  23,  and  B.  xiv.  Ep.  10,  as  one  of  the 
partisans  of  Caesar,  about  the  period  of  his  death. 

3  The  Cantabrian  with  his  small)  ver.  259.  The  Cantabri  were  a  people 
in  the  north  of  Spain,  whose  country  was  bounded  on  the  east  by  the 
Astures,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Autrigones.  The  name,  however,  was  com- 
monly given  to  all  the  people  in  the  north  of  Spain.  By  his  reference  to 
their  "  exigua  anna,"  or  "  small  arms,"  he  perhaps  refers  to  the  use  of  the 
bow  and  arrow. 

*  The  Teutonian  with  his  Inng  weapons)  ver.  259.  The  Teutones  were 
of  large  stature,  and  famed  for  the  length  of  their  spears  and  bucklers. 
Virgil,  in  the  JEneid,  B.  viii.  1.  662,  makes  mention  of  the  latter. 

5  The  Temples  of  the  Thunderer)  ver.  260.  The  Poet  means  that,  notwith- 
standing his  valorous  deeds,  being  engaged  in  civil  war,  he  will  never  have 
the  opportunity,  in  conformity  with  the  laws  of  the  state,  of  accompanying 
his  general  in  his  triumphal  procession  to  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  on  the  Capi- 
toline  Hill. 


216  PHARSALIA.  [a.  VL  261-281. 

not  shout  nloud  in  the  joyous  triumph1.  Wretched  man, 
with  valour  how  great  didst  thou  obtain  a  tyrant ! 

Nor  yet,  repulsed  from  this  part  of  the  camp a,  did  Magnus 
rest,  the  war  being  deferred,  within  the  entrenchments,  any 
more  than  the  sea  is  wearied,  when,  the  east  winds  arousing 
themselves,  the  billows  dash  against  the  rock  that  breaks 
them,  or^  the  wave  eats  away  the  side  of  the  lofty  moun- 
tain, and  prepares  a  late  ruin  for  itself.  On  the  one  side, 
attacking  the  fortresses  adjacent  to  the  placid  deep  with 
the  onset  of  a  twofold  warfare y  he  seizes  them  ;  and  he 
scatters  his  arms  far  and  wide,  and  expands  his  tents  upon 
the  open  plain ;  and  the  liberty  of  changing  their  ground 
delights  them. 

Thus  does  the  Padus,  swelling  with  full  mouth,  run  over 
its  shores  protected  with  embankments,  and  confound 
whole  fields  ;  if  anywhere  the  land  gives  way  and  yields, 
not  resisting  the  raging  volume  of  water,  then  with  all  its 
stream  it  passes  on,  and  with  its  flood  opens  fields  to  itself 
unknown.  These  owners  the  land  forsakes ;  on  these  hus- 
bandmen are  additional  fields  bestowed,  the  Padus  bestow- 
ing the  gift. 

Hardly  was  Caesar  aware  of  the  combat,  of  which  a 
fire  elevated  from  a  look-out  gave  notice.  The  dust 
now  laid,  he  found  the  walls  beaten  down;  and  when  he 
discovered  the  now  cold  marks,  as  though  of  ancient  ruin, 

1  Shout  aloud  in  the  joyous  triumph)  ver.  261.  "  Ululare."  In  the  use  of 
this  word  he  refers  to  the  cries  of  "  lo  triumphe  "  with  which  the  soldiers 
saluted  the  victorious  general,  as  they  accompanied  him  in  triumph  to  the 
Capitoline  Hill. 

*  Repulsed  from  this  part  of  the  camp)  ver.  263.  These  operations  are 
thus  related  by  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  13.  iii.  c.  65  : — "  And  now  the 
Pompeians.  after  great  havoc  of  our  troops,  were  approaching  the  camp  of 
Marcellinus,  and  had  stmck  no  small  terror  into  the  cohorts,  when  Antony  was 
observed  descending  from  the  rising  ground  with  twelve  cohorts.  His  arrival 
checked  the  Pompeians,  and  encouraged  our  men  to  recover  from  their  affright. 
And  shortly  after,  Caesar,  having  got  notice  by  the  smoke  from  all  the  forts, 
which  was  the  usual  signal  on  such  occasions,  drafted  off  some  cohorts  from 
the  outposts  and  proceeded  to  the  scene  of  action.  And  having  there  learned 
the  loss  he  had  sustained,  and  perceiving  that  Pompey  had  forced  our  works, 
and  had  encamped  along  our  coast,  so  that  he  was  at  liberty  to  forage,  and 
had  a  communication  with  his  shipping,  he  altered  his  plan  for  conducting 
the  war,  as  his  design  had  not  succeeded,  and  ordered  a  strong  encampment 
to  be  made  near  Pompey." 

1  A  two/old  warfare)  ver.  269.     By  sea  and  land. 


B.  vi.  282-292.]  PHARSALIA.  217 

the  very  quietude  of  the  spot  inflamed  him,  and  the 
rest  of  the  partisans  of  Pompey  and  their  slumbers,  Caesar 
overcome.  He  hastens  to  speed  on  even  into  slaughter,  so 
long  as  he  may  disturb  their  joyousness.  Then  does  he 
rush,  threatening,  upon  Torquatus ' ;  who  not  less  speedily 
perceives2  the  arms  of  Csesar,  than  does  the  sailor,  as  the 
mast  totters,  take  in  all  his  sails  against  the  Circeian  storm :(; 
his  troops,  too,  he  withdraws  within  a  more  limited  wall,  that 
in  a  small  compass  he  may  more  densely  dispose  his  arms. 
Caesar  had  crossed  the  ramparts  of  the  outer  trenches, 
when  Magnus  sent  down  his  troops  from  all  the  hills 4  above, 

1  Threatening,  upon  Torquatus)    ver.    285.     This    is    the  same  Lucius 
Torquatus  (or  rather  Lucius  Manlius  Torquatus)  who  is  mentioned  by  Caesar 
in  his  narrative  of  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  11,  as  the  governor  of  Oricum. 
He  was  a  friend  of  Cicero  and  an  ardent  partisan   of  Pompey  and    the 
aristocratic    faction.      On    the   breaking  out  of  the  war   he    was    Praetor, 
and  was  stationed  at  Alba,  which  he  afterwards  abandoned ;  on  which  he 
joined  Pompey  in  Greece.     He  was  obliged  to  surrender  Oricum  to  Caesar, 
who  dismissed  him  uninjured.     After  the  defeat  at  Pharsalia  he  went  to 
Africn,  and  attempting  to  escape  thence  to   Spain  with  Scipio,  was  taken 
prisoner  by  P.  Sittius,  and  put  to  death. 

2  Who    not  less   speedily  perceives)  ver.    286.      This   passage  will    be 
better  understood  by  a  reference  to  Caesar's  account  of  this  attack,  in  the 
Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  66-69,  a  portion  of  which  narrative  is  to  the  following 
effect : — "  This  place  was  half  a  mile  distant  from   Pompey 's   new   camp. 
Caesar,  hoping  to  surprise  this  legion,  and  anxious  to  repair  the  loss  sustained 
that  day,  left  two  cohorts  employed  in  the  works  to  make  an  appearance  of 
entrenching  himself,  and  by  a  different  route,  as  privately  as  he  could,  with 
his  other  cohorts,  amounting  to  thirty-three,  he  marched  in  two  lines  against 
Pompey 's  legion  and  his  lesser  camp.     Nor  did  this  first  opinion  deceive 
him.     For  he  reached  the  place  before  Pompey  could  have  notice  of  it ;  and 
though  the  works  were  strong,  yet  having  made  the  attack  with  the  left  wing, 
which  he  commanded  in  person,    he  obliged   the   Pompeians  to    quit  the 
rampart  in  disorder.     A  barricade  had  been  raised  before  the  gates,  at  which 
a  short  contest  was  maintained,  our  men  endeavouring  to  force  their  way  in, 
and  the  enemy  to  defend  the  camp.     But  the  valour  of  our  men  prevailed, 
and  having  cut  down  the  barricade,  they  first  forced  the  greater  camp,  and 
after  that  the  fort  which  was  enclosed  within  it ;  and  as  the  legion  on  its 
repulse  had  retired  to  this,  they  slew  several  defending  themselves  there." 

3  Arjaintt  the  Circeian  storm)  ver.  287.     Circeium  was  a  promontory  of 
Latium  on  which  was  the  ancient  town  of  Circeii.  The  navigation  round  this 
point  was  considered  dangerous,  and  it  was  the  custom  on  approaching  it  to 
lurl  the  sails  and  ply  the  oars  with  vigour. 

4  Maynus  sent  down  his  troops  from  all  the  hills)  ver.  292.      The  move- 
ment of  Pompey  to  the  rescue  is  thus  related  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  69  : — 
"In  the  meantime,  Pompey,  by  the  great  delay  which  this  occasioned,  being 
informed   of  what  hud  happened,  marched  with  the  fifth  legion,  which  he 


218  PIIARSALIA.  [u.  VL  292  302. 

and  poured  forth  his  ranks  upon  the  blockaded  foe. 
Not  thus  does  he  who  dwells  in  the  valleys  of  .fctim1 
dread  Enceladus-,  the  south  wind  blowing,  when  yKtna 
utterly  empties  its  caverns,  and,  flowing  with  jlrr,  streams 
down  upon  the  plains  ;  as  do  the  soldiers  of  Caesar,  con- 
quered by  the  thickening  dust :t  already  before  the  battle,  and 
alarmed  beneath  a*  cloud  of  blinded  fear,  meet  the  enemy 
as  they  fly,  and  by  their  alarm  rush  on  to  destruction  itself. 
Then  might  all  the  blood  have  been  shed 4  for  the  civil  war- 
fare, even  to  the  procuring  of  peace ;  the  chieftain  himself 
restrained  the  raging  swords. 

Happy  and    free,  Rome,  under  thy  laws,  mightst  thou 

called  away  from  their  work,  to  support  his  troops ;  and  at  the  same  time 
his  cavalry  was  advancing  towards  ours,  and  an  army  in  order  of  battle  was 
seen  at  a  distance  by  our  men,  who  had  taken  possession  of  the  camp,  and 
the  face  of  affairs  was  suddenly  changed.  For  Pompey's  legion,  encouraged 
by  the  hope  of  speedy  support,  attempted  to  make  a  stand  at  the  Decu- 
man gate,  and  made  a  bold  charge  on  our  men.  Caesar's  cavalry,  who  had 
mounted  the  rampart  by  a  narrow  breach,  being  apprehensive  of  their  retreat, 
was  the  first  to  flee.  The  right  wing,  which  had  been  separated  from  the 
left,  observing  the  terror  of  the  cavalry,  to  prevent  their  being  overpowered 
in  the  lines,  were  endeavouring  to  retreat  by  the  same  way  as  they  burst  in  ; 
and  most  of  them,  lest  they  should  be  engaged  in  the  narrow  passes,  threw 
themselves  down  a  rampart  ten  feet  high  into  the  trenches ;  and  the  first 
being  trodden  to  death,  the  rest  procured  their  safety  and  escaped  over  their 
bodies.  The  soldiers  of  the  left  wing,  perceiving  from  the  rampart  that 
Pompey  was  advancing,  and  their  own  friends  flying,  being  afraid  that  they 
should  be  enclosed  between  the  two  ramparts,  as  they  had  an  enemy  both 
•within  and  without,  strove  to  secure  their  retreat  the  same  way  they  came.'' 

1  Dwells  in  the  valleys  of  jEtna)  ver.  293.  He  alludes  to  the  in- 
habitants of  the  town  of  Catana,  or  Catina,  which  was  situate  at  the  foot  of 
Mount  2Etna,  and  who  were  exposed  to  danger  from  its  eruptions. 

-  Enceladui)  ver.  294.  Enceladus  the  giant,  son  of  Tartarus  and  Terra, 
having  been  struck  by  the  thunderbolts  of  Jupiter,  was  said  to  have  been 
buried  under  Mount  vEtna,  the  eruptions  of  which  were  occasioned  by  hia 
turning  his  sides.  They  were  also  sometimes  attributed  to  the  winds  raging 
within  its  caverns. 

3  Conquered  by  the  thickening  dust)  ver.  296.     On  seeing  the  clouds  of 
dust  raised  by  the  troops  of  Pompey  on  their  approach. 

4  Then  might  all  the  blood  have  been  shed)  ver.  300.     Caesar,  in  the  Civil 
War,  thus  described  this  engagement  so  disastrous  to  his  forces,  B.  iii.  c.  69 : — 
"  All  wfis  disorder,  consternation,  and  flight ;  insomuch   that,  when  Caesar 
laid  hold  of  the  standards  of  those  who  were  running  away,  and  desired 
them  to  stop,  some  left  their  horses  behind,  and  continued  to  run  in  the 
same  manner ;  others,  through  fear,  even  threw  away  their  standards,  nor 
did  a  single  man  fnce  about." 


B.  VL  302-318.]  PHARSALIA.  219 

be,  and  thy  own  mistress,  if  on  that  occasion  a  Sulla 
had  conquered  for  thee1.  We  lament,  alas!  and  ever 
shall  lament,  that  the  greatest  of  thy  crimes  is  successful 
for  thee,  to  have  fought  with  a  duteous  son-in-law.  O  sad 
fate  !  Then  Libya  would  not  have  hewailed  the  slaughter 
of  Utica,  and  Spain  of  Munda,  nor  would  the  Nile,  polluted 
with  shameful  blood2,  have  borne  along  a  carcase  more  noble 
than  the  Pharian  king;  nor  would  the  naked  Juba:s  have 
pressed  the  Marmaric  sands,  and  Scipio  appeased  the 
ghosts4  of  the  Carthaginians  by  pouring  forth  his  blood; 
nor  would  life5  have  been  deprived  of  the  hallowed  Cato. 
This  might,  Eome,  have  been  the  last  day  of  woe  to  thee ; 
Pharsalia  might  have  been  wrested  from  the  midst  of  the 
Fates. 

The  spot  occupied  against  the  will  of  the  Divinities  Csesar 
forsakes,  and  with  his  mangled  troops  seeks  the  Emathian 
lands.  His  followers,  by  their  exhortations,  attempt  to 
dissuade  Magnus,  about  to  pursue6  the  arms  of  his 

1  A  Sulla  had  conquered  for  thee)  ver.  303.     He  attributes  the  forbear- 
ance of  Pompey  to  pursue  to  his  leniency  cind  humane  disposition,  and  says, 
that  if  he  had  been  as  fond  of  bloodshed  as  Sulla  was,  he  might,  on  that 
occasion,  by  following  up  the  victory,  have  put  an  end  to  the  war.     Caesar, 
however,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  70,  assigns  a  different  reason  for  the 
moderation  of  Pompey  : — "  In  this  calamity  the  following  favourable  circum- 
stance occurred  to  prevent  the  ruin  of  our  whole  army,  namely,  that  Pompey, 
suspecting  an  ambuscade  (because,  as  I  suppose,  his  success  had  far  exceeded 
his  hopes,  as  he  had  seen  his  men,  a  moment  before,  flying  from  the  camp), 
did  not  dare  for  some  time  to  approach  the  fortification,  and  that  his  horse 
were  retarded  from  pursuing,  because  the  passes  and  gates  were  in  possession 
of  Caesar's  soldiers.     Thus  a  trifling  circumstance  proved  of  equal  importance 
to  each  party;  for  the  rampart  drawn  from  the  camp  to  the  river  interrupted 
the  progress  and  certainty  of  Cxsar's  victory,  after  he  had  forced  Pompey's 
camp.     The  same  thing,  by  retarding  the  rapidity  of  the  enemy's  pursuit, 
preserved  our  army." 

2  The  Nile,  polluted  with  shameful  Uood)  ver.  307.     The  Nile  would  not 
then  have  borne  on  its  waves  the  corpse  of  Pompey,  more  noble  than  the 
body  of  the  Egyptian  king  himself. 

3  Nor  would  the  naked  Jula)  ver.  309.     See  the  Note  to  B.  iii.  1.  293. 

4  And  Scipio  appeased  the  ghosts)  ver.  311.     He  alludes  to  the  death  of 
Metellus  Scipio,  who  fell  at  the  same  time  as  Juba.     See  the  Note  to  B.  ii. 
1.  472. 

5  Nor  would  life)  ver.  311.     Burmann  thinks  that  "  vita  "  here  means 
"mankind;"  who,  according  to  the  Poet,  suffered  a  loss  in  the  death  of 
Cato. 

6  Magnus,  about  to  pursue)  ver.  316.    Caesar  tells  us  that  after  this  battle 
Pompey  was  saluted  "  Imperator,"  which  title  he  retained,  and  thenceforth 


220  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vr.  818-841. 

father-in-law,  wherever  he  may  fly ;  that  he  may  repair 
to  his  native  land  and  Ausonia  now  free  from  the  enemy. 

"  Never,"  said  he,  "  will  I,  after  the  example  of  Caesar, 
betake  myself  again  to  my  country,  and  never  shall  Rome 
behold  me,  except  returning,  my  forces  dismissed.  Hes- 
peria  I  was  able,  the  war  commencing,  to  hold,  if  I  hud 
been  willing  to  entrust  my  troops  in  the  temples  of  my 
country,  and  to  fight  in  the  midst  of  the  Forum.  S=> 
long  as  I  could  withdraw  the  war,  I  would  march  on  to  the 
extreme  regions  of  the  Scythian  frosts,  and  the  burning 
tracks.  Victorious,  shall  I,  Rome,  deprive  thee  of  repose, 
who,  that  battles  might  not  exhaust  thee,  took  to  flight? 
Oh  !  rather,  that  thou  mayst  suffer  nothing  in  this  warfare, 
may  Caesar  deem  thee  to  be  his  own." 

Thus  having  said,  he  turns  his  course  towards  the  rising 
of  Phoebus,  and,  passing  over  trackless  regions  of  the  earth. 
where  Candavia1  opens  her  vast  forest  ranges,  he  reaches 
Emathia,  which  the  Fates  destined  for  the  warfare. 

The  mountain  rock  of  Ossa-  bounds  Thessaly,  on  the 
side  on  which  Titan  in  the  hours  of  winter  brings  in  the 
day.  When  the  summer  with  its  higher  rising  brings 
Phoebus  to  the  zenith  of  the  sky,  Pelion  opposes  his 
shadow  to  the  rising  rays  3.  But  the  midday  fires  of  heaven 
and  the  solstitial  hea'd  of  the  raging  Lion  the  woody 
Othrys  averts.  Pindus  receives  the  opposing  Zephyrs  and 
lapyx4,  and,  evening  hastening  on,  cuts  short  the  light. 
The  dweller,  too,  on  Olympus,  not  dreading  Boreas,  is 

allowed  himself  to  be  addressed  by  it.  The  movements  of  Cresar  immedi- 
ately after  this  defeat  are  described  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  73-75. 

1  Where  Candavia)  ver.  331.  Candavia  was  a  mountain  range  commenc- 
ing in  Epirus,  which  separated  Illyricum  from  Macedonia. 

*  Mountain  rock  of  Ossa)  ver.  334.  He  means  that  Ossa  bounds  Thes- 
ftaly  on  the  north-east.  The  present  description  is  supposed  to  have  been 
borrowed  from  Herodotus. 

3  Opposes  his  shadow  to  tie  rising  rays)  ver.  335,  36.     There  is  consider- 
able doubt  among  the  Commentators  as  to  the  meaning  of  this  passage. 
Howe  has  the  following  Note : — "  According    to    Cellaritis,    Lucan    must 
be  out  in  his  geography,  as  well  as  astronomy;  for,  as  the  days  lengthen, 
the  sun  rises  to  the  northward  of  the  east ;  whereas  Cellarius  places  Pelion 
to  the  southward.     For  the  rest,  Othrys  lies  to  the  south,  Pindus  to  the 
west-south-west,  and  Olympus  to  the  north." 

4  And  lapyx)   ver.  339.     lapyx   was  the  wind   which  blew  from  the 
•west-north-west,  off  the  coast  of  Apulia,  in  the  south  of  Italy,  the  ancient 
name  of  which  was  lapygia. 


B.  vi.  342-352.]  PHARSALIA.  221 

unacquainted    throughout    all    his    nights    with    shining 
Arctos. 

Between  these  mountains,  which  slope  downwards  with 
a  valley  between,  formerly  the  fields  lay  concealed  amid 
marshes  extending  far  and  wide,  while  the  plains  retained 
the  rivers,  and  Tempe,  affording  a  passage 1  through,  gave 
no  outlet  to  the  sea ;  and  their  course  was  as  they  filled  a 
single  standing  water  to  increase  it.  After  that,  by  the  hand 
of  Hercules,  the  vast  Ossa  was  divided  from  Olympus,  and 
Nereus  was  sensible  of-  the , 'onward  rush  of  the  water  thus 
sudden ;  better  destined  to  remain  beneath :i  the  waves,  Ema- 
thian  Pharsalus,  the  kingdom  of  the  sea-descended  Achilles 4 
rose  forth,  and  Phylace''  that  touched  with  the  first  ship 
the  Ehoetean  shores",  and  Pteleus7,  and  Dorion  lamenting" 

1  Tempe,  affording  a  passage)  ver.  345.  -This  was  a  valley  in  the  north 
of  Thessaly,  'lying 'between  Mounts  Olympus  and  Ossa,  through  which  the 
Peneus  ran  into  the  sea.  It  was  famed  among  the  ancients  for  its  romantic 
beauty.  It  is  the  only  channel  through  which  the  waters  of  the  Thes- 
salian  plains  ran  to  the  sea;  and  the  Poet  here  alludes  to  the  common 
opinion  of  the  ancients,  that  these  waters  had  once  covered  the  country  with 
a  vast  lake,  till  an  outlet  was  formed  for  them  by  a  great  convulsion  of 
nature,  which  rent  asunder  the  rocks  of  Tempe. 

*  And  Nereus  teas  sensible  of)  ver.  349.  The  name  of  the  sea-god 
Nereus  is  here  used  to  signify  the  sea,  which,  the  Poet  says,  was  sensible  of 
the  vast  influx  of  waters. 

3  Better  destined  to  remain  beneath)  ver.  349.     More  fortunate  for  poste- 
rity if  the  plains  of  Pharsalia  had  remained  under  the  waves. 

4  Of  the  sea-descended  Achilles)  ver.  350.     Thessaly,  once  the  realm  of 
Achilles,  the  son  of  the  sea-goddess  Thetis. 

4  And  Phylace)  ver.  352.  Phylace  was  a  town  of  Phthiotis  in  Thessaly, 
east  of  the  Enipeus,  on  the  northern  side  of  Mount  Othrys.  Protesilaiis  was 
its  king,  and  was  the  first  Greek  who  landed  on  the  shores  of  Troy,  at  the 
commencement  of  the  Trojan  war,  notwithstanding  the  prediction  that  cer- 
tain death  awaited  him  that  should  do  so.  See  the  Epistle  of  Laodamia  to 
Prntesilaiis  in  the  Heroides  of  Ovid,  p.  124,  et  sey.,  in  the  Translation  in 
Bohn's  Classical  Library. 

8  The  Rhcetean  shores)  ver.  351.  Meaning  thereby  the  shores  of  Troy, 
near  which  was  the  Promontory  Rhosteum. 

7  And  Pteleus)  ver.  352.     Pteleos,  or  Pteleum,  was  an  ancient  seaport 
town  in  the  Phthiotian  district  in  Thessaly. 

8  And  Dorion  lamenting)  ver.  352.     Dorion,  or,  as  it  was  more  generally 
called,  Dotion  or  Dotium,  was  an  ancient  town  and  plain  of  Thessaly,  near 
Lake  Bcebe.     It  was  here  that,  according  to  tradition,  Thamyris  challenged 
the  Muses  to  a  contest  in  song,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was  deprived  of 
his  sight  and   his  musical  powers.     Pierides  was  a  surname  of  the  Muses, 
which  they  derived  either  from  Pieria,  near  Mount  Olympus,  where  they 
were  first  worshipped,  or  else  from  Pierus,  an  ancient  king  of  Thrace,  who 
first  established  their  worship. 


222  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vi.  352-363. 

the  wrath  of  the  Plenties;  Trachyn1,  and  Meliboea2,  hrave 
with  tlie  quiver  of  Hercules,  the  reward  of  the  direful 
torch ;);  and  once-powerful  Larissa4;  where  they  now 
plough  over  Argos  once  renowned '' ;  where  story  speaks  of 
ancient  Thebes  of  Echion0;  where  once  the  exiled  Agave 
bearing  the  head  and  neck  of  Pentheus  committed  them  to 
the  closing  fire,  complaining  that  this  alone  of  her  son  she 
had  recovered 7. 

The  marsh  then,  burst  asunder,  divided  into  numerous 
streams.  On  the  west  JEa.s  thence  flows 8  clear  into  the 
Ionian  sea,  but  with  a  small  stream  ;  nor  stronger  with  his 
waves  does  the  father  of  ravished  Isis9  flow,  and,  CEneus, 

1  Trachyn)  ver.  353.     See  B.  iii.  1. 178. 

2  Melilicea)  ver.  354.     This  was  a  town  on  the  coast  of  Magnesia  in 
Thessaly,  between  Mounts  Ossa  and  Felion.     Horace  mentions  it  as  belong- 
ing to  the  dominions  of  Philoctetes,  who  is  here  alluded  to,  to  whom  also 
Trachyn  belonged. 

3  The  reward  of  Hie  direful  torch)  ver.  354.     Philoctetes,  at  the  request 
of  Hercules,  lighted  the  funereal  pile  on  which  that  hero  was  burnt  on  Mount 
(Eta ;  in  return  for  which,  he  bestowed  on  Philoctetes  his  bow  and  arrows, 
without  the  presence  of  which  at  the  siege,  it  was  fated  that  Troy  could 
not  be  taken. 

4  Once-powerful  Larissa)  ver.  355.     There  were  several  Pelasgian  places 
of  this  name,  and  it  is  uncertain  which  of  the  two  in  Thessaly  is  here  referred 
to ;  one  was  an  important  town  of  Pelasgiotis  in  Thessaly,  situate  on  the 
Peneus,  in  an  extensive  plain ;  the  other,  famed  as  the  birthplace  of  Achilles, 
and  surnamed  Cremaste,  was  in  Phthiotis. 

*  Argos  once  renowned)  ver.  356.     This  was  a  town  of  Pelasgian  Thes- 
saly, which  had  long  been  in  ruins.     By  the  epithet  "  nobile  "  he  probably 
alludes  to  the  breed  of  high-spirited  horses  which  were  reared  there  for  the 
contests  at  the  Olympic  games. 

*  T/ieties  of  Echion)   ver.  357.     Echion  was  one  of  the  five  surviving 
Sparti  who  remained  of  those  who  had  sprung  up  from  the  dragon's  teeth 
which  Cadmus  had  sown.     He  was  the  husband  of  Agave,  and  the  father  of 
Pentheus.     Thebes,  in  the  district  of  Phthiotis,  was  an  important  city  of 
Thessaly;  the  Poet  probably  calls  it  "  Echionia,"  for  the  reason  stated  by 
him  that  Agave,  after  she  had  murdered  her  son,  fled  thither  in  exile.      See 
B.  i.  1.  574,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

7  She  had  recovered)  ver.  359.    He  seems  to  mean,  that  on  recovering  her 
senses,  Agave  complained  that  so  small  a  portion  of  the  limbs  had  been 
left  for    her  to  place  on  the  funeral  pile,  the  rest  having  been  torn   to 
pieces  by  the  frantic  Bacchanals,  who  had  aided  her  in  the  murder. 

8  JSas  thence  JUnrs)  ver.  361.     This  river  is  called  by  Pliny  the  Elder, 
Aous.     It  was  a  small  limpid  stream,  running  through  Epirus  and  Thessaly, 
and  discharging  itself  into  the  Ionian  Sea. 

'  The  father  of  ravished  Isis)  ver.  362.  There  were  two  rivers  of  the 
name  of  Inachus ;  the  one  here  alluded  to,  now  called  the  Banitza,  was  a 
river  of  Acarnan.'a,  which  rises  in  Mount  Lacmon,  in  the  range  of  Findus, 


u.  vi.  363-370-1  PHARSALIA.  223 

he,  almost  thy  son-in-law1  covers  the  Eckinades2  with  mud 
from  his  turbid  waves3;  and  Evenus4,  stained  with  the  blood 
of  Nessus 5,  cuts  through  Calydon,  the  city  of  Meleager. 
Spercheus,  with  hastening  course*1,  cleaves  the  Malian 
waters ;  and  with  pure  stream  Aniphrysus  waters  the 
pastures 7  where  Phoebus  served  as  shepherd ;  Anauros, 

and  falls  into  the  Acheloiis.  He  was  fabled  to  be  the  father  of  lo,  who  was 
carried  away  by  Jupiter,  and  transformed  by  him  into  the  shape  of  a  cow, 
by  some  considered  to  be  the  same  as  the  Egyptian  Goddess  Isis.  Ovid, 
however,  seems  to  imply  that  the  Inachus  of  Argolis  was  the  sire  of  lo. 
See  the  story  related  at  length  in  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  i.,  and 
the  explanation  in  the  Translation  in  Bohn's  Classical  Library,  p.  36. 

1  Almost  thy  son-in-laiv)  ver.  363.     The  river  Acheloiis  had  been  pro- 
mised the  hiind  of  Deianira,  the  daughter  of  CEneus,  king  of  Calydon,  in 
.ZEtolia;  but  being  conquered  in  single  combat  by  Hercules,  he  was  forced  to 
resign  her  to  the  hero.     The  story  of  this  contest  is  related  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Ninth  Book  of  the  Metamorphoses. 

2  Covers  the  Eckinades)  ver.  364.     The  Echinades  were  said  to  have  been 
five  Naiad  nymphs,  whom,  in  a  fit  of  jealousy,  the  river  Acheloiis  hurled  into 
the  sea,  on  which  they  were  transformed  into  islands.    See  their  story  related 
in  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  viii.  1.  570,  et  seq.     They  are  now  called 
Curzolari,  and  the  largest,  which  was  called  Dulichium,  is  now  united  to  the 
mainland. 

3  With  mud  from  his  turbid  waves)  ver.  364.     The  Acheloiis,  more  an- 
ciently called  Thoas,  Axenus,  and  Thestius,  is  the  largest  river  in  Greece. 
It  rises  in  Mount  Pindus  and  falls  into  the  Ionian  Sea,  opposite  the  Echi- 
nades, which,  as  the  Poet  here  hints,  were  amplified  by  the  earth  discharged 
by  its  waters. 

4  And  Evenus)  ver.  366.     This  river,  now  called  Fidhari,  was  more  an- 
ciently called  the  Lycormas.     It  risea  in  Mount  (Eta,  and  flows  with  a  rapid 
stream  through  .ZEtolia  into  the  sea. 

*  Stained  with  the  Mood  of  Nessus)  ver.  365.     The  river  Evenus,  on  the 
banks  of  which  the  Centaur  Nessus  was  slain  by  the  arrow  of  Hercules, 
passes  by  Calydon,  a  city  of  .ZEtolia,  which  was  formerly  reigned  over  by 
Meleager,  the  lover  of  Atalanta,  and  who  was  slain  through  the  jealousy  of 
his  own  mother,  Althea.     See  the  story  of  the  death  of  Nessus  related  at 
length  in  Ovid's  Metamorphoses,  B.  viii.  1.  261,  et  seq. 

6  Spercheus,  with  hastening  course)  ver.  367.  The  Spercheus,  now  called 
the  Elladha,  rises  in  Mount  Tymphrestus,  in  the  north  of  Thessaly,  and 
runs  easterly,  through  the  Malian  districts,  falling  into  the  Sinus  Muliacus, 
or  Malian  Gulf,  now  called  the  Bay  of  Zeitun,  off  the  coast  of  the  south  of 
Thessaly,  north-west  of  the  Isle  of  Euboea,  and  north  of  the  present  Straits 
of  Negropont. 

*  Amphrysus  waters  the  pastures)  ver.  368.     Amphrysus  was  a  small 
river  of  Thessaly,  which  flows  into  the  Pagasaean  Gulf;  on  the  banks  of 
•wbiqh  Apollo,  in  the  guise  of  a  shepherd,  kept  the  flocks  of  King  Admetus, 
when  he  had  been  banished  from  heaven  by  Jupiter,  for  slaving  the  Cyclops 


224  PIIAKSALIA.  [B.  vi.  370  -378. 

too l,  who  neither  breathes  forth  damp  fogs,  nor  air  mois- 
tened with  dew,  nor  light  breezes  ;  and  whatever  stream  of 
itself  not  known  presents  its  waves  in  the  Peneus-  to  the 
ocean ;  with  violent  flood  flows  the  Apidanus  3 ;  and  the 
Enipeus 4  never  swift  unless  mingled. 

Asopus  takes  his  course :',  and  Phoenix,  and  Melas c. 
Alone  does  Titaresos 7,  where  he  comes  into  a  stream  of  an- 
other name,  keep  distinct  his  waters,  and,  gliding  from  above, 
uses  the  stream  of  Peneus  as  though  dry  fields.  The  re- 

who  liail  made  the  bolts  with  which  his  son  JKsculupius  was  slain  by  Jupiter 
for  daring  to  raise  Hippolytus  to  life  by  his  medical  skill. 

1  Anauros,  too)  ver.  370.  The  Anauros  was  a  river  of  Thessaly  which 
flows  into  the  Pagasaean  Gulf.  The  story  that  it  sent  forth  no  mists  or 
exhalations  probably  originated  from  the  resemblance  of  its  name  to  the 
Greek  words  anv,  "  without,"  and  aSgtt,  "  an  exhalation." 

8  In  the  Peneus)  ver.  372.  The  Peneus  here  mentioned  wns  the  chief 
river  of  Thessaly,  and  is  now  called  the  Salambria.  It  rises  in  Mount 
Lacmon,  a  branch  of  the  Pindus  chain,  and  after  receiving  many  streams, 
the  chief  of  which  are  the  Enipeus,  the  Letha^us,  and  the  Titaresius,  flows 
through  the  vale  of  Tempe  into  the  sea. 

3  Flows  the  Apidanus)  ver.  373.     This  was  a  river  of  Thessaly,  joining 
the  Enipeus  near  Fharsalus.     Ovid,  in  the  Metamorphoses,  13.  i.  1.  580,  calli 
it   "  senex  Apidanus,"  "the  aged;"  which   some   take    to   mean    "slow," 
whereas  here  the  force  of  its  current  is  spoken  of.     Ovid  likewise  speaks  of 
the    "  irrequietus,"  "restless"  Enipeus,  which    Lucan,    on    the    contrary, 
pronounces  to  be  sluggish  until  its  confluence  with  the  Apidanus. 

4  And  the  Enipeus)  ver.  373.     The  Enipeus  rises  in  Mount  Othrys  in 
Thessaly,  receives  the  Apidanus  near  Pharsalus,  and  flows  into  the  Peneus. 
There  were  rivers  in  Elis  and  Macedonia  of  the  same  name. 

4  Asopus  takes  his  course)  ver.  374.  There  were  several  rivers  of  this 
name.  The  one  here  alluded  to  rises  in  Mount  (Eta,  in  Phthiotis,  and 
flows  into  the  Sinus  Maliacns,  after  its  conjunction  with  the  Phoenix,  a 
small  stream  of  the  south  of  Thessaly,  which  joins  it  near  Thermopylae. 

8  And  Melas)  ver.  374.  Melas  was  the  name  of  several  rivers  whose 
waters  were  of  a  dark  colour.  There  were  two  of  this  name  in  Thessaly, 
one  of  which  rising  in  the  Malian  district,  and,  flowing  past  Trachyn,  fell 
into  the  Sinus  Maliacus,  while  the  other,  rising  in  Phthiotis,  fell  into  the 
Apidanus. 

7  Alone  does  Titaresos)  ver.  376.  The  Titaresos,  or  Titaresius,  was  a 
river  of  Thessaly,  called  also  Europus,  rising  on  Mount  Titarus  and  falling 
into  the  Peneus.  Lucan  here  alludes  to  the  words  of  Homer  in  the  Iliad, 
B.  ii?  1.  752,  who  states  that  the  Titaresius  "  does  not  mingle  with  the 
Peneus,  but  flows  on  the  surface  of  it,  just  like  oil,  for  it  flows  from  the 
waters  from  Styx  in  Orcus."  Its  waters  are  supposed  by  physiologists  to 
have  been  impregnated  with  an  oily  substance,  whence  it  was  said  to  be  a 
branch  of  the  Styx,  and  that  it  disdained  to  mingle  with  the  rivers  of 
mortals. 


B.  vi.  378-387.]  PHARSALIA.  225 

port  is  that  this  river  flows  from  the  Stygian  marshes, 
and  that,  mindful  of  his  rise,  he  is  unwilling  to  endure 
the  contact  of  an  ignoble  stream,  and  preserves  the  vene- 
ration of  the  Gods  for  himself l. 

As  soon  as  the  fields  were  open  to  the  rivers  sent  forth, 
the  rich  furrow  divided  beneath  the  Bcebycian  ploughshare2; 
then,  pressed  by  the  right  hand  of  the  Lelegians,3  the  plough 
sank  deep.  The  JEolian 4  and  Dolopian  husbandmen 5 
cleared  the  ground,  both  the  Magnetes6,  a  nation  known 
by  then-  horses,  and  the  Minyse7,  by  then-  oars.  There 
did  the  pregnant  cloud  pour  forth  in  the  Pelethronian 
Caverns 8,  the  Centaurs  sprung  from  Ixion 9,  half  beasts ; 

1  The  veneration  of  the  Gods  for  himself)  ver.  380.     As  the  Gods  fear  to 
swear  by  the  river  Styx  and  break  their  oath,  this  river,  as  a  branch  of  it, 
wishes  still  to  insure  the  same  respect  for  the  Deities. 

2  Beneath  the  Boebycian  plougfohare)  ver.  382.     He  means  that  the  land 
which  was  cultivated  by  the  people  of  the  town  of  Brebe  was  then,  for  the 
first  time,  left  dry.     Boebe  was  a  town  of  Pelasgiotis,  in  Thessaly,  on  the 
western  shore  of  Lake  Bffibeis. 

3  Of  the  Lelegians)  ver.  383.     The  Leleges  were  an  ancient  people,  sup- 
posed to  have  inhabited  Greece  before  the  Hellenes.     They  were  a  warlike 
and  a  migratory  race,  but  their  origin  is  enveloped  in  the  greatest  obscurity. 
Pliny  mentions  them  as  inhabitants  of  the  country  of  the  Locrians,  adjacent 
to  Thessaly;  Strabo  says  that  they  were  the  same  people  that  Pindar  calls 
Centaurs. 

4  The  ^Eolian)  ver.  384.     The  .ZEolians  were  an  ancient  people  of  Thes^ 
saly,  said  to  have  been  descended  from  .ZEolus,  the  son  of  Hellen.     It  war, 
however,  a  name  long  given  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  Greece  beyond  the 
Peloponnesus,  except  the  people  of  Athens  and  Megara. 

*  And  Dolopian  husbandmen)  ver.  384.     The  Dolopians  were  a  people 
of  Thessaly,  who  dwelt  on  the  banks  of  the  Enipeus,  but,  in  later  times,  at 
the  foot  of  Mount  Pindus. 

6  Both  the  Magnetes)  ver.  385.  These  were  the  inhabitants  of  the  country 
of  Magnesia,  the  most  easterly  part  of  Thessaly,  extending  from  the  Peneus 
on  the  north  to  the  Pagasaean  Gulf  on  the  south,  and  including  Mounts  Ossa 
and  Pelion ;  like  their  neighbours,  the  Centaurs,  the  Magnetes  were  famed 
for  their  skill  in  horsemanship. 

7  The  Minyce)  ver.  385.     The  Minyse  were  an  ancient  people,  who  dwelt 
in  Thessaly,  in  the  vicinity  of  lolcos.     The  greater  part  of  the  Argonauts, 
who  probably  were  among  the  earliest  to  give  attention  to  naval  affairs,  were 
of  the  Minyan  race. 

*  In  the  Pelethronian  caverns)  ver.   387.     Pelethronium  was  a  moun- 
tainous district  of  Thessaly,  part  of  Mount  Pelion,  where  the  Lapithae  dwelt, 
and  from  whose  king,  Pelethronium,  it  was  said  to  have  derived  its  name. 

8  X/>runy  from  Ixion)  ver.  386.     Ixion  was  king  of  the  Lapithae,  or 
Phlegyans,  and  the  story  was,  that  being  introduced  to  the  table  of  Jupiter, 

Q 


226  PHARSALIA.  [B.  VL  388-396. 

thee,  Monychus1,  breaking  the  rugged  rocks  of  Pholoe2,  and 
thee,  fierce  Rhoetus3,  hurling  beneath  the  heights  of  (Eta 
the  mountain  ashes,  which  hardly  Boreas  could  tear  up ; 
Pholus,  too,  the  host4  of  great  Alcides ;  and  thee,  treacle  T,  >ti-; 
ferryman  5  over  the  river,  destined  to  feel  the  arrows  tipped 
with  Lernsean  venom,  and  thee,  aged  Chiron",  who, 
shining  with  thy  cold  Constellation,  dost  drive  away  the 
greater  Scorpion 7  with  the  Hsemonian  bow. 

In  this  londjirst  shone  the  seeds  of  fierce  warfare.   From 

he  fell  in  love  with  Juno,  and  offered  violence  to  her,  on  which  Jupiter  tub- 
stituted  a  cloud  in  her  form,  by  which  Ixion  became  the  father  of  Ceutaurus, 
from  whom  descended  the  Centaurs,  a  people  of  Thessaly. 

'  Monychus)  ver.  388.  He  was  one  of  the  Centaurs,  and  is  mentioned 
by  Ovid  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  xii.  1.  499,  as  taking  part  in  the  battle 
against  the  Lapithne,  where  he  is  represented  as  exclaiming, — "  'Heap  upon 
Caeneus  stones  and  beams  and  entire  mountains,  and  dash  out  his  long-lived 
breath  by  throwing  whole  woods  upon  him.  Let  a  wood  press  on  his  jaws  ; 
and  weight  shall  be  in  place  of  wounds.'  Thus  he  said ;  and  by  chance 
having  got  a  tree  thrown  down  by  the  power  of  the  boisterous  south  wind, 
he  hurled  it  against  the  powerful  foe;  and  he  was  an  example  to  the  rest; 
and  in  a  short  time,  Othrys,  thou  wast  bare  of  trees,  and  Pelion  had  no 
shades."  Monychus  is  also  mentioned  by  Juvenal  and  Valerius  Flnccus. 

2  The  rugyed  rocks  of  Pholoe)  ver.  3£8.     Pholoe,  now  called  Olono,  was 
a  mountain  forming  the  boundary  between  Arcadia  and  Elis,  being  a  south- 
ern continuation  of  the  Erymanthian  chain. 

3  Thee,  fierce  Rhoetus)  ver.  390.     Rhrctus  was  one  of  the  Centaurs  men- 
tioned by  Ovid  as  present  at  the  battle  with  the  Lapithae,  in  the  Metamor- 
phoses, B.  xii.  1.  296,  where  being  wounded  he  takes  to  flight.     He  is  also 
mentioned  by  Virgil. 

4  Phohis,  too,  the  host)  ver.  391.    Pholus  was  a  Centaur  who  hospitably  en- 
tertained Hercules  in  his  travels.    Having  taken  up  one  of  the  arrows  tipped 
with  the  poison  of  the  Hydra  in  order  to  examine  it,  it  fell  upon  his  foot, 
and  he  died  of  the  wound,  on  which  Hercules  buried  him  on  Mount  Pholoe, 
which  from  that  circumstance  received  its  name.     He  is  mentioned  by  Ovid 
as  being  present  at  the  battle  with  the  Lapithre,  in  the  Metamorphoses, 
B.  xii.  1.  306. 

4  Thee,  treacherous  ferryman)  ver.  392.  He  alludes  to  the  fate  of  the  Cen- 
taur Nessus,  who  on  carrying  Deianira  across  the  river  Evenus  attempted  to 
offer  violence  to  her,  on  which  he  was  slain  by  Hercules  with  an  arrow 
tipped  with  the  venom  of  the  Lernasan  Hydra. 

8  And  thee,  aged  Chiron)  ver.  393.  The  Centaur  Chiron  was  famed  for  his 
skill  in  physic  and  music,  and  was  the  tutor  of  Achilles.  After  his  death 
he  was  transferred  to  heaven,  and  made  one  of  the  Zodiacal  Constellations, 
under  the  name  of  Sagittarius,  "  the  archer,"  which  follows  the  sign  of  the 
Scorpion. 

7  The  greater  Scorpion)  ver.  394.  The  Constellation  Scorpio  occupies 
more  space  than  any  other  one  of  the  Zodiacal  Constellations. 


B.  vi.  396-414.]  PIIARSALIA.  227 

the  rocks,  struck  with  the  trident,  first  did  the  Thessalian 
charger ',  an  omen  of  direful  wars,  spring  forth ;  first 
did  he  champ  the  steel  and  the  bit",  and  foam  at  the  un- 
wonted reins  of  the  Lapithan  subduer  from  the  Pagasscan 
shore3.  The  first  ship  cleaving  the  ocean,  exposed  earth- 
horn  man  upon  the  unknown  waves.  Itonus,  the  ruler 4  of 
the  Thessalian  land,  was  the  first  to  hammer  masses  of 
heated  metal  into  form,  and  to  melt  silver  with  the  flames 
and  stamp  gold  into  coin,  and  liquefy  copper  in  immense 
furnaces.  There  was  it  fa-st  granted  to  number  riches,  a 
(hum  which  has  urged  on  nations  to  accursed  arms. 

Hence  did  Python  *,  that  most  huge  serpent,  descend, 
and  glide  along  the  fields  of  Cyrrha;  whence,  too,  the 
Thessalian  laurels  come  to  the  Pythian  games  6.  Hence  the 
impious  Aloeus 7  sent  forth  his  progeny  against  the  Gods  of 
heaven,  when  Pelion  raised  itself  almost  to  the  lofty  stars, 
and  Ossa,  meeting  the  constellations,  impeded  their  course. 

When  upon  this  land   the  chieftains  have   pitched  the 

1  First  did  the  Thessalian  charger)  ver.  397.     He  alludes  to  the  horse, 
which,  in  his  contest  with  Minerva  who  should  give  name  to  the  capital 
of  Attica,  Neptune  caused  at  a  blow  of  his  trident  to  spring  from  out  of  the 
earth.     According  to  most  accounts  he  created  the  horse  in  Attica;  but 
Lucan  here  says  (in  which  statement  he  is  supported  by  Homer  and  Apollo- 
dorus)  that  it  took  place  in  Thessaly;  where  also  he  made  a  present  of  the 
famous  horse  to  Peleus. 

2  First  did  he  cJiamp  the  steel  and  the  bit)   ver.  398.     Pelethronius,  king 
of  the  Lapithae,  was  said  to  have  been  the  inventor  of  the  bridle  and  the 
bit. 

3  From  the  Pagascean  shore)  ver.  400.     He  alludes  to  the  sailing  of  the 
Argonautic  expedition  from  Pagasse  in  Thessaly,  where  the  Argo  was  built. 

4  Itonus,  the  ruler)  ver.  408.     Itonus  was   an  ancient  king  of  Thessaly, 
said  to  have  been  a  son  of  Deucalion,  or,  according  to  some,  of  Apollo. 

5  Hence  did  Python)  ver.  408.     The  serpent  Python  was  said  to  have 
been  generated  in  Thessaly  from  the  slime  and  putrescence  left  after  the 
deluge  of  Deucalion  had  subsided.     It  was  slain  by  the  shafts  of  Apollo, 
who  covered  the  sacred  tripod  at  Delphi  with  its  skin,  and  instituted  the 
Pythian  games  as  a  memorial  of  his  victory. 

'  Come  to  the  Pythian  games)  ver.  409.  At  the  celebration  of  the  Py- 
thian games  at  Delphi,  the  Temple  of  Apollo  was  adorned  with  laurel 
brought  for  the  purpose  from  Thessaly. 

7  The  impious  Aloeus)  ver.  410.  Aloeus  was  the  son  of  Neptune  and 
Canace.  He  married  Iphimedia,  the  daughter  of  Triops,  who  was  beloved 
by  Neptune,  and  had  by  him  the  twin  sons  Otus  and  Ephialtes,  giants  who, 
at  the  age  of  nine  years,  threatened  the  Gods  with  war,  and  attempted  to 
pile  Ossa  on  Olympus  and  Pelion  on  Ossa. 

Q  2 


228  PHAESALIA.  [B.  vi.  414-429. 

camps  destined  by  the  Fates,  their  minds,  presaging  the 
future  warfare,  engage  all,  and  it  is  clear  that  the  momentous 
hour  of  the  great  crisis  is  drawing  nigh.  Because  their  fates 
are  now  close  approaching,  degenerate  minds  tremble,  and 
ponder  on  the  worst.  A  few,  courage  preferred,  feel  both 
hopes  and  fears  as  to  the  event.  But  mingled  with  the 
timid  multitude  is  Sextus1,  an  offspring  unworthy  of 
Magnus  for  a  parent,  who  afterwards,  roving,  an  exile,  on 
the  Scyllsean  waves,  a  Sicilian  pirate,  polluted  his  triumphs 
on  the  deep,  who,  fear  spurring  him  on  to  know  before- 
hand the  events  of  fate,  both  impatient  of  delay  and  faint- 
hearted about  all  things  to  come,  consults  not  the  tripods  of 
Delos,  not  the  Pythian  caves,  nor  does  he  choose  to  enquire 
what  sounds  Dodona,  the  nourisher  on  the  first  fruits2, 
sends  forth  from  the  brass  of  Jove :t,  who  from  the  entrails 
can  reveal  the  fates 4,  who  can  explain  the  birds,  who  can  ob- 

1  Is  Sexlus)  ver.  420.  Sextus  was  the  younger  son  of  Pompey,  by  his 
wife  Mucia.  During  the  greater  part,  if  not  the  whole,  of  his  father's  cam- 
paign in  Greece,  he  was  in  the  island  of  Lesbos,  so  that  most  probably  there 
is  not  any  foundation  for  the  story  here  told  by  Lucan.  After  the  defeat  of 
his  brother  Cneius  at  the  battle  of  Munda,  he  for  some  time  supported  himself 
by  rapine  and  plunder  in  Spain,  and  many  years  afterwards,  having  gained 
possession  of  Sicily,  Sardinia,  and  Corsica,  his  fleets  plundered  all  the  sup- 
plies of  corn  which  came  from  Egypt  and  the  eastern  provinces,  so  that 
famine  seemed  for  a  time  inevitable  at  Rome.  He  was  taken  prisoner  by 
the  troops  of  Antony  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Miletus,  and  was  there  put  to 
death. 

3  The  nourislier  on  tlie  first  fruits)  ver.  426.  "  Frugibus."  The  fruits  of 
the  woods  of  Dodona  were  acorns  (or  as  May,  in  his  Translation,  quaintly 
calls  them,  "akehornes"),  upon  which  the  primitive  races  of  mankind  were 
said  to  have  fed. 

1  3  Sends  forth  from  Hie  Irassof  Jove)  ver.  427.  It  was  said  by  some  that 
in  the  oracles  of  Jupiter  at  Dodona  the  will  of  heaven  was  divulged  by  the 
ringing  of  certain  cauldrons  there  suspended.  Stephanus  Byzantinus  informs 
us  that  in  that  part  of  the  forest  of  Dodona  where  the  oracle  stood,  there 
were  two  pillars  erected  at  a  small  distance  from  each  other;  on  one  there 
was  placed  a  brazen  vessel  about  the  size  of  an  ordinary  cauldron,  and  on 
the  other  a  little  boy,  probably  a  piece  of  mechanism,  who  held  a  brazen 
whip  with  several  thongs,  which  hung  loose  and  were  easily  moved.  \Vhen 
the  wind  blew,  the  lashes  struck  against  the  vessel,  and  occasioned  a  noise 
while  the  wind  continued.  He  says  that  it  was  from  these  that  the  forest 
took  the  name  of  Dodona ;  "  dodo,"  in  the  ancient  language  of  the  vicinity, 
signifying  "  a  cauldron." 

*  From  the  entrails  can  reveal  the  fates)  ver.  427.  The  meaning  is,  that 
he  is  not  willing  in  a  righteous  manner  to  learn  the  decrees  of  fate  by  con- 
sulting the  entrails  of  animals,  auspices  derived  from  birds,  auguries  derived 


B.  vi.  429-442.]  PHARSALIA.  229 

serve  the  lightnings  of  heaven  and  search  the  stars  with 
Assyrian  care,  or  if  there  is  any  method,  secret,  but  lawful1. 

He  had  gained  a  knowledge  of  -  the  secrets  of  the  ruthless 
magicians  detested  by  the  Gods  above,  and  the  altars  sad 
with  dreadful  sacrifices,  and  the  aid  of  the  shades  below 
and  of  Pluto ;  and  to  him,  wretched  man,  it  seemed  clear 
that  the  Gods  of  heaven  knew  too  little :5. 

The  vain  and  direful  frenzy  the  very  locality  promotes, 
and,  adjoining  to  the  camp,  the  cities  of  the  Haemonian 
women,  whom  no  power  over  any  prodigy  that  has  been 
invented  can  surpass,  whose  art  is  each  thing  that  is  not 
believed.  Moreover,  the  Thessalian  land  produces  on  its 
crags  both  noxious  herbs,  and  rocks  that  are  sensible  to  the 
magicians  as  they  chaunt  their  deadly  secrets.  There  spring 
up  many  things  destined  to  offer  violence  to  the  Deities 4 ; 
and  the  Colchian  stranger  gathers  5  in  the  Heemonian  lands 
those  herbs  which  she  has  not  brought. 

from  thunder  and  lightning,  nor  yet  the  astrological  art  derived  from  the 
Chaldaeans  of  Assyria. 

1  Any  method,  secret,  lut  lawful)  ver.  430.    He  means  those  secret  arts  of 
divination  which  it  was  not  unrighteous  to  use,  such  as  geomancy  and  astro- 
logy; but  instead  of  resorting  to  these,  Sextus  employs  the  forbidden  prac- 
tices of  the  art  of  necromancy. 

2  He  had  gained  a,  knowledge  of)  ver.  432.     "  Noverat "  does  not  neces- 
sarily mean  that  Sextus  was  skilled   himself  in  the  necromantic  art,  but 
that   he  was  aware  of  its  existence  and  of  the  cultivation  of  it   by   the 
sorceresses  of  Thessaly.     Weise,  however,  thinks  that  it  implies  that  Sextus 
had  studied  the  art. 

3  That  the  Gods  of  heaven  liiew  too  little)  ver.  433-4.     He  believed  that, 
the  Gods  of  heaven  were  not  so  likely  to  be  acquainted  with  the  future  as 
the  Infernal  Deities  and  the  shades  of  the  dead. 

4  To  offer  violence  to  the  Deities)  ver.  441.     To  be  able  to  gain  power 
over  the  reluctant  Gods  was  one  of  the  pretensions  of  the  sorceresses  of 
antiquity.     Thus,  in  the  Heroides  of  Ovid,  in  the  Epistle  of  Hypsipyle  to 
Jason,  she  says,  speaking  of  the  enchantress  Medea,  1.  83,  et  seq. : — "  By  her 
incantations  has  she  influenced  thee;  and  with  her  enchanted  sickle  does 
she  reap  the  dreadful  plants.     She  endeavours  to  draw  down  the  struggling 
moon  from  her  chariot,  and  to  envelop  the  horses  of  the  sun  in  darkness. 
She  bridles  the  waves  and  stops  the  winding  rivers;  she  moves  the  woods 
and  the  firm  rocks  from  their  spot."    For  an  account  of  the  magic  rites  and 
spells  of  the  sorceresses  of  antiquity  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  Third  Vo- 
lume of  the  Translation  of  Ovid  in  Bohn's  Classical  Library,  pages  56-7, 
and  278-9. 

*  The  Colchian  stranger  galliers)  ver.  442.  He  alludes  to  the  magical  in- 
cantations of  the  Colchian  Medea  when  she  had  arrived  with  Jason  in  Thes- 
saly,  and  says  that  she  found  no  lack  of  plants  there  suited  to  aid  her  in  her 


230  -PHABSALIA.  [B.  VL  443-459. 

The  impious  charms  of  the  accursed  nation  turn  the  ears 
of  the  inhabitants  of  heaven  that  are  deaf  to  peoples  so 
numerous,  to  nations  so  many.  That  voice  alone  goes 
forth  amid  the  recesses  of  the  heavens,  and  bears  the  strin- 
gent words  to  the  unwilling  Deities,  from  which  the  care 
of  the  skies  and  of  the  floating  heavens  never  calls  them 
away.  When  the  accursed  murmur  has  reached  the  stars, 
then,  although  Babylon  of  Perseus  and  mysterious  Mem- 
phis1 should  open  all  the  shrines  of  the  ancient  Magi, 
the  Thessalian  witch  to  foreign  altars  draws  away  the  Gods 
of  heaven. 

Through  the  charms  of  the  Thessalian  witches  a  love  not 
induced  by  the  Fates  has  entered  into  hardened  hearts;  and 
stem  old  men  have  burned  with  illicit  flames.  And  not 
only  do  noxious  potions  avail;  or  when  they  withdraw  the 
pledges  swelling  with  its  juices  from  the  forehead  of  the 
mother  about  to  show  her  affection2.  The  mind,  polluted 
by  no  corruption  of  imbibed  poison,  perishes  by  force  of 
spells  3.  Those  whom  no  unison  of  the  bed  jointly  occu- 

enchantments.  It  was  there  that  by  her  magical  arts  she  restored  the  aped 
^son  to  youth,  and  likewise  contrived  the  death  of  his  brother  Pelias.  See 
the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  vii.  1.  223,  et  teq.,  where  her  culling  of  the 
Thessalian  herbs  is  thus  described: — "She  looked  down  upon  Thessalian 
Tempe  below  her,  and  guided  her  dragons  towards  the  chalky  regions ;  and 
observed  the  herbs  which  Ossa  and  which  the  lofty  Pelion  bore,  Othrys  too, 
and  Pindus,  and  Olympus  still  greater  than  Pindus ;  and  part  she  tore  up  by 
the  root  gently  worked,  part  she  cut  down  with  the  bend  of  a  brazen  sickle. 
Many  a  herb,  too,  that  grew  on  the  banks  of  Apidanus  pleased  her ;  many,  too, 
on  the  banks  of  Amphrysus  ;  nor,  Enipeus,  didst  thou  escape.  The  Peneiau 
waters,  and  the  SpercheLin  as  well,  contributed  something,  and  the  rushy 
shores  of  Boebe.  She  plucks,  too,  enlivening  herbs  by  the  Euboean  Anthedon." 

1  And  mysUriout  Memphis)  ver.  449.  Memphis  is  here  used  to  signify 
Egypt  in  general,  which  at  all  times,  from  the  time  of  the  magicians  who 
endeavoured  by  their  enchantments  to  compete  with  the  miracles  of  Moses 
down  to  the  present  day,  has  especially  cultivated  the  magic  art. 

1  The  moilier  about  to  show  her  affection)  ver.  456.  He  alludes  to  the  use 
in  philtres,  or  love  potions,  of  the  substance  called  "  hippomanes,"  which  waa 
by  some  said  to  flow  from  mares  when  in  a  prurient  state,  but  more  generally, 
as  Pliny  the  Elder  tells  us,  was  thought  to  be  a  poisonous  excrescence  of  the 
size  of  a  fig,  and  of  a  black  colour,  which  grows  on  the  head  of  the  mare,  and 
which  the  foal  at  its  birth  is  in  the  habit  of  biting  off,  which  if  it  neglects  to 
do,  it  is  not  allowed  by  its  mother  to  suck.  Hesiod,  however,  says,  that 
hippomanes  was  a  herb  that  produced  madness  in  the  horses  that  ate  of  it. 

*  Perithet  ly  force  of  tpellt)  ver.  457.  They  are  able  by  muttering 
charms  alone  to  deprive  men  of  their  senses. 


a  vi.  459-480.]  PHARSALIA.  231 

pied  binds  together,  and  influence  of  alluring  beauty,  they 
attract  by  the  magic  whirling  of  the  twisted  threads 1. 
The  courses  of  things  are  stayed,  and,  retarded  by  length- 
ened night,  the  day  stops  short.  The  sky  obeys  not  the 
laws  of  iiature;  and  on  hearing  the  spells  the  headlong 
world  is  benumbed ;  Jupiter,  too,  urging  them  on,  is 
astounded  that  the  poles  of  heaven  do  not  go  on,  impelled 
by  the  rapid  axles. 

At  another  tune,  they  fill  all  £>Zrtc<?s  with  showers,  and, 
while  the  sun  is  hot,  bring  down  the  clouds ;  the  heavens 
thunder,  too,  Jupiter  not  knowing  it.  By  those  same  words, 
with  hair  hanging  loose,  have  they  scattered  abroad  far  and 
wide  soaking  clouds  and  showers.  The  winds  ceasing,  the 
sea  has  swelled ;  again,  forbidden  to  be  sensible  of  the 
storms,  the  south  wind  provoking  it,  it  has  held  its  peace ; 
and  bearing  along  the  ship  the  sails  have  swelled  against 
the  wind.  From  the  steep  rock  has  the  torrent  hung  sus- 
pended ;  and  the  river  has  run  not  in  the  direction  in  which 
it  was  descending.  The  summer  has  not  raised  the  Nile ;  in 
a  straight  line  the  Moeander  has  urged  on  his  waters ;  and 
the  Arar  has  impelled  headlong2  the  delaying  Rhone ;  their 
tops  lowered,  mountains  have  levelled  their  ridges. 

Olympus  has  looked  upwards 3  to  the  clouds,  and  with  no 
sun  the  Scythian  snows  have  thawed,  while  the  winter  was 
freezing.  Impelled  by  the  stars,  the  shores  protected,  the 
charms  of  the  Haemonian  witches  have  driven  Tetliys 

1  By  the  magic  whirling  of  the  hoisted  threads)  ver.  460.     He  alludes  to 
the  use  of  the  "  rhombus,"  or  spinning-wheel,  in  magical  incantations,  the 
object  of  which  was  to  regain  the  affections  when  lost.   '  The  spinning-wheel 
•was  much  used  in  magical  incantations,  not  only  among  the  people  of  Thessaly 
and   Italy,  but  those  of  northern  and  western   Europe.     The  practice  was 
probably  founded  on  the  supposition  of  the  existence  of  the  so-called  threads 
of  destiny,  and  it  was  the  province  of  the  wizard  or  sorceress,  by  his  or  her 
charms,  to  lengthen  or  shorten  those  threads  as  required.     Some  think  that 
the  use  of  the  threads  implied  that  the  minds  of  individuals  were  to  be  in- 
fluenced at  the  will  of  the  enchanter  or  the  person  consulting  him.     See 
the  use  of  the  spinning  wheel  in  magical  incantations  described  in  the  Fasti 
of  Ovid,  B.  ii.  1.  572,  et  seq.,  and  the  Eighth  Eclogue  of  Virgil. 

2  The  Arar  has  impelled  headlong)  ver.  476.    See  the  First  Book,  1.  434. 
The  Arar  was  noted  for  its  slowness,  the  Rhone  for  its  rapidity. 

*  Olympus  has  looked  upwards)  ver.  477.  Olympus,  which  towers  above 
the  clouds,  by  magical  arts  is  brought  beneath  them. 


232  PHAESAL1A.  [u.  vi.  480-505. 

back '.  The  earth,  too,  has  shaken  the  axle  of  her  ion- 
moved  weight,  and,  inclining  with  the  effort,  has  oscillated 
in  her  nud  regions-.  The  weight  of  a  mass  so  vast  smitten 
by  their  voice,  has  gaped  open,  and  has  afforded  a  pros- 
pect through  it  of  the  surrounding  heavens.  Every  animal 
powerful  for  death,  and  produced  to  do  injury,  both  fears  tin: 
Hannonian  arts  and  supplies  them  with  its  deadly  qua- 
lities. Them  do  the  ravening  tigers  and  the  magnani- 
mous wrath  of  the  lions  fawn  upon  with  gentle  mouth ;  for 
them  does  the  serpent  unfold  his  cold  coils,  and  is  ex- 
tended in  the  frosty  field.  The  knots  of  the  vipers  unite, 
their  bodies  cut  asunder;  and  the  snake  dies,  breathed 
upon  by  human  poison. 

What  failing  is  this  of  the  Gods  of  heaven  in  following 
after  enchantments  and  herbs,  and  what  this  fear  of  disre- 
garding them?  Of  what  compact  do  the  bonds  keep  the 
Deities  thus  bound  ?  Is  it  obligatory,  or  does  it  please  them 
to  obey  ?  For  an  unknown  piety  only  do  the  witches  deserve 
this,  or  by  secret  threats  do  they  prevail  ?  Have  they  this 
power  against  all  the  Gods  of  heaven,  or  do  these  imperious 
charms  sway  but  a  certain  Deity :t,  who,  whatever  he  himself 
is  compelled,  can  compel  the  world,  to  do  ?  There,  too,  for 
the  first  time  were  the  stars  brought  down  from  the  head- 
long sky ;  and  serene  Phoebe,  beset  by  the  dire  influences 
of  their  words,  grew  pale  and  burned  with  dusky  and  earthy 
fires,  not  otherwise  than  if  the  earth  hindered  her  from  the 
reflection  of  her  brother,  and  ^nterposed  its  shade  between 
the  celestial  flames ;  and,  arrested  by  spells,  she  endures 

1  Have   driven   fethys  lack)  ver.  479-80.     The  sea,  accustomed  to   be 
aroused  by  the  influence  of  the  Moon  and  certain  Constellations,  such  as 
Arcturus,  Orion,  and  the  Hyades,  is  no  more  influenced  by  them  when  the 
Thessalian  sorceresses  will  otherwise. 

2  Has  oscillated  in  Iter  mid  regions)    ver.  480-1.       This    passage    is 
either  in  a  corrupt  state,  or  one  to  which  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  Poet 
himself  would  have  been  unable  to  attach  any  very  definite  meaning. 

3  Sway  lufa  certain  Deity)  ver.  497.    Howe  has  the  following  Note  here: 
— "  The  Poet  seems  to  allude  here  to  that  God  whom  they  called  Demogorgon, 
who  was  the  father  and  creator  of  all  the  other  Gods  ;  who,  though  he  himself 
•was  bound  in  chains  in  the  lowest  hell,  was  yet  so  terrible  to  all  the  others 
that  they  could  not  bear  the  very  mention  of  his  name ;  as  appears  towards 
the  end  of  this  Book.  Him  Lucan  supposes  to  be  subject  to  the  power  of 
magic,  as  all  the  other  Deities  of  what  kind  soever  were  to  him." 


B.  vi.  505-531.]  PHARSALIA.  233 

labours  so  great,  until,  more  nigh,  she  sends  her  foam1 
upon  the  herbs  situate  beneath. 

These  rites  of  criminality,  these  spells  of  the  direful 
race,  the  wild  Erictho2  has  condemned  as  being  of  piety 
too  extreme,  and  has  applied  the  polluted  art  to  new  cere- 
monies. For  to  her  it  is  not  permitted  to  place  her  deadly 
head  within  a  roof  or  a  home  in  the  city ;  and  she  haunts 
the  deserted  piles,  and,  the  ghosts  expelled,  takes  pos- 
session of  the  tombs,  pleasing  to  the  Gods  of  Erebus. 
To  hear  the  counsels  of  the  dead,  to  know  the  Stygian 
abodes  and  the  secrets  of  the  concealed  Pluto,  not  the 
Gods  above,  not  a  life  on  earth,  forbids. 

Leanness  has  possession  of  the  features  of  the  hag,  foul 
with  filthiness,  and,  unknown  to  a  clear  sky,  her  dreadful 
visage,  laden  with  uncombed  locks,  is  beset  with  Stygian 
paleness.  If  showers  and  black  clouds  obscure  the  stars, 
then  does  the  Thessalian  witch  stalk  forth  from  the 
spoiled  piles,  and  try  to  arrest  the  lightnings  of  the  night. 
The  seeds  she  treads  on  of  the  fruitful  corn  she  burns  up, 
and  by  her  breathing  makes  air  noxious  that  was  not  deadly. 
before.  She  neither  prays  to  the  Gods  of  heaven,  nor  with 
suppliant  prayer  calls  the  Deity  to  her  aid,  nor  does  she 
know  of  the  propitiating  entrails ;  upon  the  altars  she  de- 
lights to  place  funereal  flames,  and  frankincense  which  she 
has  carried  off  from  the  lighted  pile3. 

Her  voice  now  first  heard  as  she  demands,  the  Gods  of 
heaven  accede  to  all  the  wickedness,  and  dread  to  hear  a 
second  address.  Souls  that  live,  and  still  rule  their  respect- 
ive limbs,  she  buries  in  the  tomb ;  and  dgath  reluctantly 
creeps  on  upon  those  who  owe  lengthened  years  to  the 
Fates ;  the  funeral  procession  turning  back,  the  dead  bodies 

1  She  sends  her  foam)  ver.  506.     It  was  a  belief  among  the  ancients  that 
the  moon  was  arrested  in  her  course  and  brought  dosvn  upon  the  earth  by 
means  of  the  Thessalian  incantations,  and  that  at  those  times  she  shed  a  kind 
of  venomous  foam    upon  certain  plants,    which  were   consequently   much 
sought  for,  to  be  applied  to  magical  purposes. 

2  The  wild  Erictho)  ver.  508.     Erictho  is  mentioned  as  a  famous  en- 
chantress in  the  Epistle  from  Sappho  to  Phaon,  in  Ovid's  Heroides,  1. 139. 
She  is  also  spoken    of  by  Apuleius  as    skilled  in  sepulchral  magic.     The 
name  was  probably  used  to  signify  an  enchantress  in  general. 

3  Carried  off  from  the  lighted  pile)  ver.  526.     In  ordinary  life  it  was 
deemed  the  height  of  disgrace  to  be  guilty  of  taking  away  anything  that 
had  been  placed  on  the  funeral  pile. 


234  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  vi.  532-548- 

she  rescues  from  the  tomb ;  corpses  fly  from  death.  The 
smoking  ashes  of  the  young  and  the  burning  bones  she 
snatches  from  the  midst  of  the  piles,  and  the  very  torch 
which  the  parents  have  held 1 ;  the  fragments,  too,  of  the 
funereal  bier2  that  fly  about  in  the  black  smoke,  and  the 
flowing  robes  does  she  collect  amid  the  ashes,  and  the  em- 
bers that  smell  of  the  limbs. 

But  when  corpses  are  kept  within  stone a,  from  which  the 
moisture  within  is  taken  away,  and,  the  corruption  with- 
drawn, the  marrow  has  grown  hard ;  then  does  she  greedily 
raven  upon  all  the  limbs,  and  bury  her  hands  in  the  eyes, 
and  delight  to  scoop  out  the  dried-up  balls4,  and  gnaw 
the  pallid  nails 5  of  the  shrunken  hand ;  with  her  mouth 
she  tears  asunder  the  halter"  and  the  murderous  knots  ;  the 
bodies  as  they  hang  she  gnaws,  and  scrapes  the  crosses7; 
the  entrails,  too,  smitten  by  the  showers  she  rends  asunder, 
and  the  parched  marrow,  the  sun's  heat  admitted  thereto. 
Iron  fastened  into  the  hands  s,  and  the  black  conniption  of 
the  filthy  matter  that  distils  upon  the  limbs,  and  the  slime 

1  Parents  have  held)  ver.  534.   It  was  the  duty  of  the  parent  to  set  fire 
to  the  funeral  pile  of  his  children. 

2  Of  the  funereal  Her)  ver.  536.     The  corpse  was  carried  to  the  funeral 
pile  on  a  couch  which  was  called  "feretrum"  or  "capulus;"  but  the  bodies  of 
the  poorer  classes,  or  of  slaves,  were  borne  on  a  common  kind  of  bier  called 
"  sandapila."     The  couches  on  which  the  bodies  of  the  rich  were  carried 
were  sometimes  made  of  ivory  and  covered  with  gold  and  purple.     On  the 
top  of  the  pile  the  corpse  was  laid  upon  the  couch  on  which  it  had  been  car- 
ried, and  burnt  with  it.     The  "vestes"  here  mentioned  were  probably  the 
coverings  of  the  funeral  couch. 

1  Corpses  are  kept  iriUiin,  stone)  ver.  538.  He  alludes  to  bodies  which, 
after  the  eastern  fashion,  are  preserved  as  mummies,  by  drawing  the  moisture 
out  and  then  preserving  them  in  tombs  of  stone. 

4  Scoop  out  the  dried-up  balls)  ver.  542.  The  practices  here  imputed 
to  the  Thessalian  enchantress  are  similar  to  those  of  the  Ghouls  of  the  East, 
who  were  said  to  feast  on  the  bodies  of  the  dead,  a  practice  frequently  alluded 
to  in  the  Arabian  Nights. 

*  And  gnaw  the  pallid  nails)  ver.  543.     The  nails  of  the  human  hand 
continue  to  grow  after  death,  and  turn  of  a  white  hue. 

*  Teart  asunder  the  Italter)  ver.  543.     She  gnaws  the  knot  of  the  noose 
to  obtain  the  body  that  is  hanging,  for  the  purposes  of  her  incantations. 

*  And  scrapes  the  crosses)  ver.  545.     She  scrapes  off  the  clotted  gore  that 
adheres  to  the  crosses  on  which  malefactors  hang,  and  tears  out  their  entrails 
•which  have  been  long  exposed  to  the  drenching  showers. 

*  Iron  fastened  into  the  hands)  ver.  547.     The  iron  nails  driven  through 
the  hands  and  feet  of  those  fastened  to  the  cross. 


u.  TL  548-579.]  PHAESALIA.  236 

that  has  collected,  she  bears  off,  and  hangs  to  tlie  bodies,  as 
the  sinews  hold  fast  her  bite. 

Whatever  carcase,  too,  is  lying  upon  the  bare  ground, 
before  the  beasts  and  the  birds  of  the  air  does  she  sit ;  nor 
does  she  wish  to  separate  the  joints  with  iron  and  with  her 
hands,  and  about  to  tear  the  limbs  from  their  parched  jaws, 
she  awaits  the  bites  of  the  wolves.  Nor  do  her  hands  re- 
frain from  murder,  if  she  requires  the  life-blood,  which  is 
the  first  to  spring1  from  the  divided  throat.  Nor  does  she 
shun  slaughter,  if  her  rites  demand  living  gore,  and  her 
funereal  tables  demand  the  quivering  entrails.  So,  through 
the  wounds  of  the  womb,  not  the  way  in  which  nature  invites, 
is  the  embryo  torn  out,  about  to  be  placed  upon  the  glow- 
ing altars.  And  as  often  as  she  has  need  of  grim  and  stal- 
wart shades,  she  herself  makes  the  ghosts ;  eveiy  kind  of 
death  among  mankind  is  hi  her  employ. 

She  from  the  youthful  body  tears  the  down  of  the  cheek ; 
she  with  her  left  hand-  from  the  dying  stripling  cuts  off  the 
hair.  Full  often,  too,  at  her  kinsman's  pile  has  the  dire 
Thessalian  witch  brooded  over  the  dear  limbs,  and  imprinting 
kisses,  has  both  cut  off  the  head,  and  torn  away  the  cheeks 
pressed  with  her  teeth,  and  biting  off  the  end  of  the  tongue 
as  it  cleaves  to  the  dried  throat,  has  poured  forth  murmurs 
into  the  cold  lips,  and  has  dispatched  accursed  secrets  to 
the  Stygian  shades. 

When  the  rumours  of  the  spot  brought  her  to  the  notice 
of  Pompey3,  amid  the  depths  of  the  night  of  the  sky,  at  the 
time  when  Titan  is  bringing  the  midday  beneath  our  earth, 
along  the  deserted  fields  he  takes  his  way.  The  faithful  and 
wonted  attendants  upon  his  crimes,  wandering  amid  the 
ruined  tombs  and  graves,  beheld  her  afar,  sitting  upon  a  lofty 
crag,  where  Ha3mus,  sloping  down,  extends  the  Pharsalian 
ridges.  She  was  conning  over  spells  unknown  to  the  ma- 
gicians and  the  Gods  of  magic,  and  was  trying  charms  for 
unwonted  purposes.  For,  fearing  lest  the  shifting  warfare 

1  Which  is  the  first  to  spring)  ver.  555.     The  blood  just  drawn  being 
deemed  efficacious  in  enchantments,  she  will  not  scruple  to  commit  murder 
for  the  sake  of  obtaining  it. 

2  With  her  left  hand)  ver.  563.     The  left  hand  was  especially  employed  in 
magical  operations,  as  also  by  thieves  in  the  pursuit  of  their  vocation. 

'*  To  the  notice  of  Pompey)  ver.  570.     To  Sextus,  the  son  of  Pompey. 


236  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vi.  579-605. 

might  remove  to  another  region,  and  the  Emathion  land 
be  deprived  of  slaughter  so  vast,  the  sorceress  has  for- 
bidden Philippi1,  polluted  with  spells  and  sprinkled  with 
dreadful  potions,  to  transfer  the  combats,  about  to  claim  so 
many  deaths  as  her  own,  and  to  enjoy  the  blood  of  the 
world ;  she  hopes  to  maim  the  corpses  of  slaughtered  mo- 
narchs2,  and  to  turn  to  herself  the  ashes  of  the  Hesperian 
race,  and  the  bones  of  nobles,  and  to  obtain  ghosts  so 
mighty.  This  is  her  pursuit,  and  her  sole  study,  what  she 
is  to  tear  away  from  the  corpse  of  Magnus  when  exposed, 
what  limbs  of  Caesar  she  is  to  brood  over.  Her  does  the 
degenerate  offspring  of  Pompey  first  address  : — 

"  O  thou  honor  to  the  Hsemonian  females,  who  art  able 
to  reveal  their  fates  to  nations,  and  who  art  able  to  turn  them 
away  from  their  course  when  about  to  come  to  pass,  I  pray 
thee  that  it  may  be  permitted  me  to  know  the  assured  end 
which  the  fortune  of  war  provides.  Not  the  lowest  portion 
am  I  of  the  Roman  multitude ;  the  most  renowned  offspring 
of  Magnus,  either  ruler  of  the  world,  or  heir  to  a  fall 
so  great3.  Smitten  with  doubts,  my  mind  is  in  alarm, 
and  again  is  prepared  to  endure  tlie  fears  that  spring  from 
certainty.  This  power  do  thou  withdraw  from  events,  that 
they  may  not  rush  on  sudden  and  unseen ;  either  extort  it 
from  the  Deities,  or  do  thou  spare  the  Gods,  and  force 
the  truth  from  the  shades  below.  Unlock  the  Elysian 
abodes,  and  Death  herself,  called  forth4,  compel  to  confess 
to  thee  whom  of  us  it  is  that  she  demands.  Not  mean  is 
the  task ;  it  is  worthy  for  even  thee  to  have  a  care  to  seek 
which  way  inclines  the  hazard  of  destinies  so  mighty." 

The  impious  Thessalian  witch  rejoices  at  the  mention  of 

1  Tlie  sorceress  has  forbidden  Philippi)  ver.  582.  The  Poet  again  commits 
the  same  mistake  as  in  B.  i.  1.  675,  and  other  places,  in  confounding  Philippi, 
a  town  of  Thrace,  with  Pharsalia  in  Thessaly. 

8  Corpses  of  slaughtered  monarchs)  ver.  584.  Who  had  come  to  the  assist- 
ance of  Pompey ;  see  B.  vii.  1.  227. 

3  Heir  to  a  fall  so  great)  ver.  595.     It  must  be  remembered  that  Sextns 
was  only  a  younger  son ;  but  if  he  was  a  person  of  the  character  here  de- 
picted by  Lucan,  he  would  not  improbably  be  guilty  of  misrepresentation. 

4  Death  herself,  called  forth)  ver.  601.     He  speaks  of  Death  here  as  a 
Divinity.     She  was  worshipped  by  the  Greeks  under  the  name  of  Thanatos. 
Sacrifice  was  probably  offered  to  this  Divinity,  but  no  Temples  of  Death  are 
mentioned  by  the  ancient  writers. 


B.  vi.  605-634.]  PHARSALIA.  237 

her  fame  thus  spread  abroad,  and  answers  on  the  other 
hand : — 

"  O  youth,  if  thou  wouldst  have  influenced  more  humhle 
destinies,  it  had  been  easy  to  force  the  reluctant  Gods 
to  any  action  thou  mightst  wish.  To  my  skill  it  is  granted, 
when  with  their  beams  the  constellations  have  urged  on  death, 
to  interpose  delays l ;  and  although  every  star  would  make  a 
man  aged,  by  drugs  do  we  cut  short  his  years  in  the 
midst.  But  together  does  the  chain  of  causes  work  down- 
ward from  the  first  origin  of  the  world,  and  all  the  fates 
are  struggling,  if  thou  shouldst  wish  to  change  anything, 
and  the  human  race  stands  subject  to  a  single  blow;  then  do 
we,  the  Thessalian  throng,  confess,  Fortune  has  the  greater 
might.  But  if  thou  art  content  to  learn  the  events  before- 
hand, paths  easy  and  manifold  will  lie  open  to  truth ;  earth, 
and  sky,  and  Chaos2,  and  seas,  and  plains,  and  the 
rocks  of  Rhodope,  will  converse  with  us.  But  it  is  easy, 
since  there  is  a  supply  so  vast  of  recent  deaths,  to  raise 
a  single  body  from  the  Emathian  plains,  that,  with  a 
clear  voice,  the  lips  of  a  corpse  just  dead  and  warm 
may  utter  their  sounds,  and  no  dismal  ghost,  the  limbs 
scorched  by  the  sun,  may  send  forth  indistinct  screechings." 

Thus  she  says ;  and,  the  shades  of  night  redoubled  by  her 
art,  wrapped  as  to  her  direful  head  in  a  turbid  cloud,  she 
wanders  amid  the  bodies  of  the  slain,  exposed,  sepulchres 
being  denied.  Forthwith  the  wolves  take  to  flight,  their 
talons  loosened,  the  birds  fly  unfed,  while  the  Thessalian 
witch  selects  her  prophet,  and,  examining  the  marrow 
cold  in  death,  finds  the  fibres  of  the  stiffened  lungs 
standing  without  a  wound3,  and  in  the  dead  body 
seeks  a  voice.  Now  stand  in  doubt  destinies  full  many  of 
men  who  have  been  slain,  which  one  she  is  to  choose  to 
recall  to  the  world  above.  If  she  had  attempted  to  raise 

1  To  interpose  delays)  ver.  608-9.  She  can  cut  short  or  lengthen  the 
lives  of  individual  men  at  her  pleasure,  despite  the  Fates;  but  over  the 
destinies  of  states  she  can  exercise  no  influence. 

8  And  sky,  and  Chaos)  ver.  617.  "Chaos"  here  means  Tartarus,  or  the 
place  of  departed  spirits.  She  enumerates  the  different  classes  of  magic  arts : 
geomancy,  aeromancy,  necromancy,  hydromancy,  and  soothsaying  derived 
from  inspection  of  the  entrails  of  animals. 

a  Standing  wit/tout  a  wound)  ver.  630.  She  seeks  the  body  of  a  person 
recently  slain,  in  which  the  lungs  are  uninjured. 


238  PHARSAL1A. 

whole  armies  from  the  plains,  and  to  restore  them  to  the 
war,  the  laws  of  Erebus  would  have  yielded,  and  a  people 
dragged  forth  by  the  powerful  miscreant  from  Stygian 
Avernus,  would  have  mingled  in  fight. 

A  body  selected  at  length  with  pierced  throat  she  takes, 
and,  a  hook  being  inserted  with  funereal  ropes,  the 
wretched  carcase  is  dragged  over  rocks,  over  stones, 
destined  to  live  once  again ' ;  and  beneath  the  lofty  crags 
of  the  hollowed  mountain,  which  the  dire  Erictho  has 
destined  for  her  rites,  it  is  placed. 

Downward  sloping,  not  far  from  the  black  caverns  of 
Pluto,  the  ground  precipitately  descends,  which  a  wood 
covers,  pale  with  its  drooping  foliage,  and  with  no  lofty 
tops  looking  upwards  to  the  heavens,  and  a  yew-tree 
shades,  not  pervious  to  the  sun.  Within  is  squalid  dark- 
ness, and  mouldiness  pallid  within  the  caves  amid  the 
lengthened  gloom ;  never,  unless  produced  by  charms,  does 
it  receive  the  light.  Not  within  the  jaws  of  Teenarus2, 
the  baleful  limit  of  the  hidden  world,  and  of  our  own, 
does  the  air  settle  thus  stagnant ;  whither  the  sovereigns  of 
Tartarus  would  not  fear'  to  send  forth  the  shades.  For 
although  the  Thessalian  witch  uses  violence  against  des- 
tiny, it  is  matter  of  doubt  whether  she  beholds  the  Stygian 
ghosts  because  she  has  dragged  them  thither4,  or  whether 
because  she  has  descended  to  Tartarus. 

A  dress,  of  various  colours  and  fury-like  with  varied 
garb,  is  put  on  by  her;  and  her  locks  removed,  her  fea- 
tures are  revealed,  and,  bristling,  with  wreaths  of  vipers 
her  hair  is  fastened  round.  When  she  perceives  the 

1  Destined  to  live  once  again)  ver.  640.  Destined  to  live  for  the  purpose  of 
answering  her  questions  as  to  the  future. 

4  The  jaws  of  Tamarus)  ver.  648.  Taenarus  was  the  name  of  a  cavern  at 
the  foot  of  the  Malean  promontory  in  Laconia  ;  it  emitted  powerful  mephitic 
vapours,  and  through  it  Hercules  was  said  to  have  dragged  Cerberus  from  the 
Infernal  Regions. 

3  The  sovereigns  of  Tartarus  vould  not  fear)  Ter.  650.     Her  cave  is  go 
gloomy,  fetid,  and  dismal,  that  the  rulers  of  Tartarus  would  not  object  to 
the  ghosts,  their  subjects,  taking  up  their  abode  there,  it  being  no  way  prefer- 
able to  their  own  realms. 

4  Because  she  has  dragged  them  thither)  ver.  652.     If  she  evokes  a  ghost 
by  her  magic  rites,  it  is  matter  of  doubt  whether  she  has  really  brought 
the  spirit  from  hell,  or  whether  in  inhabiting  her  cave  she  has  not  really  de- 
scended to  hell  herself. 


B.  vi.  658-673.]  PHARSALIA.  239 

youth's  attendants  alarmed,  and  himself  trembling,  and, 
casting  down  his  eyes  with  looks  struck  with  horror, 
she  says : — 

"  Banish  the  fears  conceived  in  your  timid  mind ;  now 
anew,  now  in  its  genuine  form  shall  life  be  restored,  that 
even  tremblers  may  endure  to  hear  him  speak.  But  if  I 
can  show  the  Stygian  lakes ',  and  the  shores  that  resound 
with  flames ;  if,  I  being  present,  the  Eumenides 2  can  be 
beheld,  and  Cerberus  shaking  his  necks  shaggy  with  ser- 
pents, and  the  Giants  chained  with  their  hands  to  their 
backs,  what  dread  is  there,  cowards,  to  behold  the  fright- 
ened ghosts?" 

Then  hi  the  first  place  does  she  fill  his  breast,  opened 
by  fresh  wounds,  with  reeking  blood,  and  she  bathes  his 
marrow  with  gore,  and  plentifully  supplies  venom  from 
the  moon:1.  Here  is  mingled  whatever,  by  a  monstrous 
generation,  nature  has  produced.  Not  the  foam  of  dogs 
to  which  water  is  an  object  of  dread,  not  the  entrails  of  the 
lynx4,  not  the  excrescence5  of  the  direful  hyaena  is  wanting, 
and  the  marrow  of  the  stag  that  has  fed  upon  serpents"; 

1  The  Stygian  lakes)  ver.  662.  He  alludes  to  Pyriphlegethon,  the  burning 
Lake  of  hell. 

a  The  Eumenides)  ver.  664.  The  name  "Eumenides,"  in  the  Greek,  literally 
signifies  "  the  well-meaning"  or  "propitiated  Goddesses."  This  was  a  euphe- 
mism given  to  the  Furies,  because  the  superstitious  were  afraid  to  mention 
them  by  their  real  names,  and  was  said  to  have  been  first  given  them  after 
the  acquittal  of  Orestes  by  the  court  of  the  Areopagus,  when  their  anger 
had  become  soothed. 

3  Venom  from,  the  moon)  ver.  669.     See  the  Note  to  1.  506. 

4  Not  the  entrails  of  the  lynx)  ver.  672.     It  is  not  improbable  that  the 
Scholiast  rightly  suggests  that  the  popular  superstition  is  here  alluded  to 
which  believed  that  the  urine  of  the  lynx  hardens  into  a  precious  stone. 
Ovid  says,  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  xv.  1.  413,  et  seq.  : — "  Conquered  India 
presented  her  lynxes  to  Bacchus  crowned  with  clusters ;  and,  as  they  tell, 
whatever  the  bladder  of  these  discharges  is  changed  into  stone  and  hardens 
by  contact  with  the  air."     Pliny  says,  that  this  becomes  hard  and  turns  into 
gems  like  the  carbuncle,  being  of  a  fiery  tint,  and  that  the  stone  has  the 
name  of  "lyncurium."    Beckmann,  in  his  History  of  Inventions,  thinks  that 
this  was  probably  the  jacinth  or  hyacinth,  while  others  suppose  it  to  have 
been  tourmaline  or  transparent  amber. 

5  The  excrescence)  ver.  672.     "  Nodus."     This  word  probably  means  the 
spine,    or  the  upper  part  of  it  which  joins  the  neck.     Pliny  the  Elder  tells 
us  that  the  neck  is  fastened  to,  or,  rather,  forms  part  of,  the  back-bone  of  the 
hyaena. 

•  Fed  upon  serpents)  ver.  673.     It  was  a  superstition  among  the  an- 


240  PHARSALIA.  [u.  vi.  674-681. 

not  the  sucking  fish,  that  holds  back  the  ship1  in  the 
midst  of  the  waves,  while  the  eastern  breeze  stretches  the 
rigging ;  the  eyes  of  dragons,  too 2,  and  the  stones  that  re- 
sound •',  warmed  beneath  the  brooding  bird ;  not  the  winged 
serpent4  of  the  Arabians,  and  the  viper  produced  in  the 
Bad  Sea,  the  guardian  of  the  precious  shell s;  or  the 
slough  of  the  horned  serpent6  of  Libya  that  still  survives ; 
or  the  ashes  of  the  Phoenix7,  laid  upon  an  eastern  altar. 
With  this,  after  she  has  mingled  abominations,  vile, 

cients  that  deer  when  grown  old  hare  the  power  of  drawing  serpents  from 
their  holes  with  their  breath,  which  they  destroy  with  their  horns,  and  then 
eat,  on  which  they  become  young  again. 

1  That  holds  lack  t/ie  ship)  ver.  674.  The  "  echeneis  remora,"  or  sucking 
fish,  was  supposed,  by  sticking  to  the  keel  or  rudder  of  a  vessel  in  sail,  to  be 
able  to  stop  its  course.  Ovid  says,  in  his  Halieuticon,  1.  99,  "  There  i»,  too, 
the  little  sucking-fish,  wondrous  to  tell  1  a  vast  obstruction  to  ships." 

'  The  eyes  of  dragons,  too)  ver.  675.  It  was  a  notion  that  those  who  had 
their  eyes  anointed  with  a  mixture  made  from  serpents'  eyes  beaten  up  with 
honey  were  proof  against  the  sight  of  nocturnal  spectres. 

3  The  stones  that  resound)  ver.  676.     He  alludes  to  the  aetites  or  eagle- 
Stone,  which  was  said  to  be  found  in  the  nest  of  the  eagle ;  by  whose  incu- 
bation when  wanned  it  exploded  with  a  loud  noise.     S°e  Pliny's  Natural 
History,  B.  ix.  c.  3,  and  B.  xxxvi.  c.  21. 

4  Not  the  winged  serpent)  ver.  677.     He  may  either  mean  a  winged  ser- 
pent, tho  existence  of  which  was  currently  believed  in  the  East,  or  may 
allude  to  the  "  jaculus,"  which  he  again  mentions  in  the  Ninth  Book,  and 
which  Pliny,  in  his  Eighth  Book,  c.  23,  speaks  of  as  darting  upon  passers-by 
from  the  branches  of  trees. 

4  Guardian  of  tlie  precious  shell)  ver.  678.  It  was  supposed  that  there 
were  serpents  upon  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea  that  watched  the  shells  of  the 
oysters  in  which  the  pearls  are  inclosed. 

6  Slough  of  the  horned  serjtent)  ver.  679.     The  cerastes  or  horned  serpent 
of  Africa  is  again  mentioned  in  the  Ninth  Book. 

7  Or  t/ie  ashes  of  tlie  Phoenix)  ver.  680.    This  allusion  to  the  fabulous  bird, 
called  the  Phoenix,  will  be  best  explained  by  the  account  of  Ovid,  in  the  Me- 
tamorphoses, B.  xv.  1.  303,  et  seq. :  "  The  Assyrians  call  it  the  Phoenix.     It 
lives  not  on  corn  or  grass,  but  on  drops  of  frankincense  and  the  juices  of  the 
amomum.     This  bird,  when  it  has  completed  the  five  ages  of  its  life,  with  its 
talons  and  its  crooked  beak  constructs  for  itself  a  nest  in  the  branches  of  a 
holm-oak,  or  on  the  top  of  a  quivering  palm.    As  soon  as  it  has  strewed  on  this 
cassia  and  ears  of  sweet  spikenard,  and  bruised  cinnamon,  with  yellow  myrrh, 
it  lays  itself  down  on  it,  and  finishes  its  life  in  the  midst  of  odours.     They 
eay  that  thence,  from  the  body  of  its  parent,  is  reproduced  a  little  Phoenix, 
which  is  destined  to  live  as  many  years.     When  time  has  given  it  strength, 
and  it  is  able  to  bear  the  weight,  it  lightens  the  branches  of  the  lofty  tree  of  the 
burden  of  the  nest,  and  dutifully  carries  both  its  own  cradle  and  the  sepulchre 
of  its  parent ;  and  having  reached  the  city  of  Hyperion  through  the  yielding 
air,  it  lays  it  down  before  the  sacred  doors  in  the  Temple  of  Hyperion." 


B.  vi.  681-700.]  PIIARSALIA.  241 

and  possessing  no  names1,  she  added  leaves  steeped  in 
accursed  spells,  and  herbs  upon  which,  when  shooting  up, 
her  direful  mouth  had  spat,  and  whatever  poisons  she  her- 
self gave  unto  the  world ;  then,  a  voice,  more  potent  than 
all  drugs  to  charm  the  Gods  of  Lethe,  first  poured  forth  its 
murmurs,  discordant,  and  differing  much  from  the  human 
tongue.  The  bark  of  dogs  has  she,  and  the  howling  of 
wolves ;  she  sends  forth  the  voice  in  which  the  scared  owl, 
in  which  the  screech  of  the  night,  complain,  in  which  wild 
beasts  shriek  and  yell,  in  which  the  serpent  hisses,  and  the 
Availing  of  the  waves  dashed  upon  the  rocks ;  the  sounds, 
too,  of  the  woods,  and  the  thunders  of  the  bursting  cloud. 
Of  objects  so  many  there  is  the  voice  in  one.  Then  after- 
wards in  a  Hsemonian  chaunt  she  unfolds  the  rest,  and 
her  voice  penetrates  to  Tartarus  : — 

"  Eumenides,  and  Stygian  fiends,  and  penalties  of  the 
guilty,  and  Chaos,  eager  to  confound  innumerable  worlds ; 
and  thou,  Euler  of  the  earth  ~,  whom  the  wrath  of  the  Gods, 
deferred  for  lengthened  ages,  does  vex ;  Styx,  and  the 
Elysian fields,  which  no  Thessalian  sorceress  is  deserving  of; 
Persephone,  who  dost  detest  heaven  and  thy  mother :J,  and 

1  And  possessing  no  names)  ver.  681.     There  is  a  similar  passage  in  the 
Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  where  he  is  describing  the  incantations  of  Medea, 
]?.  vii.  1.  270  : — "  She  adds,  too,  hoar-frost  gathered  at  night  by  the  light  of 
the  moon,  and  the  ill-boding  wings  of  a  screech-owl  together  with  its  flesh, 
and  the  entrails  of  a  two-formed  wolf  that  was  wont  to  change  its  appearance 
of  a  wild  beast  into  that  of  a  man.     Nor  is   there  wanting  there  the  thin 
scaly  slough  of  the  Cinyphian  water-snake  and  the  liver  of  the  long-lived 
stag ;  to  which,  besides,  she  adds  the  bill  and  head  of  a  crow  that  had  sus- 
tained an  existence  of  nine  ages.     When  with  these  and  a  hundred  other 
things  without  a  name,  the  barbarian  princess  has  completed  the  medicine 
prepared  for  the  mortal  body,  with  a  branch  of  the  peaceful  olive,  long  since 
driod  up,  she  stirs  them  all  up,  and  blends  the  lowest  ingredients  with  the 
highest." 

2  Thou,  Ruler  of  the  earth)  ver.  697.    Dis,  or  Pluto ;  to  whom  was  allotted 
the  government  of  the  Earth,  and  the  regions  beneath,  when  his  brother 
Jupiter  received  that  of  Heaven  and  Neptune  that  of  the  Sea.     The  passage 
may  either  mean  that  Pluto  repines  at  the  lengthened  existence  of  the  Deities 
who  do  not  through  death  descend  to  his  realms,  or  that  he  is  tired  of  the 
prolonged  existence  which  he  in  common  with  the  other  Gods  enjoys. 

'J  Detest  heaven  and  thy  mother)  ver.  699.  She  preferred  to  remain  with 
her  husband  Pluto  in  the  Infernal  Regions  to  returning  to  heaven  and  rejoin- 
ing her  mother  Ceres ;  on  which  it  was  agreed  that  she  should  spend  six 
months  in  the  year  with  Pluto  and  six  months  with  Ceres.  The  story  of  the 

B 


242  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vi.  700-714. 

who  art  the  lowest  form  of  our  Hecate1,  through  whom  the 
ghosts  and  1 3  have  the  intercourse  of  silent  tongues  ;  thou 
porter,  too :|,  of  the  spacious  abodes,  who  dost  scatter  our 
entrails  before  the  savage  dog ;  and  you.  Sisters,  about  to 
handle  the  threads4  renewed,  and  thou,  O  ferryman  of  the 
burning  stream,  now,  aged  man,  tired  with  the  ghosts  re- 
turning to  me ;  listen  to  my  prayers,  if  you  sufficiently  I 
invoke  with  mouth  accui-sed  and  denied,  if,  never  fasting 
from  human  entrails,  I  repeat  these  charms,  if  full  oft  I 
have  given  you  the  teeming  breasts,  and  have  smothered 
your  offerings*  with  warm  brains;  if  any  infant,  when  I 
have  placed  its  head  and  entrails  on  your  dishes,  had  been 
destined  to  live6;  listen  to  my  entreaty.  A  soul  we  ask 
for,  that  has  not  lain  hid  hi  the  caves  of  Tartarus,  and 
accustomed  long  to  darkness,  but  one  just  descending,  the 

rape  of  Proserpine  is  related  in  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  iv.  1.  389-620,  and  in 
the  Metamorphoses,  B.  v.  1.  537,  et  seq. 

1  Lowest  form  of  our  Hecate)  ver.  700.  "  Pars  ultima."  The  meaning  of 
this  passage  has  caused  much  discussion,  but  it  seems  to  imply  that  Proser- 
pine is  the  third  form  or  aspect  of  the  Goddess  called  Hecate  on  earth,  and 
prohably  Diana  in  heaven.  By  the  use  of  the  word  "  nostrae"  the  sorceress 
seems  to  imply  that  she  worships  the  infernal  Goddess  Proserpine  under 
the  name  of  Hecate.  Ovid,  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  viL,  represents  her  as 
the  daughter  of  Perses,  who,  according  to  Diodonis  Siculus,  was  the  son  of 
Phcebus  and  the  brother  of  Metes;  and  as,  on  marrying  her  uncle,  the 
mother  of  Circe,  Medea,  and  Absyrtus.  This  person,  however,  can  hardly 
be  considered  identical  with  the  Goddess  who,  under  the  form  of  Hecate, 
was  considered  the  patroness  of  magic. 

3  Through  whom  the  ghosts  and  I)  ver.  701.  Who  aids  her  in  receiving 
the  secret  communications  from  the  ghosts  of  the  dead. 

3  Thou  porter,  too]  ver.  702.  This  passage  has  caused  much  discussion  ; 
but  it  seems  most  probable  that  the  "  janitor  "  or  "  porter  "  of  hell  here  al- 
luded to  is  Mercury,  whose  office  it  was  to  deliver  over  the  bodies  of  the 
dead  to  Cerberus,  the  three-headed  dog,  stationed  at  the  entrance  of  hell, 
whose  name,  according  to  some,  was  derived  from  xpiat  Qefa,  "  feeding  upon 
flesh." 

*  About  to  handle  the  threads)  ver.  703.    She  addresses  the  Fates,  who  are 
about  to  spin  the  threads  of  existence  over  again  for  the  person  whose  body 
is  going  to  be  restored  to  life. 

*  Have  smothered  your  offerings)  ver.  709.     Those  parts  of  the  animals 
which  were  burnt  on  the  altars  of  the  Gods  were  called  "  prosicia;,''  "  prc- 
secta,"  or  "  ablegmina." 

*  Had  been  destined  to  live)  ver.  710.     She  means,  if  she  has  torn  away 
any  infant  from  the  womb  for  sacrifice  to  her,  which  otherwise  might  have 
lived. 


B.  vi.  714-740.]  PHARSALIA.  243 

light  but  lately  withdrawn ;  and  which  still  delays  at  the 
very  chasm  of  pallid  Orcus.  Although  it  may  listen  to 
these  spells,  it  shall  come  to  the  shades  once  again1.  Let 
the  ghost  of  one  hut  lately  our  soldier  repeat  the  destinies 
of  Pompey  to  the  son  of  the  chieftain,  if  the  civil  warfare 
deserves  well  at  your  hands." 

When,  having  said  these  things,  she  lifted  up  her  head 
and  her  foaming  lips,  she  beheld  the  ghost  of  the  extended 
corpse  standing  by,  dreading  the  lifeless  limbs  and  the  hated 
place  of  its  former  confinement.  It  was  dreading  to  go  into 
the  gaping  breasts,  and  the  entrails  torn  with  a  deadly  wound. 
Ah  wretch !  from  whom  unrighteously  the  last  privilege  of 
death  is  snatched,  to  be  able  to  die  * !  Erictho  is  surprised 
that  this  delay  has  been  permitted  by  the  Fates,  and,  enraged 
with  death,  with  living  serpents  she  beats  the  unmoved 
body ;  and  through  the  hollow  clefts  of  the  earth,  which 
with  her  charms  she  opens,  she  barks  forth  to  the  shades 
below,  and  breaks  the  silence  of  the  realms : — 

"  Tisiphone,  and  Megsera3,  heedless  of  my  voice,  are  ye 
not  driving  the  wretched  soul  with  your  ruthless  whips 
through  the  void  space  of  Erebus  ?  This  moment  under 
your  real  name4  will  I  summon  you  forth,  and,  Stygian 
bitches,  will  leave  you  hi  the  light  of  the  upper  world ; 
amid  graves  will  I  follow  you,  amid  funereal  rites,  your 
watcher ;  from  the  tombs  will  I  expel  you,  from  all  the  urns 
will  I  drive  you  away.  And  thee,  Hecate,  squalid  with  thy 
pallid  form,  will  I  expose  to  the  Gods,  before  whom  in  false 
shape  with  other  features  thou  art  wont  to  come,  and  I  will 
forbid  thee  to  conceal  the  visage  of  Erebus.  I  will  disclose, 
damsel  of  Enna5,  under  the  boundless  bulk  of  the  earth, 

1  Shall  come  to  tJie  shades  once  again)  ver.  716.  She  promises  that 
when  the  reanimated  corpse  shall  have  done  what  she  wishes,  the  spirit  shall 
return  to  the  shades  once  for  all. 

3  To  be  able  to  die)  ver.  725.  "  Non  posse  mori;"  the  "non"  is  redundant 
here. 

3  Tisiphone,  and  Mtgcera)  ver.  730.   Tisiphone,  Alecto,  and  Megsera  were 
the  names  of  the  three  Eumenides  or  Furies. 

4  Under  your  real  name)  ver.  732.     She  will  not  call  them  Eumenides  or 
Erinnys,  by  which  names  they  were  usually  called  among  mortals,  but  will 
call  them  by  the  titles  used  in  incantations,  "  Stygian  bitches." 

5  Damsel  of  Enna)  ver.  740.    He  calls  Proserpine  "  Ennsea,"  because  she 
was  carried  off  by  Pluto  on  the  plains  of  Enna  in  Sicily.     The  story  was, 

E  2 


244  I'lIARSALIA.  [B.  vi.  740-757. 

•what  feasts  are  detaining  thee,  upon  what  compact  thou 
dost  love  the  gloomy  sovereign,  to  what  corruption  having 
submitted,  thy  parent  was  unwilling  to  call  thee  back l. 

"Against  thee,  most  evil  ruler  of  the  world2,  into 
thy  burst  caverns  will  I  send  the  sun :',  and  with 
sudden  daylight  thou  shalt  be  smitten.  Are  you  going 
to  obey  ?  Or  will  he  have  to  be  addressed,  by  whom  never, 
when  named4,  the  shaken  earth  fails  to  tremble5,  who 
beholds  the  Gorgon  exposed  to  view",  and  with  his  stripes 
chastises  the  quailing  Erinnys,  who  occupies  depths  of 
Tartarus  by  you  unseen ;  in  whose  power  you  are 7,  ye  Gods 
above  ;  who  by  the  Stygian  waves  forswears." 8 

Forthwith  the  clotted  blood  grows  warm,  and  nourishes 
the  blackened  wounds,  and  runs  into  the  veins  and  the  ex- 
tremities of  the  limbs.  Smitten  beneath  the  cold  breast,  the 
lungs  palpitate ;  and  a  new  life  creeping  on  is  mingled  with 
the  marrow  so  lately  disused.  Then  does  every  joint  throb ; 
the  sinews  are  stretched;  and  not  by  degrees  throughout 
the  limbs  does  the  dead  body  lift  itself  from  the  earth,  and 
it  is  spurned  by  the  ground,  and  raised  erect  at  the  same 

that  on  arriving  in  the  Infernal  regions  she  ate  the  grains  of  a  pomegranate, 
on  which  Jupiter  forbade  her  return  from  hell  without  the  sanction  of  Pluto. 
See  the  Note  to  1.  699  and  the  passage  of  Ovid  there  referred  to. 

'  Was  unwilling  to  call  thee  lack)  ver.  742.  "  Why  thy  parent  Ceres  was 
unwilling  (or,  rather,  unable)  to  procure  thy  return  to  the  world  above." 

2  Most  evil  rider  of  the  •world)  ver.  743.  She  calls  Pluto  the  "  pessimus 
arbiter  mundi ;"  the  most  evil  sharer  in  the  world,  in  allusion  to  the  dismal 
regions  of  hell  falling  to  his  share. 

J  Will  I  send  (he  sun)  ver.  743.  Titana.  Literally  "  Titan,"  one  of 
the  epithets  of  the  Sun. 

4  By  whom  never,  tchfn  named)  ver.  745.  He  probably  alludes  to  the  ter- 
rible God  Demogorgon,  who  is  mentioned  in  the  Note  to  1.  497.  One  of  the 
Scholiasts  says  that  he  was  the  first  and  most  powerful  of  the  Gods,  and  was 
the  father  of  Omago,  Omago  of  Ccelus,  and  Cielus  of  Saturn.  Demiurgus 
was  another  name  of  this  mysterious  Divinity. 

4  The  shaken  earth  fails  to  tremble)  ver.  746.  On  the  very  mention  of 
•whose  name  earthquakes  ensue. 

6  Who  beholds  the  Gorgon  exposed  to  view)  ver.  746.     It  was  the  fate  of 
all  who  looked  upon  the  head  of  the  Gorgon  Medusa  to  be  changed  into 
stone :  from  this  the  God  here  alluded  to  alone  was  exempt. 

7  In   wliose  power  you  are)  ver.   748.     "  Cujus   vos  estis."     Literally 
"  whose"  or  "  of  whom  you  are." 

8  By  the  Stygian  waves  forswears)  ver.  749.     "Who  is  not  afraid  to  swear 
falsely  by  the  river  Styx,  a  thing  which  the  other  Gods  dread  to  do. 


B.  vi.  757-787.]  PHARSALIA.  245 

instant.  The  eyes  with  their  apertures  distended  wide  are 
opened.  In  it  not  as  yet  is  there  the  face  of  one  living, 
but  of  one  now  dying.  His  paleness  and  his  stiffness  re- 
main, and,  brought  back  to  the  world,  he  is  astounded. 
But  his  sealed  lips  resound  Avith  no  murmur.  A  voice 
and  a  tongue  to  answer  alone  are  granted  unto  him. 

"  Tell  me,"  says  the  Thessalian  witch,  "  for  a  great  re- 
ward, what  I  command  tliee ;  for,  having  spoken  the  truth, 
by  the  Hsemonian  arts  I  will  set  thee  free  in  all  ages  of  the 
world ;  with  such  a  sepulchre  will  I  grace  thy  limbs,  with 
such  wood  will  I  burn  them  with  Stygian  spells,  that  thy 
charmed  ghost  shall  hearken  to  no  magicians.  Of  such  great 
value  be  it  to  have  lived  once  again ;  neither  charms  nor 
drugs  shall  presume  to  take  away  from  thee  the  sleep  of 
Lethe  prolonged 1,  death  being  bestowed  by  me.  Obscure  re- 
sponses befit  the  tripods  and  the  prophets  of  the  Gods ;  well 
assured  he  may  depart  whoever  asks  the  truth  of  the  shades, 
and  boldly  approaches  the  oracles  of  relentless  death.  Spare 
not,  I  pray.  Give  things  their  names,  give  the  places,  give 
the  words  by  which  the  Fates  may  converse  with  me." 

She  added  a  charm  as  well,  by  which  she  gave  the  ghost 
the  power  to  know  whatever  she  consulted  him  upon. 
Sad,  the  tears  running  down,  the  corpse  thus  said  : — 

"  Called  back  from  the  heights  of  the  silent  shores  I  surely 
have  not  seen  the  sad  threads  of  the  Destinies  ;  but,  what 
from  all  the  shades  it  has  been  allowed  me  to  learn, 
fierce  discord  agitates  the  Koman  ghosts2,  and  impious 
arms  disturb  the  rest  of  hell.  Coming  from  different  spots, 
some  chieftains  have  left  the  Elysian  abodes,  and  some  the 
gloomy  Tartarus ;  what  fate  is  preparing  these  have  disclosed. 
Sad  was  the  countenance  of  the  spirits  of  the  blessed. 
The  Decii3  I  beheld,  both  son  and  father,  the  souls  that 
expiated  the  warfare,  and  Camillus  weeping4,  and  the  Curii6; 

1  Sleep  of  Letlie  prolonged)  ver.  769.     Lethe  was  one  of  the  rivers  of 
hell ;  the  waters  of  which  being  drunk  induced  forgetfulness. 

2  Discord  agitates  the  Roman  ghosts)  ver.  780.     Even  the  shades  of  the 
Romans  are  at  discord  among  themselves,  belonging  to  the  different  factions. 

3  The  Decii)  ver.  785.     See  B.  ii.  1.  308,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

*  And  Camillus  weeping)  ver.  786.     See  B.  xi.  1.  545,  and  the  Note  to 
the  passage. 
.     And  the  Curii)  ver.  787.     See  B.  i.  1. 169. 


248  PHARSALIA.  [a  VL  787-805. 

Sulla,  too,  Fortune,  complaining  of  thee1.  Scipio  is  de- 
ploring his  hapless  descendant-,  doomed  to  perish  in  the 
Libyan  lands.  The  elder  Cato,  the  foe  of  Carthage 3,  be- 
moans the  destiny  of  his  nephew  who  will  not  be  a  slave. 

"  Thee,  Brutus,  first  Consul,  the  tyrants  expelled 4, 
alone  rejoicing  did  I  behold  among  the  pious  shades. 
Threatening  Catiline,  his  chains  burst  asunder  and  broken, 
exults,  the  fierce  Marii,  too,  and  the  Cethegi  with  their 
bared  arms5.  I  beheld  the  Drusi  exulting,  names  be- 
loved by  the  populace";  the  Gracchi,  exorbitant  with  their 
laws,  and  who  dared  such  mighty  exploits.  Hands,  bound 
with  the  eternal  knots  of  iron,  and  in  the  dungeon  of  Dis, 
clap  in  applause,  and  the  guilty  multitude  demands  the 
fields  of  the  blessed.  The  possessor  of  the  empty  realms  is 
opening  the  pallid  abodes,  and  is  sharpening  rocks  torn  off, 
and  adamant  hard  with  its  chains,  and  is  preparing  punish- 
ment for  the  conqueror.  Take  back  with  thee,  O  youth, 
this  comfort,  that  in  their  placid  retreat  the  shades  await 
thy  father  and  thy  house,  and  in  the  serene  quarter  of  the 
realms  are  preparing  room  for  Pompey. 

1  Fortune,  complaining  of  thee)  ver.  787.  He  alludes  to  the  successful 
career  of  Sulla,  who  attributed  his  prosperity  to  the  Goddess  Fortuna,  and 
took  the  name  of  Felix  after  the  death  of  the  younger  Marius,  and  called  his 
son  Faustus  and  his  daughter  Fausta.  He  complains  of  Fortune  because  the 
Patrician  faction  which  he  had  headed  is  being  worsted  by  the  anus  of 
Csesar. 

*  Deploring  his  hapless  descendant)  ver.  788.  "  Scipio  Africanus  the  elder 
deplores  the  fate  of  his  descendant  Metellus  Scipio,  who  is  doomed  to  fall  by 
the  sword  in  Africa."     See  the  Note  to  1.  311. 

3  Elder  Cato,  ike  foe  of  Carthage)  ver.  789.  Cato,  the  Censor,  or  the 
Elder,  the  implacable  enemy  of  Carthage,  is  grieved  for  the  destiny  of  his 
preat  grandson  Porcitis  Cato,  who  is  doomed  to  fall  by  his  own  sword  at 
Utica.  See  1.  311  and  B.  ii.  1.  238. 

*  First  Consul,  the  tyrants  expelled)  ver.  791.     L.  Junius  Brutus,  the  first 
Consul,  on  the  expulsion  of  the  Tarquins,  is  alone  glad,  inasmuch  as  the 
tyrant  Caesar  is  destined  to  fall,  and  in  part  by  means  of  his  descendants 
Marcus  and  Decius  Brutus. 

*  TJie  Cetlteyi  with,  their  bared  arms)  ver.  794.     See  B.  ii.  1.  543,  and  the 
Note  to  the  passage. 

6  The  Drusi  exulting,  names  beloved  by  Ute  populace)  ver.  795.  He  probably 
alludes  to  M.  Livius  Drusus,  who,  to  conciliate  the  Roman  populace,  renewed 
several  of  the  propositions  and  imitated  the  measures  of  the  Gracchi.  He 
proposed  and  carried  laws  for  the  distribution  of  corn,  or  for  its  sale  at  a  low 
price,  and  for  the  assignment  of  the  public  lands. 


B.  vi.  805-826.]  PHAESALIA,  247 

"And  let  not  the  glory  of  a  short  life  cause  thee  anxiety; 
the  hour  will  come  that  is  to  mingle  all  chieftains  alike. 
Make  ye  haste  to  die,  and  proud  with  your  high  spirit 
go  down  though  from  humble  graves,  and  tread  under 
foot  the  ghosts  of  Romans  deified  1.  It  is  sought  to  know 
which  tomb  the  wave  of  the  Nile,  and  which  that  of  the 
Tiber  is  to  wash,  and  only  is  the  combat  among  the 
chieftains  as  to  ~  their  place  of  burial.  Seek  not  thou  to 
know  thy  own  destiny ;  the  Fates,  while  I  am  silent,  will 
declare;  a  prophet  more  sure,  Pompey  himself,  thy  sire, 
will  declare  all  things  to  thee ;)  in  the  Sicilian  field? ;  he, 
too,  uncertain  whither  he  shall  invite  thee,  whence  warn  thee 
away,  what  regions  to  bid  thee  avoid,  what  Constellations 
of  the  world.  Wretched  men,  dread  Europe,  and  Libya,  and 
Asia 4 ;  according  to  your  triumphs ft  does  Fortune  distribute 
your  sepulchres.  0  wretched  house,  nothing  throughout  the 
whole  earth  wilt  thou  behold  more  safe  than  Emathia."8 

After  he  has  thus  revealed  the  Fates,  gloomy  with  speech- 
less features  he  stands,  and  demands  death  once  again. 
Magic  incantations  are  needed,  and  drugs,  that  the  carcase 
may  fall,  and  the  Fates  are  unable  to  restore  the  soul  to 
themselves,  the  law  of  hell  now  once  broken.  Then,  with 
plenteous  wood  she  builds  up  a  pile  ;  the  dead  man  comes 
to  the  fires;  the  youth  placed  upon  the  lighted  heap 

'  The  ghosts  of  Romans  deified)  ver.  809.  He  alludes  to  the  deification 
of  Julius  Caesar,  the  victorious  opponent  of  Porapey,  and  that  of  the  Roman 
Emperors  his  successors.  This  line  must  certainly  have  been  penned  in  a 
hostile  spirit  towards  the  Emperor  Nero. 

2  Is  the  combat  among  the  chieftains  as  to)  ver.  811.     This  is  somewhat 
similar  to  the  line  in  Gray's  Elegy : — 

"  The  paths  of  glory  lead  but  to  the  grave." 

3  Will  declare  all  things  to  thee)  ver.  814.     He  probably  alludes  to  a 
future  scene  which  was  to  have  been  depicted  in  his  Poem,  in  which  Pompey 
was  to  appear  to  his  son  Sextiis  in  his  Sicilian  campaign,  and  warn  him  of 
his  approaching  destruction  :  the  Poem  being  unfinished  comes  to  an  end 
long  antecedent  to  that  period. 

4  Dread  Europe,  and  Libya,  and  Asia)   ver.  817.     The  meaning  is, 
"  Your  father  shall  die  in  Egypt  in  Africa,  your  brother  at  Munda  in  Spain, 
and  you  yourself  at  Miletus  in  Asia  Minor." 

6  According  to  your  triumphs)  ver.  818.  Pompey  the  elder  enjoyed 
triumphs  for  his  campaign  against  Sertorius  in  Spain,  against  Mithridates  in 
Asia  Minor,  and  for  his  successes  in  Egypt 

6  More  safe  than  Eniathia)  ver.  819.  "  From  Thessaly  you  will  escape 
alive,  from  other  regions  you  will  not." 


248  PHARSA.LIA.  (B.  vt  826-830. 

Erictho  leaves,  permitting  him  at  length  to  die ;  and  she 
goes  attending  Sextus  to  his  father's  camp. 

The  heavens  wearing  the  aspect  of  light,  until  they 
brought  their  footsteps  safe  within  the  tents,  the  night. 
commanded  to  withhold  the  day1,  afforded  its  dense  shades. 

1  Commanded  to  withhold  the  day)  ver.  830.  The  meaning  is,  that  tho 
night  was  prolonged  by  Erictho,  that  Sextus  might  have  time  to  return  to  his 
father's  camp  unobserved. 


249 
BOOK  THE  SEVENTH. 

CONTENTS. 

The  vision  of  Pompey  the  night  before  the  battle  of  Pharsalia  is  described, 
1-44.  His  soldiers  demand  to  be  led  forth  to  battle,  45-61.  Cicero's 
address  to  Pompey  on  this  occasion,  62-85.  Pompey's  answer,  85-123. 
The  soldiers  prepare  for  battle,  124-150.  Portentous  signs  appear,  151- 
184.  Distant  nations  are  made  aware  of  the  impending  catastrophe,  185- 
213.  The  army  of  Pompey  is  described,  214-234.  Caesar's  delight  on 
seeing  them  preparing  for  battle,  235-249.  He  harangues  his  soldiers, 
250-329.  They  prepare  for  battle,  330-336.  Pompey  harangues  his 
army,  337-384.  The  Poet  laments  the  approaching  slaughter,  385-459. 
The  soldiers  hesitate  on  both  sides  on  recognizing  each  other,  460-469. 
Crastinus,  a  soldier  in  Caesar's  army,  commences  the  battle,  470-475. 
The  beginning  of  the  battle  is  described,  476-505.  Caesar  attacks 
the  army  of  Pompey  in  flank,  and  the  cavalry  is  repulsed,  506-544. 
The  centre  of  Pompey's  army  offers  a  stronger  resistance,  545-550.  The 
Poet  is  averse  to  describe  the  scenes  of  horror  there  perpetrated,  551-556. 
Caesar  exhorts  his  men  to  deeds  of  valour,  557-585.  It  is  the  design 
of  Brutus  to  slay  Caesar,  586-596.  Multitudes  of  the  Patricians  are  slain, 
among  whom  is  Domitius,  597-616.  The  Poet  laments  the  carnage,  617- 
646.  Pompey  takes  to  flight,  647-679.  The  Poet  apostrophizes  Pompey, 
680-711.  Pompey  comes  to  Larissa,  where  he  is  welcomed  by  the  inha- 
bitants, 712-727.  Caesar  takes  possession  of  the  enemy's  camp,  728-786. 
The  bodies  of  Pompey's  troops  lie  unburied,  a  prey  to  birds  and  wild  beasts, 
787-846.  The  Poet  concludes  with  imprecations  against  the  scene  of 
such  horrors,  847-872. 

NEVER  more  tardy  from  the  ocean  than  the  eternal  laws 
demand,  did  mournful  Titan  speed  on  his  steeds  along 
the  heavens;  and  he  checked  his  chariot,  as  the  skies 
whirled  him  along.  He  was  hoth  ready  to  endure  eclipse, 
and  the  grievance  of  light  withdrawn;  and  he  attracted 
clouds,  not  as  food  for  his  flames 1,  but  lest  he  might  shine 
serenely  upon  the  regions  of  Thessaly. 

But  the  night,  the  last  portion  of  fortunate  existence 
for  Magnus,  deceived  his  anxious  slumhers  with  vain  pros- 
pects. For  he  seemed  to  himself,  in  the  seat  of  the  Pom- 

1  Not  as  food  for  his  flames)  ver.  5.  It  was  the  notion  of  some  of  the 
ancient  philosophers,  and  particularly  of  Heraclitus  and  the  Stoics,  that  the 
heat  of  the  sun  was  nourished  by  the  moisture  of  the  clouds. 


250  I'lIARSALIA.  [B.  vn.  9-27. 

peian  Theatro1,  to  behold  forms  innumerable  of  tbe  com- 
monalty of  Rome,  and  his  own  name  raised  with  joyous 
voices  to  the  stare,  and  the  resounding  tiers'*  contending 
in  applause.  Such  were  the  looks  and  the  shouts  of  the 
applauding  populace,  when  formerly,  a  young  man,  and  at 
the  period  of  his  first  triumph,  after  the  nations  which 
the  rushing  Iberus  surrounds  were  subdued,  and  the  arms 
which  the  flying  Sertoriusa  urged  on,  the  West  having  been 
reduced  to  peace,  revered  as  much  in  his  white  toga4  as  in 
that  which  adorned  the  chariot,  the  Senate  giving  applause, 
he  sat,  as  yet  but  a  Roman  knight 

Whether,  at  the  end  of  successes,  anxious  for  the  future, 
sleep  flew  back  to  joyous  times,  or  whether,  prophesying, 
by  its  wonted  perversions,  things  contrary  to  what  is  seen, 
it  bore  the  omens  of  great  woe ;  or  whether  to  thee,  for- 
bidden any  more  to  behold  thy  paternal  abodes,  Fortune  in 
this  fashion  presented  Rome.  Break  not  his  slumbers,  ye 
sentinels  of  the  camp ;  let  no  trumpet  resound  in  his  ears. 
The  rest  of  the  morrow,  direful,  and  saddened  with  the 
image  of  the  day,  will  from  every  quarter  bring  the  blood- 

1  In  the  seat  of  the  P&mpeian  T/ttatre)  ver.  9.  Pompey  erected  the  first 
Stone  Theatre  at  Rome,  near  the  Campus  Martius.  It  was  of  great  magnifi- 
cence and  was  built  after  the  model  of  that  of  Mitylene  in  the  isle  of  Lesbos, 
but  on  a  much  larger  scale,  as  it  was  able  to  contain  40,000  persons. 

8  And  the  resounding  tiers)  ver.  11.  "  Cuneos,"  literally  "  wedges."  The 
tiers  or  sets  of  seats  in  the  theatres  of  Greece  and  Rome  were  divided  into 
a  number  of  compartments,  which  converging,  resembled  cones  from  which 
the  tops  are  cut  off ;  hence  they  were  termed  *««*<5if,  and  in  Latin  "cunei," 
or  "  wedges."  It  was  the  custom  for  the  populace  to  applaud  such  of  the 
great  as  were  their  favourites  on  their  entrance  into  the  theatre.  Plutarch 
relates  that  the  night  before  the  battle  of  Fharsalia  Pompey  dreamed  that  as 
he  went  into  the  theatre  the  people  received  him  with  great  applause,  and 
that  he  himself  was  adorning  the  Temple  of  Venus  Victrir,  or  "  the  Victo- 
rious," with  spoils.  He  was  partly  encouraged  and  partly  disheartened 
by  this  dream ;  but  the  latter  feeling  was  predominant,  inasmuch  as  he  feared 
lest  the  adorning  a  place  consecrated  to  Venus  should  be  performed  by  Caesar 
with  the  spoils  taken  from  himself,  who  boasted  of  being  descended  from  that 
Goddess  through  the  line  of  lulus  or  Ascanius. 

3  The  arms  which  tJte  flying  Sertorius)  ver.  16.     In  allusion  to  his  triumph 
over  Sertorius,  the  leader  of  the  Marian  party  in  Spain.     See  B.  ii.  1.  549, 
and  the  Note  to  the  passage,  and  the  Note  to  B.  rii.  1.  25. 

4  In  his  white  toga)  ver.  17.     The  white  toga,  or  the  "toga  pura,"  was 
worn  by  the  Senators  in  the  time  of  peace,  while  a  robe  of  purple  covered  with 
embroidery  was  worn  by  the  victorious  general  in  the  triumphal  chariot. 
The  family  of  Pompey  was  of  the  Equestrian  order. 


B.  vii.  27-45.]  PHARSALIA.  251 

stained  ranks,  from  every  side  the  war.  Whence  canst  thou 
then  obtain  the  slumbers  of  the  populace1  and  a  happy 
night?  O  blessed,  if  even  thus  thy  Home  could  behold 
thee! 

Would  that,  Magnus,  the  Gods  of  heaven  had  granted  a 
single  day  to  thy  country  and  to  thee,  on  which  either, 
assured  of  destiny,  might  have  enjoyed  the  last  blessing  of 
affection  so  great2.  Thou  goest  as  though  destined  to  die3 
in  the  Ausonian  city.  She,  conscious  to  herself  of  her 
assured  wishes  in  behalf  of  thee,  has  not  believed  that  this 
evil  ever  existed  in  destiny;  that  thus  she  is  to  lose  the 
tomb  even  of  Magnus.  Thee,  with  mingling  griefs,  would 
both  old  men  and  youths  have  bewailed,  and  the  child  un- 
taught. The  female  throng,  their  locks  dishevelled,  would, 
as  at  the  funeral  of  Brutus 4,  have  torn  their  breasts.  Now 
even,  although  they  may  fear  the  darts  of  the  unscrupulous 
victor,  although  Cffisar  himself  may  bring  word  of  thy 
death,  they  will  weep  ;  but,  while  they  are  bringing  frankin- 
cense, while  laurel  wreaths  to  the  Thunderer5.  O  wretched 
people,  whose  groans  devour  their  griefs !  who  equally  lament 
thee  in  the  Theatre  no  longer  full ! 

The  sunbeams  had  conquered  the  stars,  when,  with  the 


1  Obtain  the  slumbers  of  the  populace)  ver.  28.     "  Unde  pares  somnos 
populi,  noctemque  beatamV'     The  Commentators  are  at  variance  as  to  what 
is  the  meaning  of  this  line,  and  it  is  undecided  whether  "pares"  is  a  verb  or 
an  adjective,  and  whether  the  sentence  should  be  read  with  or  without  a  note 
of  interrogation.     It  seems,  however,  most  likely  that  "pares"  is  a  verb ;  in 
which  case  the  sentence  may  either  mean  "  How,  Pompey,  are  you  to  enjoy 
in  future  the  placid  slumbers  common  to  the  lower  classes  V  or,  "  How,  Pom- 
pey, are  yon  to  provide  placid  slumbers  for  your  harassed  country?" 

2  The  last  blessing  of  affection  so  great)  ver.  32.   "  Would  that,  aware  of 
your  approaching  end,  the  Fates  had  granted  one  day  on  which  you  and  the 
Boman  populace  might  have  bid  each  other  an  eternal  farewell." 

3  As  though  destined  to  die)  ver.  33.     That  is,  "  in  your  present  dream." 

4  As  at  the  funeral  of  Brutvs)  ver.  39.     The  matrons  of  Rome  mourned  a 
whole  year  for  Lucius  Junius  Brutus,  the  avenger  of  Lucretia,  who  expelled 
the  Tarquins  from  the  city. 

*  Laurel  wreaths  to  the  Thunderer)  ver.  42.  "  They  will  now  weep  for 
you  though  forced  to  carry  frankincense  and  garlands  to  the  Capitol  in 
honor  of  the  triumph  of  the  victorious  Caesar."  The  Poet  covertly  implies 
the  lawlessness  of  which  Caesar  will  be  guilty  in  insisting  upon  a  triumph  for 
a  victory  gained  in  civil  war,  contrary  to  the  laws  of  his  country,  which  ex- 
pressly forbade  it. 


252  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  vii.  45-66. 

mingled  murmur  of  the  camps  the  multitude  resounded, 
and,  the  Fates  dragging  on  the  world  to  ruin,  demanded  the 
signal  for  combat.  The  greatest  part  of  the  wretched 
throng,  not  destined  to  behold  the  day  throughout,  mur- 
murs around  the  very  tent  of  the  general,  and,  inflamed, 
with  vast  tumult,  urges  on  the  speeding  hours  of  approach- 
ing death.  Direful  frenzy  arises ;  each  one  desires  to  pre- 
cipitate his  own  destinies  and  those  of  the  state.  Pompey  is 
called  slothful  and  timorous,  and  too  sparing  of  his  father- 
in-law,  and  attached  to  his  sway  of  the  world1,  in  desiring 
to  have  at  the  same  moment  so  many  nations  from  every 
part  under  his  own  control,  and  being  in  dread  of  peace. 
Still  more,  both  the  kings  and  the  eastern  nations,  too,  com- 
plain that  the  war  is  prolonged,  and  that  they  are  detained 
at  a  distance  from  their  native  land. 

Is  it  your  pleasure,  O  Gods  of  heaven,  when  it  is  your 
purpose  to  overthrow  all  things,  to  add  to  our  errors  this 
crime-?  We  rush  on  upon  slaughter,  and  arms  that  are  to 
injure  ourselves  we  demand.  In  the  camp  of  Pompey,  Phar- 
salia  is  an  object  of  desire !  Tullius,  the  greatest  author 
of  Roman  eloquence,  beneath  whose  rule  and  Consular  toga 
the  fierce  Catiline  trembled  at  the  axes3,  producers  of  peace, 
enraged  with  the  warfare,  while  he  longed  for  the  Rostra 
and  the  Forum,  having,  as  a  soldier,  submitted  to  a  silence 


1  And  attached  to  his  sway  of  the  «rorW)  ver.  54.     Pompey  was  accused  of 
being  too  fond  of  his  sway  over  monarchs  gathered  from  all  regions  of  the 
world,  and  unwilling  to  bring  the  contest  to  a  conclusion.     We  learn  from 
Plutarch  and  Appian  that  on  this  occasion  he  was  styled  "  Agamemnon,"  and 
the  "  King  of  kings."     Caesar,  in  his  account  of  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  82, 
confirms  the  present  statement  of  Lucan.     "  The  forces  of  Porapey,  being 
thus  augmented  by  the  troops  of  Scipio,  their  former  expectations  were  con- 
firmed, and  their  hopes  of  victory  so  much  increased,  that  whatever  time 
intervened  was  considered  as  so  much  delay  to  their  return  to  Italy ;  aud 
whenever  Pompey  was  acting  with  slowness  and  caution,  they  used  to  ex- 
claim that  it  was  the  business  only  of  a  single  day,  but  that  he  had  a  passion 
for  power,  and  was  delighted  in  having  persons  of  Consular  and  Praetorian 
rank  in  the  number  of  his  slaves." 

2  To  add  to  our  errors  this  crime)  ver.  59.  "  Is  it  your  determination  that, 
in  addition  to  the  fatality  which  decrees  our  downfall,  we  shall  be  guilty  of 
perverseness  amounting  to  criminality  1 " 

3  Catiline  trembled  at  the  axes)  ver.  64.     He  alludes  to  the  part  which 
Cicero,  then  Consul,  took  in  quelling  Catiline's  conspiracy.    It  was  in  a  great 
measure  by  his  prudence  that  it  was  suppressed. 


B.  vii.  66-84.]  I'lIARSALIA.  253 

so  prolonged,  reported  the  language  of  all.  Eloquence 
added  its  powers  l  to  the  feeble  cause  : — 

"  Fortune  requests  this  only  of  thee,  Magnus,  in  return 
for  favours  so  numerous,  that  thou  wilt  be  ready  to  make 
use  of  her ;  both  we,  the  nobles  in  thy  camp,  and  thy  kings, 
with  the  suppliant  world  pressing  around  thee,  entreat  that 
thou  wilt  permit  thy  father-in-law  to  be  overcome.  Shall 
Caesar  for  so  long  a  time  be  cause  of  war-  to  mankind? 
With  reason  is  it  distasteful  to  nations  subdued  by  thee  when 
speeding  past  them,  that  Pompey  should  be  slow  in  victory. 
Whither  has  thy  spirit  fled,  or  where  is  thy  confidence  in 
destiny  ?  Dost  thou  have  apprehensions,  ungrateful  man, 
as  to  the  Gods  of  heaven?  And  dost  thou  hesitate  to  trust 
the  cause  of  the  Senate  to  the  Deities  ? 

"  The  troops  themselves  will  tear  up  thy  standards,  and 
will  spring  forward  to  the  combat.  Let  it  shame  thee  to 
have  conquered  by  compulsion.  If  by  thee  as  our  appointed 
leader,  if  by  us  wars  are  waged,  be  it  their  right  to  meet 
upon  whatever  field  they  please.  Why  dost  thou  avert  the 
swords  of  the  whole  world  from  the  blood  of  Caesar  ?  Hands 
are  brandishing  weapons ;  with  difficulty  does  each  await  the 
delaying  standards ;  make  haste  that  thy  own  trumpet-call 
may  not  forsake  thee.  Magnus,  the  Senate  long  to  know3 


1  Eloquence  added  its  powers)  ver.  67.  It  has  been  generally  supposed 
by  the  learned  that  during  Cicero's  residence  in  the  camp  of  Pompey  he  was 
in  declining  health,  affected  with  low  spirits,  and  in  the  habit  of  inveighing 
against  everything  that  was  going  on  there,  and  giving  way  to  the  deepest 
despondency.  A  knowledge  that  this  was  the  case  may  possibly  have  caused 
Lucan  to  represent  him  as  one  of  those  who  urged  Pompey,  against  his  own 
inclination,  to  fight  the  battle  of  Pharsalia;  but  it  is  the  fact  that  he  really 
was  not  present  at  that  battle. 

-  He  cmise  of  vat)  ver.  72.  "  Bellum"  has  here  the  meaning  of  "a  cause 
of  warfare." 

3  The  Senate  long  to  Mow)  ver.  84-5.  "  Scire  Senatus  avet,  miles  te, 
Magne,  seqiiatur,  An  comes."  This  passage  admits  of  two  modes  of  interpre- 
tation : — "The  Senate  wishes  to  know  whether  you  think  that  you  have 
despotic  sway  over  them,  and  that  they  are  only  your  obedient  soldiers,  or 
whether  you  look  upon  them  as  your  equals  and  sharers  in  the  command." 
This  is  the  old  interpretation,  but,  Lemaire  suggests  another,  which  seems 
much  more  consistent  with  probability :  "  Do  you  look  upon  the  Senators  as 
soldiers  who  have  placed  themselves  under  your  command,  ready  to  fight,  or 
merely  as  fellow  travellers,  forsooth,  in  your  journey  and  flight  from  the 
arms  of  Caesar?" 


254  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vu.  84-108. 

whether  they  are  to  follow  thee  as  soldiers  or  whether  as 
companions." 

The  leader  groaned,  and  perceived  that  this  was  a  subter- 
fuge of  the  Gods,  and  that  the  Destinies  were  opposed  to 
his  own  feelings. 

"  If  this  is  the  pleasure  of  all,"  he  said ;  "  if  the  occasion 
requires  Magnus  as  a  soldier,  not  a  general,  no  further  will 
I  delay  the  Fates.  In  one  ruin  let  Fortune  involve  the 
nations,  and  let  this  day  be  to  a  large  portion  of  mankind 
the  very  last.  Still,  Rome,  I  call  thee  to  witness,  that 
Magnus  has  received1,  the  day  on  which  all  tilings  came  to 
ruin.  The  labour  of  the  war  might  have  cost  thee  no  wound2; 
it  might  have  delivered  up  the  leader,  subdued  without 
slaughter  and  a  captive,  to  violated  peace  3.  What  frenzy  is 
this  in  crimes,  0  ye,  blind  to  fate  ?  Do  they  dread  to  wage 
a  civil  war,  so  as  not  to  conquer  with  blood  ?  The  earth  we 
have  wrested  from  him4,  from  the  whole  ocean  we  have 
excluded  him;  his  famishing  troops  we  have  compelled 
to  premature  rapine  of  the  crops5;  and  in  the  enemy  have 
we  wrought  the  wish  to  prefer  to  be  slaughtered  with  swords, 
and  to  mingle  the  deaths  of  his  partisans  with  my  own. 

"  A  great  part  of  the  warfare  has  been  accomplished  hi 
those  measures,  by  which  it  has  been  brought  about  that  the 
raw  recruit  is  in  no  dread  of  the  combat,  if  only  under  the 
excitement  of  valour  and  in  the  heat  of  resentment  they  de- 
mand the  standards  to  be  raised.  The  very  fear  of  an  evil 
about  to  come  has  committed  many  a  one  to  extreme  dangers. 
He  is  the  bravest  man,  who,  ready  to  endure  what  is 
deserving  of  fear,  if  it  impends  close  at  hand,  can  also 
defer  it.  Is  it  your  pleasure  to  abandon  this  so  pros- 

1  That  Magnus  lias  received)  ver.  92.  Has  had  this  fatal  day  forced 
upon  him  by  necessity,  and  has  not  sought  it. 

1  Might  have  cost  thee  no  wound)  ver.  93.  He  means  that  the  war  might 
have  been  prolonged  so  as  to  weary  out  the  enemy  without  any  bloodshed. 

3  Delivered  up  the  leader  to  violated  peace)  ver.  94.     "  Tradere  paci,"  ac- 
cording to  some  of  the  Commentators,  simply  means  "  to  reduce  to  peace  "  by 
subduing  him  ;  but  Burmann  thinks  that  it  signifies  "  to  immolate  Caesar  as 
a  victim  to  that  peace  which  he  has  so  wantonly  violated." 

4  The  earth  we  have  wrested  from  him)  ver.  97.     He  means  the  regions  of 
the  East,  the  richest  part  of  the   Roman  provinces,  which  were  favouring 
the  cause  of  Pompey  against  Caesar. 

4  To  premature  rapine  of  the  crops)  ver.  99.  During  the  war  in 
Epirus. 


B.  vii.  108-135.]  PHARSALIA.  255 

perous  state  of  things  to  Fortune,  to  leave  the  hazard  of 
the  world  to  the  sword  ?  They  wish  rather  for  their  leader 
to  fight  than  to  conquer.  Fortune,  thou  hadst  granted  me 
the  Roman  state  to  rule ;  receive  it  still  greater,  and  protect 
it  amid  the  blindness  of  warfare. 

"  War  will  be  neither  the  crime  nor  the  glory  of  Pompey. 
Before  the  Gods  of  heaven,  thou  dost  conquer  me,  Ctesar,  by 
thy  hostile  prayers.  The  battle  is  now  fought.  What  an 
amount  of  crimes,  and  of  evils  an  extent  how  vast  will  this  day 
bring  upon  nations!  how  many  kingdoms  will  lie  in  ruin! 
How  turbid  will  Enipeus  run  *  with  Roman  blood !  I  could 
wish  that  the  first  dart  of  this  lamentable  warfare  would  strike 
this  head,  if  without  the  ruin  of  the  state  and  the  downfall 
of  the  party,  it  were  about  to  fall ;  for  not  more  joyous  to 
Magnus  will  victory  prove.  To  nations,  this  slaughter  per- 
petrated, Pompey  will  be  this  day  either  a  hated  or  a  pitied 
name2.  Every  woe  that  the  allotted  destiny  of  things  shall 
bring  will  belong  to  the  conquered,  to  the  conqueror  every 
crime." 

Thus  he  speaks,  and  allows  the  combat  to  the  nations, 
and  gives  loose  rein  to  them  as  they  rage  with  anger  ;  and 
just  as  the  mariner,  overpowered  by  the  boisterous  Cor  us, 
leaves  the  rudder  to  the  winds,  and,  skill  abandoned,  a 
sluggish  burden,  the  ship  is  borne  along.  Confused,  with 
an  anxious  murmuring  the  camp  resounds,  and  bold  hearts 
throb  against  their  breasts  with  uncertain  palpitations.  On 
the  countenances  of  many  is  the  paleness  of  approaching 
death,  and  an  aspect  strongly  indicating  their  destiny. 
It  is  clear  that  the  day  is  come,  which  is  to  bestow  a  fate 
for  everlasting  upon  human  affairs,  and  it  is  manifest,  that 
in  that  combat  it  is  sought  what  Rome  is  to  be  :f.  His 
own  dangers  each  man  knows  not,  distracted  with  greater 
fears. 

Who,  beholding  the  shores  overwhelmed  by  sea,  who, 

1  How  turbid  mil  Enipeus  run)  ver.  116.     See  B.  vi.  1.  373. 

2  A  hated  or  a  pitied  name)  ver.  120-1.     "  If  I  gain  this  victory  it  will 
only  be  through  the  slaughter  of  my  fellow  citizens,  and  the  nations  who  en- 
trust their  fortunes  to  me ;  if  I  am  conquered,  I  myself  am  irretrievably 
ruined." 

a  Is  sought  what  Rome  is  to  be)  ver.  132.  Whether  it  is  destined  to 
remain  a  free  republic,  or  is  to  become  a  monarchy  under  the  sway  of  a 
tyrant. 


256  THAR3ALIA.  [B.  vir.  135-153. 

seeing  the  ocean  on  the  summits  of  mountains,  and  the  sky, 
the  sun  hurled  down,  falling  upon  the  earth,  the  downfall 
of  things  so  numerous,  could  feel  fear  for  himself?  There 
is  no  leisure  to  have  apprehensions  for  one's  self;  for  the 
City  and  for  Magnus  is  the  alarm. 

Nor  have  they  confidence  in  their  swords,  unless  the 
points  shine  shai-pened  with  the  whetstone.  Then  is  every 
javelin  pointed  against  the  rock;  with  better  strings  they 
tighten  the  hows ;  it  is  a  care  to  fill  the  quivers  with  chosen 
arrows  1.  The  horseman  increases  the  spurs,  and  fits  on 
the  thongs  of  the  reins.  If  it  is  lawful  to  compare  the 
labours  of  men  with  the  Gods  of  heaven,  not  otherwise, 
Phlcgra  supporting  the  furious  Giants 2,  did  the  sword  of 
Mars  grow  warm  upon  the  Sicilian  anvils :t ;  and  a  second 
time  the  trident  of  Neptune  grew  red  with  flames,  and, 
Python  lying  prostrate,  Psean  renewed  his  darts,  Pallas 
scattered  the  locks  of  the  Gorgon  upon  her  .lEgis,  and 
the  Cyclops  moulded  anew  the  Pallensean  thunderbolts  of 
Jove 4. 

Fortune,  however,  did  not  forbear  by  various  marks  to 
disclose  the  woes  about  to  ensue.  For  while  they  were  re- 
pairing to  the  Thessalian  fields,  the  whole  sky  opposed  them 

1  To  fill  the  quivers  with  chosen  arrow*)  ver.  142.     The  "pharetra,"  or 
quiver  filled  with  arrows,  was  used  by  most  of  the  ancient  nations  that  ex- 
celled in  archery,  among  whom  were  the  Scythians,  Persians,  Lyoians,  Thra- 
cians,  and  Cretans.     It  was  made  of  leather,  and  was  sometimes  adorned 
with  gold  and  colours.     It  had  a  lid,  and  was  suspended  by  a  belt  from  the 
right  shoulder.     Its  usual  position  was  on  the  left  hip,  and  it  was  thus  worn 
by  the  Scythians  and  Egyptians.    The  Cretans,  however,  wore  it  behind  the 
back,  and  Diana  in  her  statue  is  represented  aa  so  doing. 

2  Phlcgra  supporting  thefunous  Giants)  ver.  145.    See  B.  v.  1.  597,  and 
the  Note  to  the  passage. 

3  Grow  icarm  upon  the  Sicilian  anvils)  ver.  146.     He  alludes  to  the  pre- 
parations which,  previous  to  the  battle  of  the  Gods  with  the  Giants,  Vulcan 
and  the  Cyclops  made  at  the  forge  which  they  had  at  Mount  2Etna  in  Sicily. 
There  they  furbished  the  lance  or  sword  ("  ensis"  may  mean  either)  of  Mars, 
the  trident  of  Neptune,  the  arrows   with  which  Paean,  or  Apollo,  had  slain 
the  serpent  Python,  the  JEgis  or  shield  of  Minerva,  on  which  was  the  head  of 
the  Gorgon  Medusa,  and  the  thunderbolts  of  Jupiter. 

4  The   Pallenaan   thunderbolts  of  Jove)   ver.  150.     So  called   because 
about    to    be    employed    at    Pallene,    which    was   more    anciently  called 
Phlegm,  where  this  battle  was  said  to  have  taken  place.    It  was  a  Peninsula 
jutting  out  into  the  sea  from  Chalcidice  in  Macedonia.     On  the  Isthmus 
which  connected  it  with  the  main  land  stood  the  town  of  Potidaea. 


B.  vn.  153-169.]  PHAESALIA.  257 

as  they  come,  and  in  the  eyes  of  the  men  the  lightnings 
rent  asunder  the  clouds;  and  torches  meeting  them,  and 
columns  of  immense  flames,  and  the  sky  presented  ser- 
pentine forms,  greedy  of  the  waves1,  with  fiery  meteors 
intermingled,  and  with  hurled  lightnings  dimmed  their 
eyes.  The  crests  it  struck  off  from  their  helmets2,  and 
dissolved  the  hilts  of  their  melted  swords,  and  liquefied 
the  darts  torn  away3,  and  made  the  hurtful  weapon  to 
smoke  with  sulphur  from  the  skies. 

Moreover,  the  standards,  covered  with  swarms  innu- 
merable 4,  and  with  difficulty  torn  up  from  the  ground 5, 
bowed  the  head  of  the  standard-bearer,  weighed  down  with 
an  unusual  burden,  soaking  with  tears,  even  as  far  as 
Thessaly  the  standards  of  Koine  and  of  the  republic". 
The  bull,  urged  onward  for  the  Gods  above,  flies  from  the 
spurned  altar,  and  throws  himself  headlong  along  the 
Emathian  fields ;  and  for  the  sad  rites  no  victim  is  found. 

But  thou,  Csesar,  what  heavenly  Gods  of  criminality, 
what  Eumenides,  didst  thou  with  due  ceremonials  invoke 7  ? 

1  Serpentine  forms,  greedy  of  the  waves)  ver.  156.     "  Fythoras  aquarum" 
probably  means  "  water-spouts"  assuming  a  serpentine  shape. 

2  The  crests  it  struck  off  from  their  helmets)  ver.  158.    The  helmets  of  the 
ancients  were  very  commonly  surmounted  by  crests  of  horse-hair.     In  the 
Roman  army  the  crest  was  not  only  used  for  ornament,  but  to  distinguish 
the  different  centuries,  each  of  which  wore  one  of  a  different  colour. 

3  And  liquefied  the  darts  torn  away)  ver.  160.     Most  of  these  portentous 
occurrences  are  related  by  Valerius  Maximus  as  having  happened  to  Pompey 
in  his  march  from  Dyrrhachium  to  Thessaly ;  and,  according  to  him,  they 
were  so  many  warnings  for  him  to  avoid  a  battle  with  Caesar. 

4  Covered  with  swarms  innumerable)  ver.  161.      Weise  takes  "examen" 
here  to  mean  "flocks  of  birds  ;"  but  it  is  more  probable  that  swarms  of  bees 
are  meant,  which  Valerius  Maximus  mentions  on  the  same  occasion  as  clinging 
to  the  standards  of  Pompey's  troops,  B.  i.  c.  6. 

4  With  difficulty  lorn  up  from  the  ground)  ver.  162.  The  standards  stuck 
so  fast  in  the  ground  that  it  was  only  with  the  utmost  difficulty  that  they 
were  withdrawn  from  it,  and  then  they  were  so  weighty  that  the  standard- 
bearers  were  forced  to  incline  their  heads  forwards  in  supporting  them  ;  they 
were  dripping,  too,  with  water,  as  though  weeping  for  the  public  calamities. 

6  The  standards  of  Rome  and  of  the  republic)   ver.   164.     The  word 
"signa"  is  repeated  in  this  line  by  the  figura  anaphora.  They  grieved  because 
hitherto  they  had  been  the  standards  of  the  whole  Roman  republic,  whereas 
in  future  they  were  doomed  to  serve  in  the  cause  of  but  one  individual, 
namely,  Caesar,  and  his  successors. 

7  What  Eumenides  didst  f/tow  invoke)  ver.  169.    Lucaa,  with  his  usual  hos- 

8 


258  PHABSALIA.  [a  vn.  169-188. 

What  Deities  of  the  Stygian  realms,  and  u-hat  infernal 
fiends,  and  monsters  steeped  in  night,  didst  thou  pro- 
pitiate, so  ruthlessly  about  to  wage  the  impious  warfare? 
Now  (it  is  matter  of  doubt  whether  they  believed  the  por- 
tents of  the  £rods,  or  their  own  excessive  fears),  Pindus 
seemed  to  many  to  meet  with  Olympus,  and  Haemus  to 
sink  in  the  deep  valleys,  Pharsalia  to  send  forth  by  night 
the  din  of  warfare,  flowing  blood  to  run  along  Osssean 
Boebeis1;  and  in  turn  they  wondered  at  their  features 
being  concealed  amid  gloom2,  and  at  the  day  growing 
pale,  and  at  night  hovering  over  their  helmets,  and  their 
departed  parents  and  all  the  ghosts  of  their  kindred  flitting 
before  then-  eyes.  But  to  their  minds  this  was  one  consola- 
tion, in  that  the  throng,  conscious  of  their  wicked  intentions, 
who  hoped  for  the  throats  of  their  fathers,  who  longed  for 
the  breasts  of  their  brothers,  exulted  in  these  portents  and 
the  tumultuous  feelings  of  their  minds,  and  deemed  the 
sudden  portents  to  be  omens  of  their  impious  deeds. 

What  wonder,  that  nations,  whom3  the  last  day  of  liberty 
was  awaiting,  trembled  with  frantic  fear,  if  a  mind  fore- 
knowing woes  is  granted  to  mankind  ?  The  Roman,  who,  a 

tility  to  Caesar,  implies  that  on  the  night  before  the  battle  he  sacrificed  to  the 
Infernal  Deities ;  he  is  censured  by  Bunnann  for  implying  that  the  Goda 
of  heaven  might  sanction  criminality,  and  for  not  knowing  that  victory  was 
never  supposed  to  lie  in  the  hands  of  the  Infernal  Deities.  Appian,  B.  ii. 
c.  116,  informs  us  that  in  the  middle  of  the  night  before  the  battle  Caesar 
performed  sacrifice,  and  invoked  Mars,  and  Venus  his  ancestress,  and  vowed 
a  temple  to  Victory  if  he  should  gain  the  battle. 

1  To  run  along  Otscean  Boebeis)  ver.  176.  See  B.  vi.  L  382,  and  the  Note 
to  the  passage. 

*  Being  concealed  amid  gloom)  ver.  177.    Floras,  B.  iv.  c.  2,  mentions  the 
deep  gloom  that  came  over  in  the  middle  of  the  day.     Badiua  Ascensius 
thinks  that  the  following  remarks  of  Lucan  here  apply  to  the  partisans  of 
Caesar ;  it  is,  however,  pretty  clear  that  he  is  censuring  the  Fompeian  party 
for  their  readiness  to  enter  upon  the  civil  strife. 

*  What  wonder,  that  nations,  whom)  ver.  185-7.     "  Quid  mirum,  populos, 
quos  lux  extrema  manebat,  Lymphato  trepidasse  metn  1  prassaga  malorum  Si 
data  mens  homini  est."     This  passage  admits  of  three  modes  of  interpreta- 
tion :     "  What  wonder  is  it  that  people  were  alarmed  who  had  now  arrived 
at  the  last  day  of  their  lives?"  or,  "  ^Yhat  wonder  if  they  were  alarmed  when 
the  waning  light  of  liberty  was  forsaking  them  V  or,  "  What  wonder  if  na- 
tions who  saw  the  light  at  the  extremities  of  the  world  had  apprehensions  at 
that  time  of  the  scene  of  horror  then  acting  in  Thessaly  1" 


B.  vn.  188-203.]  PHARSALIA.  259 

stranger,  lies  adjacent  to  Tyrian  Gades1,  and  he  who  drinks 
of  Armenian  Araxes2,  beneath  whatever  clime,  beneath 
•whatever  Constellation  of  the  universe  he  is,  is  sad,  and  is 
ignorant  of  the  cause,  and  chides  his  flagging  spirits ;  he 
knows  not  what  he  is  losing  on  the  Emathian  plains.  An 
augur,  if  there  is  implicit  credit3  to  be  given  to  those  who 
relate  it,  sitting  on  the  Euganean  hill4,  where  the  steaming 
Aponus  •'  arises  from  the  earth,  and  the  waters  of  Timavus 
of  An  tenor"  are  dispersed  in  various  channels,  exclaimed : — 
"  The  critical  day  is  come,  a  combat  most  momentous  is 
being  waged,  the  impious  arms  of  Pompey  and  of  Caesar 
are  meeting."  Whether  it  was  that  he  marked  the  thun- 
ders and  the  presaging  weapons  of  Jove,  or  beheld  the 
whole  sky  and  the  poles  standing  still  in  the  discordant 
heavens ;  or  whether  the  saddening  light  in  the  sky  pointed 
out  the  fight  by  the  gloomy  paleness  of  the  sun. 

The  day  of  Thessaly  undoubtedly  did  nature  introduce 
unlike  to  all  the  days  which  she  displays ;  if,  universally, 
with  the  experienced  augur,  the  mind  of  man  had  marked7 

1  Adjacent  to  Tyrian  Gades)  ver.  187.     Gades,  now  Cadiz,  in  Spain,  was 
said  to  have  been  a  Phrygian  or  Tyrian  colony. 

2  Of  Armenian  Araxes)  ver.  188.     See  B.  i.  1.  19,  and  the  Note  to  the 
passage. 

3  If  there  is  implicit  credit)  ver.  192.     He  alludes  to  the  story  which 
is   related   by   Plutarch   and    Aulus    Gellius,   B.  xvi.  c.  18,  that  on  the 
day  when  the  battle  of  Pharsalia  was  fought  C.  Cornelius,  a  celebrated 
soothsayer,  was  then  at  Patavium,  and  that,  observing  the  portentous  signs 
given  by  his  science,  he  told  those  who  were  then  standing  by  him  that  that 
very  instant  the  battle  was  beginning ;  and  then,  turning  again  to  the  signs, 
lie  suddenly  sprang  forward  as  though  inspired,  and  exclaimed,  "  Caesar,  thou 
hast  conquered." 

4  Sitting  on  tlte  Euganean  hill)  ver.  192.    The  Euganean  Hills  were  near 
the  city  of  Patavium,  now  Padua,  in  the  north  of  Italy,  which  was  said  so 
have  been  founded  by  a  people  called  the  Euganei. 

s  Where  the  steaming  Aponus)  ver.  193.  The  Aponus  or  "  Aponi  Fons," 
"  Aponian  Springs,"  was  a  medicinal  spring  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Pata- 
vium, much  valued  for  its  healing  qualities. 

6  Timavus  of  Anterior)  ver.  194.     Timavus  is  a  stream  now  called  Ti- 
mavo  or  Friuli,  forming  the  boundary  between  Istria  and  Venetia,  and  falling 
into  the  Sinus  Tergestinus  in  the  Adriatic  or  Gulf  of  Venice.    Antenor,  who 
fled  from  Troy  with  some  Trojans,  was  said  to  have  been  the  founder  of 
Patavium. 

7  Tfie  mind  of  man  had  marked)  ver.  203.     "  If  mankind  had  been  en- 
dowed with  the  augur's  skill,  they  might  have  known  by  the  signs  prevalent 
throughout  the  world  the  contest  that  was  then  going  on  at  Pharsalia." 

s  2 


260  PHARSALIA.  [B.  vn.  203-223. 

the  unusual  phenomena  of  the  heavens,  Pharsalia  might 
have  been  beheld  by  the  whole  world.  O  mightiest  of  men, 
the  indications  of  whom  Fortune  afforded  throughout  the 
earth,  to  whose  destinies  all  heaven  had  leisure  to  attend ! 
These  deeds,  both  among  future  nations  and  the  races  of 
your  descendants,  whether  by  their  own  fame  alone  they 
shall  come  down  to  remote  ages,  or  whether  the  care  of  my 
labours  is  in  any  degree  able  as  well  to  profit  mighty  names, 
when  the  wars  shall  be  read  of,  will  excite  both  hopes  and 
fears,  and  wishes  destined  to  be  of  no  avail;  and  all, 
moved,  shall  read  of  thy  fate  as  though  approaching 
and  not  concluded,  and  still,  Magnus,  shall  wish  thee 
success. 

The  soldiers,  when,  gleamed  upon  by  the  opposite  rays 
of  Phoebus,  descending,  they  have  covered  all  the  hills  with 
glittering  brightness,  are  not  promiscuously  sent  forth  upon 
the  plains;  in  firm  array  stand  the  doomed  ranks.  To 
thee,  Lentulus,  is  entrusted  the  care  of  the  left  whig1,  to- 
gether with  the  first  legion,  which  then  was  the  best  in  war, 
and  the  fourth;  to  thee,  Domitius2,  valiant,  with  the  Deity 
adverse,  is  given  the  front  of  the  army  on  the  right. 
But  Hie  bravest  troops  redouble  the  strength  of  the  centre 
of  the  battle,  which,  drawn  forth  from  the  lands  of  the 
Cilicians,  Scipio  commands3,  the  chief  commander  hi  the 


1  To  thee,  Lentulus,  is  entrusted  the  care  of  the  left  wing)  ver.  218.    On  the 
other  hand,  Appian  assigns  the  right  wing  to  Lentulus  Spinther,  and  Plutarch 
to  Pompey,  while  he  gives  the  left  to  Domitius.    Caesar  says,  in  the  Civil  War, 
B.  iii.  c.  88 : — "  On  the  left  wing  were  the  two  legions  delivered  over  by  Caesar 
at  the  beginning  of  the  disputes  in  compliance  with  the  Senate's  decree,  one  of 
which  was  called  the  first,  the  other  the  third.     Here  Pompey  commanded 
in  person."     This  is  the  more  likely,  as,  from  the  strength  of  these  legions, 
they  would  probably  be  placed  opposite  to  Caesar's  strongest  legion,  the 
tenth,  which  was  on  his  right. 

2  To  thee,  Domitiits)  ver.  220.     This  was  L.  Domitius  Ahenobarbus,  who 
had  been  taken  and  released  by  Cresar  at  Corfinium,  and  had  opposed  his 
arms  at  Massilia ;  on  both  of  which  occasions,  as  here  remarked,  he  had  been 
singularly  unfortunate. 

3  Scipio  commands)  ver.  223.     This  was  Metellus  Scipio,  the  father- 
in-law  of  Pompey,  who  had  arrived  a  few  days  before  with  eight  legions 
from  Syria.     Caesar  says,  in  the  Civil  YTar,  B.  iii.  c.  88  : — "  Scipio,  with  the 
Syrian  legions,  commanded  the  centre.     The  Cilician  legion,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Spanish  cohorts,  which  we  s:iid  were  brought  over  by  Afranius,  were 
disposed  on  the  right  wing.     These  Pompey  considered  his  steadiest  troops." 


B.  vii.  223-231.]  PHAESALIA.  261 

Libyan  land1,  a  soldier  in  this.  But  near  the  streams  and 
the  waters-  of  the  flowing  Enipeus,  the  mountain  cohorts 
of  the  Cappadocians'',  and  the  Pontic  cavalry  with  their 
loose  reins4,  take  their  stand. 

But  most  of  the  positions  on  the  diy  plain5  Tetrarchs 
and  Kings0  and  mighty  potentates  held,  and  all  the  purple 
which  is  obedient  to  the  Latian  sword.  Thither,  too,  did 
Libya  send  her  Numidians"',  and  Crete  her  Cydonians8; 
thence  was  there  a  flight  for  the  arrows  of  Itursea0;  thence, 

1  In  tJw  Libyan  land)  ver.  223.  After  the  death  of  Pompey,  Scipio  took 
the  command  of  the  war  in  Africa. 

•  Hut  near  the  streams  and  the  waters)  ver.  224.  The  rest  of  the  disposition 
of  Pompey's  forces  is  thus  stated  by  Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  88  : — 
"  The  rest  he  had  interspersed  between  the  centre  and  the  wing,  and  he  had 
a  hundred  and  ten  complete  cohorts  ;  these  amounted  to  forty-five  thousand 
men.  He  had,  besides,  two  cohorts  of  volunteers,  who,  having  received  fa- 
vours from  him  in  former  wars,  flocked  to  his  standard ;  these  were  dispersed 
through  his  whole  army.  The  seven  remaining  cohorts  he  had  disposed  to 
protect  his  camp  and  the  neighbouring  forts.  His  right  wing  was  secured  by 
a  river  with  steep  banks;  for  which  reason  he  placed  all  his  cavalry,  archers, 
and  slingers  on  his  left  wing." 

3  Mountain  cohorts  of  the  Cappadocians)   ver.  225.     The  Cappadocians 
from  Asia  Minor  were  commanded  by  their  king,  Ariobarzanes.     See  B.  ii. 
1.  344,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage.     It  is  not  known  whether  the  epithet 
"mon tana"  is  given  to  them  from   living  in  mountainous  districts  in  their 
native  country,  or  from  their  being  encamped  on  the  hills  near  Pharsalia ; 
most  probably  the  former  is  the  fact. 

4  Pontic  cavalry  vnth   their   loose  reins)  ver.  225.     "Largus  habenae." 
These  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Cossacks  of  the  present  day,  and  seem  to 
have  similarly  excelled  in  horsemanship. 

s  Positions  on  the  dry  plain)  ver.  226.  "Sicci;"  meaning  that  part  of 
the  plain  which  was  at  a  distance  from  the  river. 

6  Tetrarcks  and  Kings)  ver.  227.     A  Tetrarch  was  originally  one  who  had 
the  fourth  part  of  a  kingdom  to  govern;  hence  the  word  came  to  be  applied 
to  small  potentates,  who,  though  enjoying  regal  dignity  and  power,  were  not 
considered  worthy  of  the  name  of  "  Rex,"  or  "  King." 

7  Libya  send  her  Numidians)  ver.  229.     The  subjects  of  Juba,  the  ally 
of  Pompey. 

9  And  Crete  far  Cydonians)  ver.  229.  Cydonis,  or  Cydon,  was  one  of 
the  principal  cities  of  the  isle  of  Crete,  on  the  north-west  coast  of  which  it 
was  situate.  The  inhabitants  were  among  the  most  skilful  archers  of  Crete ; 
and  it  was  the  first  place  from  which  quinces  were  brought  to  Rome,  which 
were  thence  called  "  mala  Cydonia,"  afterwards  corrupted  into  "  Melicotone," 
the  old  English  name  of  the  fruit. 

"  For  tli#  arrows  of  Tturcea)  ver.  230.  The  country  of  Ituroea  was  situate 
on  the  north-eastern  border  of  Palestine.  Its  people  were  of  the  Arab  race, 
and  of  warlike  and  predatory  habits.  Pompey  had  recently  reduced  them, 


262  PHARSALU.  [B.  vii.  231-242. 

fierce  Gauls,  did  you1  saDy  forth  against  your  wonted  foe; 
there  did  Iberia  wield  her  contending  bucklers-.  Tear 
from  the  victor  the  nations  ',  Magnus,  and,  the  blood  of  the 
world  spilt  at  one  moment,  cut  short  for  him  all  triumphs. 

On  that  day,  by  chance,  his  position  being  left,  Caesar, 
about  to  move  his  standards  for  foraging  hi  the  standing 
corn 4,  suddenly  beholds  the  enemy  descending  into  the  level 
plains,  and  sees  the  opportunity  presented  to  him,  a  thousand 
times  asked  for  in  his  prayers,  upon  which  he  is -to  submit 
everything  to  the  last  chance.  For,  sick  of  delay,  and 
burning  with  desire  for  rule,  he  had  begun,  in  this  short  space 
of  time,  to  condemn  the  civil  war  as  slow-paced  wickedness. 

in  a  great  degree,  under  the  Roman  rule,  and  many  of  their  warriors  entered 
the  Roman  army,  in  which  they  distinguished  themselves  by  their  skill  in 
archery  and  horsemanship.  They  were  not,  however,  reduced  to  complete 
subjection  to  Rome  till  after  the  Civil  Wars. 

1  Thence,  fierce  Gauls,  did  you)  ver.  281.  Burmann  thinks  that  the  Gala- 
tians  of  Asia  Minor  are  here  referred  to,  who  were  said  to  be  descendants  of 
the  people  of  Gaul,  and  were  aiding  Pompey  under  their  aged  king  Deiotarus. 
It  is,  however,  more  probable,  from  the  allusion  to  their  "wonted  foe," 
that  the  Allobroges  are  alluded  to,  the  desertion  of  two  of  whom  to  Pompey, 
Roscillus  and  JEgus,  is  mentioned  by  Caesar  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  59- 
61.  He  says  that  they  went  over  "  with  a  great  retinue." 

3  Wield  tier  contending  bucklers)  ver.  232.  The  "  cetra  "  was  a  target  or 
small  round  shield,  made  of  the  hide  of  a  quadruped.  It  was  worn  by  the 
people  of  Spain  (as  here  mentioned)  and  of  Mauritania.  By  the  latter 
people  it  was  sometimes  made  from  the  skin  of  the  elephant.  As  Tacitus 
mentions  the  "cetra"  as  being  used  by  the  Britons,  it  is  probably  the  same 
with  the  "  target "  used  by  the  Highlanders  of  Scotland. 

3  Tear  from  the  victw  ike  nations)  ver.  233.  By  causing  the  blood  to  be 
shed  of  so  many  nations,  leave  none  for  Coesar  to  triumph  over. 

*  For  foraging  in  the  standing  corn}  ver.  236.  Caesar  thus  relates  the 
circumstances  here  alluded  to,  in  the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  75  : — "  Caesar, 
seeing  no  likelihood  of  being  able  to  bring  Pompey  to  an  action,  judged  it 
the  most  expedient  method  of  conducting  the  war,  to  decamp  from  that  post, 
and  to  be  always  in  motion :  with  this  hope,  that  by  shifting  his  camp  and 
removing  from  place  to  place,  he  might  be  more  conveniently  supplied  with 
corn,  and  also,  that  by  being  in  motion  he  might  get  some  opportunity  of 
forcing  them  to  battle,  and,  by  constant  marches,  harass  Pompey's  army, 
which  was  not  accustomed  to  fatigue.  These  matters  being  settled,  when 
the  signal  for  marching  was  given,  and  the  tents  struck,  it  was  observed  that 
shortly  before,  contrary  to  his  daily  practice,  Pompey's  army  had  advanced 
further  than  usual  from  his  entrenchments,  so  that  it  appeared  possible  to 
come  to  an  action  on  even  ground."  According  to  another  account,  Caesar 
had  sent  out  three  legions  the  night  before,  to  forage,  which,  on  perceiving 
Pompey's  advance,  he  forthwith  recalled. 


B.  vii.  242-258.]  PHARSALIA.  263 

After  he  saw  the  fates  of  the  chieftains  drawing  nigh, 
and  the  closing  combat  at  hand,  and  perceived  the  falling 
ruins  of  destiny  tottering,  this  frenzy  even,  most  eager  for 
the  sword,  flagged  in  a  slight  degree,  and  his  mind,  which 
his  own  fortunes  did  not  permit  to  fear,  nor  those  of  Magnus 
to  hope,  bold  to  engage  for  a  prosperous  result,  hesitated 
in  suspense1.  Fear  thrown  aside,  confidence  sprang  up, 
better  suited  for  encouraging  the  ranks  : — 

"  O  soldiers,  subduers  of  the  world2,  the  stay  of  my  for- 
tunes3, the  opportunity  for  the  fight  so  oft  desired  is  come. 
No  need  is  there  for  prayers ;  now  hasten  your  destinies  by 
the  sword.  You  have  in  your  own  power  how  mighty  Caesar 
is  to  prove.  This  is  that  day  which  I  remember  being  pro- 
mised me4  at  the  waves  of  Rubicon,  in  hope  of  which 
we  took  up  arms,  to  which  we  deferred  the  return  of  our 
forbidden  triumphs5.  This  is  that  same  which  is  this  day0 
to  restore  our  pledges,  and  which  is  to  give  us  back  our 
household  Gods,  and,  your  period  of  service  completed,  is  to 

1  Hesitated  in  suspense)  ver.  247-8.     His  own  previous  successes  will 
not  allow  him  to  despair,  while  those  of  Pompey  will  not  allow  him  to  hope 
for  the  victory. 

2  0  soldiers,  suldmrs  of  the  world)  ver.  250.     Caesar,  in  the  Civil  War, 
B.  iii.  c.  85,  gives  the  following  account  of  the  first  of  his  two  brief  speeches 
on  this  occasion  : — "  Caesar  addressed  himself  to  his  soldiers,  when  they  were 
at  the  gates  of  the  camp,  ready  to  inarch  out.     '  We  must  defer,'  said  he, 
'  our  march  at  present,  and  set  our  thoughts  on  battle,  which  has  been  our 
constant  wish  :  let  us,  then,  meet  the  foe  with  resolute  minds.     We  shall 
not  hereafter  easily  find  such  an  opportunity.'  "     This  betokens  none  of  the 
hesitation  which  the  Poet  ascribes  to  Cassar  on  the  present  occasion. 

3  The  stay  of  my  fortunes)  ver.  250.     Conquerors  of  those  regions  com- 
prehended under  the  names  of  Gaul,  Hispania,  and  part  of  Britain  and  of 
Germany.      Appian,  in  the  speech  which   he  attributes  to  Csesar  on  the 
present  occasion,  makes  him  refer  to  the  four  hundred  nations  which  he,  by 
his  victories,  had  added  to  the  Roman  sway. 

4  }\'/rich  I  remember  leiny  promised  me)  ver.  255.  Promised  by  Laelius, 
the  Tribune,  and  assented  to  by  the  shouts  of  the  whole  army.  See  B.  i. 
1.  359,  et  seq.,  and  1.  388,  et  seq. 

4  The  return  of  our  forbidden  triumphs)  ver.  256.     "The  triumph  over 
the  conquered  Gauls,  which  the  jealousy  of  Pompey  and  the  Senate  has  not 
hitherto  allowed  us  to  enjoy." 

6  That  same  which  is  this  day)  ver.  257-8.  •  "This  is  the  day  which  will 
restore  us  who  have  been  banished  and  declared  the  enemies  of  our  country 
to  our  homes  and  our  wives  and  children,  to  which  we  have  been  forbidden 
to  return,  and  will  be  the  means  of  procuring  for  yon  allotments  of  land,  on 
which,  as  cultivators,  discharged  from  war  (emeriti),  you  will  be  enabled  to 
settle." 


264  PHARSALIA.  [u.  vn.  258-275. 

make  you  tillers  of  the  land.  This  tlie  day,  which,  fate  being 
the  witness,  is  to  prove  who  the  most  righteously  has  taken 
up  arms ;  this  battle  is  destined  to  make  the  conquered  the 
guilty  one. 

"  If  for  me  with  sword  and  with  flames  you  have  attacked 
your  country,  now  fight  valiantly,  and  absolve  your  swonls 
from  blame.  No  hand,  the  judge  of  the  warfare  being 
changed1,  is  guiltless.  Not  my  fortunes  are  at  stake,  but 
that  you  yourselves  may  be  a  free  people  do  I  pray,  that 
you  may-hold  sway  over  all  nations.  I,  myself,  anxious  to 
surrender  myself  to  a  private  station,  and  to  settle  myself  as 
an  humble  citizen  in  a  plebeian  toga2,  refuse  to  be  nothing3 
until  all  this  is  granted  to  you.  With  the  blame  my  own  do 
you  obtain  the  sway.  And  with  no  great  bloodshed  do  you 
aspire  to  the  hope  of  the  world  :  a  band  of  youths  selected 
from  the  Grecian  wrestling  schools,  and  rendered  effeminate 
by  the  pursuits  of  the  places  of  exercise J,  will  be  before  you, 
and  wielding  their  arms  with  difficulty ;  the  discordant  bar- 
barism, too,  of  a  mingled  multitude,  that  will  not  be  able 
to  endure  the  trumpets,  nor,  the  army  moving  on,  their 
own  shouts.  But  few  hands  with  them*  will  be  waging  a 

1  Tlie  judge  of  the  warfare  beiny  changed)  ver.  263.    Meaning  that  neither 
side  is  guiltless,  if  it  has  its  adversary  as  the  judge  of  its  conduct. 

2  An  humble  citizen-  in  a  plebeian  toga)  ver.  267.     He  is  ready  to  resign 
the  Consulship,  and  with  it  the  "  toga  pnctexta,"  which  was  the  garment  worn 
by  the  magistrates,  and  assume  the  "  toga  plebeia,"  or  garment  worn  by 
private  persons  in  time  of  peace. 

3  Refuse  to  be  nothing)  ver.  268.    "  Kihil  esse  recuso."    There  have  been 
two  meanings  suggested  for  these  words.     That  adopted  by  Marmontel  and 
some  of  the  Commentators  is,  "  So  long  as  I  obtain  for  you  your  rights, 
there  is  nothing  that  I  would  refuse  to  be."     The  other,  which  seems  the 
more  probable,  is,  "  In  order  that  I  may  gain  your  liberty  for  you,  I  do 
refuse  to  be  as  nothing,"  i.  e.,  to  be  trodden  under  foot  by  the  Senate,  or  to 
be  treated  like  a  private  person. 

4  By  tlie  pursuits  of  tiie  places  of  exercise)  ver.  271.     "  Palaestrae."     He 
means  that,  compared  with  the  real  hardships  which  his  own  veterans  have 
undergone,  the  exercises  of  the  Grecian  "  palaestrae  "  and  "  gymnasia"  have  but 
tended  to  render  the  partisans  of  Pompey  less  hardy.     The  *'  palaestrae  ''  were 
places  of  exercise,  probably  intended  for  such  as  were  about  to  contend  in  the 
public  games,  while  the  "  gymnasia"  were  for  the  use  of  the  public  iu  general. 
It  has,  however,  been  suggested  that  the  "palaestra;"  were  for  the  use  of  the 
boys  and  youths,  while  the  "gymnasia"  were  intended  for  the  men. 

4  But  few  hands  mlh  them)  ver.  274.  Notwithstanding  this  remark,  it  is 
most  probable  that  by  far  the  greater  part  of  Pompey's  army  consisted  of 
Roman  citizens,  as  it  is  solely  by  poetic  licence  that  Lucan  represents 


B.  vii.  275-303.]  PHARSALIA.  265 

civil  war ;  a  great  part  of  the  combat  will  rid  the  earth  of 
these  nations,  and  will  break  down  the  Roman  foe.  Go 
onward  amid  dastard  nations  and  realms  known  by  report, 
and  with  the  first  movement  of  the  sword  lay  prostrate  the 
world ;  and  let  it  be  known  that  the  nations  which,  so 
numerous,  Pompey  at  his  chariot  led  into  the  City,  are  not 
worth  a  single  triumph1. 

"  Does  it  concern  the  Armenians  to  what  chieftain  the 
Roman  sway  belongs  ?  Or  does  any  barbarian  wish  to  place 
Magnus  over  the  Hesperian  state,  purchased  with -the  least 
bloodshed  ?  All  Romans  they  detest,  and  most  do  they  hate 
the  rulers  whom  they  have  known.  But  me  Fortune  has 
entrusted  to  bands  of  whom  Gaul  has  made  me  witness  hi 
so  many  campaigns.  Of  which  soldier  shall  I  not  recognize 
the  sword  ?  And  when  a  quivering  javelin  passes  through 
the  air,  I  shah1  not  be  deceived  in  pronouncing  by  what  arm 
it  has  been  poised.  And  if  I  behold  the  indications  that 
never  deceived  your  leader,  both  stern  faces  and  threatening 
eyes,  then  have  you  proved  the  victors.  Rivers  of  blood  do 
I  seem  to  behold,  and  both  Kings  trodden  under  foot,  and 
the  corpses  of  Senators  scattered,  and  nations  swimming 
in  boundless  carnage. 

"  But  I  am  delaying  my  own  destinies  in  withholding  you 
by  these  words  from  rushing  upon  the  weapons.  Grant  me 
pardon  for  procrastinating  the  combat.  I  exult  in  hopes  ; 
never  have  I  beheld  the  Gods  of  heaven  about  to  present 
gifts  so  great,  so  close  at  hand  for  me ;  at  the  slight  distance 
of  this  plain  are  we  removed  from  our  wishes.  I  am  he 
who  shall  be  empowered,  the  battle  finished,  to  make  dona- 
tions of  what  nations  and  monarchs  possess.  By  what 
commotion  in  the  skies,  by  what  star  of  heaven  tumed 
back,  ye  Gods  above,  do  ye  grant  thus  much  to  the  Thes- 
salian  land? 

"  This   day,  either  the   reward   of  the  warfare  or  the 

Pompey 's  army  as  such  a  vast  multitude.  We  find  Caesar,  who  had  no 
interest  in  underrating  his  numbers,  representing  them  as  forty-five  thousand 
men,  and  Plutarch,  in  the  Life  of  Pompey,  says  that  Caesar's  army  consisted 
of  twenty-two  thousand,  and  Pompey's,  double  that  number. 

1  Are  not  worth  a  single  triumph)  ver.  280.  "  Show,  by  conquering  them 
all  united  with  ease,  that  these  nations,  for  the  conquest  of  whom  Pompey 
has  enjoyed  so  many  triumphs,  were  not  worthy  of  being  the  cause  for  a 
single  triumph  even." 


266  PHABSALIA.  [u.  vn.  303-322. 

punishment  is  awarded.  Behold  the  crosses  for  Caesar's 
partisans ' ;  behold  the  chains !  this  head,  too,  exposed  on 
the  Rostra2,  and  my  torn  limbs,  and  the  criminal  doings 
at  the  voting-places*,  and  the  battles  hi  the  enclosed  Plain 
of  Mars.  With  a  chieftain  of  Sulla's  party  are  we  waging 
civil  war.  It  is  care  for  you  that  moves  me.  For  a  lot, 
free  from  care,  sought  by  my  own  hand,  shall  await 
myself;  he  who,  the  foe  not  yet  subdued,  shall  look  back, 
shall  behold  me  piercing  my  own  vitals.  Ye  Gods,  whose 
care  the  earth  and  the  woes  of  Rome  have  drawn  down 
from  the  skies,  let  him  conquer,  who  does  not  deem  it 
necessary  to  unsheathe  against  the  conquered  the  ruthless 
sword,  and  who  does  not  think  that  his  own  fellow-citizens, 
because  they  have  raised  hostile  standards,  have  committed 
a  crime.  When  he  enclosed  your  troops  in  a  blockaded 
place,  your  valour  forbidden  to  be  employed,  with  how 
much  blood4  did  Pompey  glut  the  sword ! 

"  Still,  youths,  this  do  I  ask  of  you,  that  no  one  will  be 
ready  to  smite  the  back  of  the  foe ;  he  who  flies,  let  him  be 
a  fellow-citizen  \  But  while  the  darts  are  glittering,  let  not 
any  fiction  of  affection,  nor  even  parents  beheld  with  adverse 
front,  affect  you  ;  mangle  with  the  sword6  the  venerated  fea- 

1  The  crosses  for  Cottar's  partisans)  ver.  305.  "Caesareas  crucesj" 
meaning  the  crosses  erected  with  which  to  punish  the  adherents  of  Caesar. 

3  Exposed  on  Hie  Rostra)  ver.  305.     In  the  civil  war  between  Marius 
and  Sulla,  the  heads  of  those  who  were  slain  were  exposed  by  the  dominant 
party  at  the  Rostra.  Cicero's  head  and  hands  were  placed  there  subsequently 
to  this  by  his  revengeful  enemy,  Antony. 

*  The  criminal  doings  at  the   voting-places)   ver.  306.     "  Septorumque 
nefas."     See  this  allusion  explained  in  the  Note  to  B.  ii.  1.  197. 

4  With  how  much  Hood)  ver.  317.     We  have  already  seen  Lucan  repre- 
senting Pompey  as  leaving  Dyrrhachium,  and  not  pushing  on  his  successes 
there,  in  consequence  of  his  extreme  unwillingness  to  shed  the  blood  of  his 
fellow-citizens.     It  is  probably  the  fact  that  Pompey  acted  with  neither  any 
remarkable  relentlessness  nor  humanity,  but  with  more  prudence  than  either, 
on  that  occasion.     Of  course,  Lucan  would  not  miss  the  opportunity  of  put- 
ting an  untruth  in  the  mouth  of  Caesar. 

*  Let  him  be  a  fellow-citizen)  ver.  319.     Caesar,  long  before  this,  had 
stated  at  Rome  that  he  should  treat  those  as  his  friends  who  should  adopt 
neither  party ;  whereas  Pompey,  on  leaving  Rome,  had  declared  that  he 
should  consider  all  such  persons  his  enemies. 

6  Mangle  with  the  sword)  ver.  322.  It  is  generally  related  by  the  histo- 
rians that,  on  this  occasion,  Cxsar  especially  requested  his  soldiers  to  aim  at 
the  faces  of  Pompey 's  cavalry,  who,  being  in  a  great  measure  composed  of 


B.  vii.  322-332.]  PHARSALIA.  26r 

tures.  Whether  one  shall  rush  with  hostile  weapon  against 
a  kinsman's  breast,  or  whether  with  his  wound  he  shall 
violate  no  ties  of  relationship,  let  him  attack  the  throat  of  an 
unknown  foe,  just  the  same  as  incurring  the  criminality  of 
slaughtering  a  relative.  Forthwith  lay  the  ramparts  low,  and 
fill  up  the  trenches  with  the  ruins,  that  in  full  maniples, 
not  straggling,  the  army  may  move  on.  Spare  not  the 
camp ;  within  those  lines l  shall  you  pitch  your  tents,  from 
which  the  army  is  coming  doomed  to  perish." 

Csesar  having  hardly  said  all  this  -,  his  duties  attract  each 
one,  and  instantly  their  arms  are  taken  up  by  the  men. 
Swiftly  they  forestall  the  presage  of  the  war:',  and,  their  camp 
trodden  under  foot,  they  rush  on ;  in  no  order4  do  they 

the  young  Patricians  of  Rome,  would  dread  a  scar  on  the  face  even  more 
than  death  itself. 

1  Within  those  lines)  ver.  328.     "  You  shall  pitch  your  next  tents  within 
the  lines  of  the  enemy."     Appian  represents  Caesar  as  saying  on  this  occa- 
sion, "  As  you  go  forth  to  battle,  pull  down  the  ramparts  and  level  the  out- 
works, that  we  may  he  in  possession  of  nothing  but  as  conquerors.     Let  the 
enemy  themselves  behold  us  destitute  of  a  camp,  and  know  that  it  is  im- 
posed on  us,  as  a  matter  of  necessity,  either  to  gain  their  camp,  or  to  die 
in  battle." 

2  Caesar  having  hardly  said  all  this)  ver.  329.     Caesar,  in  his  Civil  War, 
B.  iii.  c.  90,  mentions  that  he  addressed  his  soldiers  in  the  following  terms, 
just  before  the  onset : — "  He  could  call  his  soldiers  to  witness  the  earnest- 
ness with  which  he  had  sought  peace,  the  efforts  that  he  had  made,  through 
Vatinius,  to  gain  a  conference  [with  Labienus],  and  likewise,  through  Clau- 
dius, to  treat  with  Scipio ;  and  in  what  manner  he  had  exerted  himself  at 
Oricum  to  gain  permission  from  Libo  to  send  ambassadors ;  that  he  had 
been  always  reluctant  to  shed  the  blood  of  his  soldiers,  and  did  not  wish  to 
deprive  the  republic  of  either  of  her  armies." 

3  Forestall  the  presage  of  ike  war)  ver.  331.     They  swiftly  obey  Caesar's 
command,  and,  destroying  their  lines  and  ramparts,  adopt  it  as  an  omen  of 
victory. 

4  In  no  order)  ver.  332.     This  is  not  the  truth,  and  purely  an  invention 
of  the  Poet,  to  show  the  determination  with  which  the  troops  of  Caesar 
began  the  engagement     Caesar,  in  his  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  89,  gives  the 
following  account  of  his  line  of  battle : — "  Caesar,   observing   his   former 
custom,  had  placed  the  tenth  legion  on  the  right,  the  ninth  on  the  left, 
although    it  was  very  much  weakened   by  the   battles   at   Dyrrhachium. 
He  placed  the  eighth  legion  so  close  to  the  ninth  as  to  almost  make  one  of 
the  two,  and  ordered  them  to  support  one  another.    He  drew  up  on  the  field 
eighty  cohorts,  making  a  total  of  twenty-two  thousand  men.     He  left  two 
cohorts  to  guard  the  camp;  he  gave  the  command  of  the  left  wing  to  Antony, 
of  the  right  to  P.  Sulla,  and  of  the  centre  to  Cn.  Domituis ;  he  himself  took 
his  post  opposite  Pompey.     At  the  same  time,  fearing,  from  the  disposition 


268  PHARSALIA.  [n.  vn.  332-360. 

stand,  with  no  disposition  made  by  their  general ;  everything 
they  leave  to  destiny.  If  in  the  direful  combat  you  had 
placed  so  many  fathers-in-law  of  Magnus,  and  so  many 
aspiring  to  the  sway  of  their  own  city,  not  with  course  so 
precipitate  would  they  have  rushed  to  the  combat. 

When  Pompey  beheld  the  hostile  troops  coming  forth 
straight  on,  and  allowing  no  respite  for  the  war,  but  that 
the  day  was  pleasing  to  the  Gods  of  heaven,  with  frozen 
heart  he  stood  astounded ;  and  for  a  chieftain  so  great  thus 
to  dread  arms  was  ominous.  Then  he  repressed  his  fears, 
and,  borne  on  a  stately  steed  along  all  the  ranks,  he  said  : — 

"  The  day  which  your  valour  demands,  the  end  of  the 
civil  warfare  which  you  have  looked  for,  is  at  hand.  Show 
forth  all  your  might ;  the  last  work  of  the  sword  is  at  hand, 
and  one  hour  drags  on  nations  to  their  fate.  Whoever  looks 
for  his  country  and  his  dear  household  Gods  ;  who  looks  for 
his  offspring,  and  conjugal  endearments,  and  his  deserted 
pledges  of  affection,  let  him  seek  them  with  the  sword ; 
everything  has  the  Deity  set  at  stake  in  the  midst  of  the 
plain.  Our  cause  the  better  one  bids  us  hope  for  the  Gods 
of  heaven  as  favouring ;  they  themselves  will  direct  the 
darts  through  the  vitals  of  Caesar ;  they  themselves  will  be 
desirous  with  this  blood  to  ratify  the  Eoman  laws.  If  they 
had  been  ready  to  grant  to  my  father-in-law  kingly  sway  and 
the  world,  they  were  able,  by  fatality,  to  hurry  on  my  old  age. 
It  is  not  the  part  of  the  Gods,  angered  at  nations  and  the 
City,  to  preserve  Pompey  as  their  leader. 

"  Everything  that  could  possibly  conquer  have  we  con- 
tributed. Illustrious  men  have  of  their  own  accord  sub- 
mitted to  dangers,  and  the  veteran  soldier,  with  his  holy 
resemblance  to  the  heroes  of  old.  If  the  Fates  at  these  troublous 
times  would  permit  the  Curii  and  the  Camilli  to  come  back, 
and  the  Decii,  who  devoted  their  lives  to  death,  on  this  side 
would  they  take  their  stand.  Nations  collected  from  the 

of  the  enemy  which  we  have  previously  mentioned,  lest  his  right  wing  might 
be  surrounded  by  their  numerous  cavalry,  he  rapidly  drafted  a  single  cohort 
from  each  of  the  legions  of  the  third  line,  formed  of  them  a  fourth  line,  and 
cet  them  opposite  to  Pompey 's  cavalry,  and,  acquainting  them  with  his  wishes, 
admonished  them  that  the  success  of  that  day  depended  on  their  courage. 
At  the  same  time  he  ordered  the  third  line,  and  the  entire  army,  not  to 
charge  without  his  command ;  that  he  would  give  them  the  signal  whenever 
he  wished  them  to  do  so." 


B.  vii.  360-390.]  PHAESALIA.  269 

remote  East,  and  cities  innumerable,  have  aroused  bands  to 
battle  so  mighty  as  they  never  sent  forth  be/ore.  At  the 
same  moment  the  whole  world  do  we  employ.  Whatever 
men  there  are  included  within  the  limits  of  the  heavens l  that 
bear  the  Constellations,  beneath  Notus  and  Boreas,  here  are 
we,  arras  do  we  wield.  Shall  we  not  with  our  wings  extended 
around  place  the  collected  foe  in  the  midst  of  tis?  Few 
right  hands  does  victory  require ;  and  many  troops  will 
only  wage  the  warfare  with  their  shouts.  Caesar  suffices 
not  for  our  arms2. 

"  Think  that  your  mothers,  hanging  over  the  summits 
of  the  walls  of  the  City,  with  their  dishevelled  hair,  are  en- 
couraging you  to  battle.  Think  that  a  Senate,  aged,  and 
forbidden  by  years  to  follow  arms,  are  prostrating  at  your 
feet  their  hallowed  hoary  locks;  and  that  Home  herself, 
dreading  a  tyrant,  comes  to  meet  you.  Think  that  that 
which  now  is  the  people,  and  that  which  shall  be  the  people, 
are  offering  their  mingled  prayers.  Free  does  this  mul- 
titude wish  to  be  born ;  free  does  that  wish  to  die.  If,  after 
pledges  so  great,  there  is  any  room  for  Pompey,  suppliant 
with  my  offspring  and  my  wife,  if  with  the  majesty  of  com- 
mand preserved  it  were  possible,  I  would  throw  myself 
before  your  feet.  I,  Magnus,  unless  you  conquer,  an  exile, 
the  scorn  of  my  father-in-law,  your  own  disgrace,  do  earn- 
estly deprecate  my  closing  destinies,  and  the  disastrous 
years  of  the  latest  period  of  my  life,  that  I  may  not,  an 
aged  man,  learn  to  be  a  slave." 

At  the  voice  of  their  general  uttering  words  so  sad 
their  spirits  are  inflamed,  and  the  Roman  valoiir  is 
aroused,  and  it  pleases  them  to  die  if  he  is  in  fear  of  the 
truth. 

Therefore  on  either  side  do  the  armies  meet  with  a  like 
impulse  of  anger;  the  fear  of  rule  arouses  the  one,  the 
hope  of  it  the  other.  These  right  hands  shall  do  what  no 
age  can  supply,  nor  the  human  race  throughout  all  ages 
repair,  even  though  it  should  be  free  from  the  sword.  This 
warfare  shall  overwhelm  future  nations,  and  shall  cut  short 

1  Within  the  limits  of  the  lieavvis)  ver.  363.  "  Limite  cceli "  probably 
means  the  circle  of  the  Zodiac. 

*  Caesar  suffices  not  for  our  arms)  ver.  368.  "  Caesar's  numbers  are  too  few 
for  us  to  slay  each  one  his  man." 


2TO  PHARSALIA.  [B.  VIL  390-402. 

to  the  world  the  people  of  ages  to  come,  the  day  of  their 
birth  being  torn  away  from  them.  Then  shall  all  the  Latin 
name  be  a  fable ;  the  ruins  concealed  in  dnst  shall  hardly 
be  able  to  point  out  Gabii1,  Veii-',  and  Cora',  and  the 
deserted  fields  shall  hardly  show  the  homes  of  Alba  and  the 
household  Gods  of  Laurentum4,  which  the  Senator  would 
not  inhabit,  except  upon  the  night  ordained',  with  re- 
luctance, and  complaining  that  Numa  has  so  ordained. 

These  monuments  of  things  devouring  time  has  not 
consumed,  and  has  left  still  crumbling  away;  the  crime 
of  civil  war  we  behold,  cities  so  many  deserted6.  To  what 
has  the  multitude  of  the  human  race  been  reduced  ?  We 
nations  who  are  born  throughout  the  whole  world  arc 
able  to  fill  neither  the  fortified  places  nor  the  fields  with 
men ;  one  City  receives  us  all.  By  the  chained  delver7  are 

1  To  point  out  Gabii)  ver.  392.  Gabii,  near  the  present  town  of  Casti- 
glione,  was  a  city  of  Latium,  near  the  Gabinian  Lake,  between  Rome  and 
Praeneste,  said  to  have  been  founded  by  a  colony  from  Alba  Longa ;  and, 
according  to  tradition,  Romulus  was  brought  up  there.  It  was  taken  by 
stratagem  by  Tarquinins  Superbus  (see  the  Fasti  of  Ovid,  B.  ii.  1.  690, 
et  seq),  and  was  in  rains,  as  we  learn  from  Horace,  in  the  time  of  Augustus. 

3   Veil)  ver.  392.     See  B.  v.  1.  29,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

3  And  Cora)  ver.  392.     This  was  an  ancient  town  of  Latium,  in  the 
mountains  of  the  Volsci,   said  to  have  been  founded  by  an  Argive  named 
Coraz.     It  is  mentioned  by  Virgil  in  the  2Eneid,  B.  vi.  1.  776. 

4  Household  Gods  of  Laurentum)  ver.  394.     Laurentum  was  one  of  the 
most  ancient  towns  of  Latium,  situate  on  a  high  ground  between  Ostia  and 
Ardea,  not  far  from  the  sea,  and  said  to  have  been  surrounded  by  a  grove  of 
laurels,  whence  it  was  supposed  to  have  derived  its  name.     According  to 
Virgil,  it  was  the  residence  of  King  Latinus,  and  the  capital  of  Latium,  and, 
historically  speaking,  it  appears  to  have  been  a  place  of  some  importance  in 
the  time  of  the  Roman  kings. 

*  Except  upon  the  night  ordained)  ver.  395.     He  is  supposed  obscurely 
to  allude  here  to  the  "  Latinac  ferize,"  or  Latin  festival,  which  was  celebrated 
at   Alba  Longa  by  night,  and  has  been  alluded  to  in  a  preceding  Note. 
Burmann  thinks  that  he  alludes  to  some  other  rites  now  unknown,  inasmuch 
as  Tarquinius  Superbus,  and  not  Numa,  instituted  that  festival  in  honor  of 
the  confederate  towns  of  Latium. 

*  Cities  so  many  deserted)  ver.  399.     See  B.  ii.  1.  24,  et  seq. 

7  By  the  chained  delver)  ver.  402.  He  means  that,  in  consequence  of  the 
scarcity  of  freemen,  slaves  in  chains  will  have  to  till  the  lands  of  Italy. 
Tibullus  mentions  the  chained  slave  singing  at  his  work,  B.  ii.  El.vi.  1.  26: — 
"  His  legs  rattle  with  the  iron,  but  he  sings  at  his  work."  Ovid  also,  in  hi» 
Tristia,  or  Lament,  B.  iv.  El.  i.  1.  5,  mentions  the  chained  "fossor"  (though 
there .  the  word  may  possibly  mean  "  a  miner  ") :  "  This,  too,  is  the  reason 


B.  TII.  402-420.]  PHAKSALIA.  2T1 

the  corn-fields  of  Hesperia  tilled ;  mouldering  with  its  an- 
cestorial  roofs  stands  the  house,  about  to  fall  upon  none  ; 
and  Rome,  thronged  with  no  citizens  of  her  own,  but  filled 
with  the  dregs  of  the  world,  did  we  surrender  to  that 
extent  of  slaughter  that  thenceforth  for  a  period  so  long  no 
civil  war  could  possibly  be  waged.  Of  woes  so  great  was 
Phursalia  the  cause.  Let  Cannte  yield,  a  fatal  name1, 
and  Allia,  long  condemned  hi  the  Eoman  annals-.  Borne 
has  marked  these  as  occasions  of  lighter  woes,  this  day  she 
longs  to  ignoi-e3. 

Oh  shocking  destinies  !  The  ah*  pestilential  hi  its  course, 
and  shifting  diseases,  and  maddening  famine,  and  cities 
abandoned  to  flames,  and  earthquakes  about  to  hurl  popu- 
lous cities 4  headlong,  those  men  might  have  repaired,  whom 
from  every  side  Fortune  has  dragged  to  a  wretched  death, 
while,  tearing  away  the  gifts6  of  lengthened  ages,  she  dis- 
plays them,  and  ranges  both  nations  and  chieftains  upon  the 
plains ;  through  whom  she  may,  Rome,  disclose  to  thee,  as 
thou  dost  come  to  ruin,  how  mighty  thou  dost  fall.  The 
more  widely  she  has  possessed  the  world,  the  more  swiftly 
through  her  prospering  destinies  has  she  run.  Throughout 
all  ages,  has  every  war  given  subdued  nations  unto  thee ; 

why  the  miner  sings  chained  with  the  fetter,  when  he  lightens  his  heavy 
labour  with  his  untaught  numbers." 

1  Cannae  yield,  a  fatal  name)  ver.  408.     See  B.  ii.  1.  46,  and  the  Note  to 


2  Long  condemned  in  the  Roman  annals)  ver.  408.     Allia  was  a  river 
about  fifteen  miles  from  Rome,  near  which  the  Roman  army  was  cut  to 
pieces  by  the  Gauls  under  Brennus.    "The  17th  day  of  the  Calends  of  July, 
or  the  16th  of  that  month,  on  which  this  defeat  happened,  was  ever  after 
set  down  as  "ater,"  or  "unlucky,"  in  the. Roman  Fasti 

3  This  day  she  longs  to  ignore)  ver.  411.     While  the  Calendar  records  the 
defeats  of  the  Allia  and  Cannae,  it  will  not  endure  to  take  any  notice  of  the 
disaster  of  Fharsalia.     One  of  the  Scholiasts  remarks  that  Caesar  ordered 
that  no  notice  should  be  taken  of  this  battle,  probably,  in  the  Fasti  Con- 
sulares. 

4  Populous  cities)  ver.  414.     "  Moenia  plena."     "  Fortified  cities,  full  of 
inhabitants." 

8  Tearing  away  the  gifts)  ver.  416-17.  "  Dum  munera  longi  explicat 
eripiens  <evi."  "  While  Fortune  is  now  ranging  in  battle  array,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  withdrawing  them,  the  gifts  which  she  has  in  such  a  lapse  of  years 
bestowed  on  all-powerful  Rome."  Burmann  understands  this  as  meaning  that 
Fortune  is  cutting  short  what,  to  many,  had  been  destined  as  the  gift  of  a 
prolonged  life. 


272  PHARSALIA.  [a  vii.  420-441. 

thee  has  Titan  beheld  advancing  towards  the  two  poles1. 
Not  much  space  was  there  remaining  of  the  eastern  earth, 
but  what  for  thee  the  night,  for  thee  the  entire  day,  for  thee 
the  whole  heavens  should  speed  on,  and  the  wandering  stars 
behold  all  things  belonging  to  Rome.  But  the  fatal  day  of 
Emathia  bore  back  thy  destinies,  equal  to  all  these  years 2. 

On  this  blood-stained  morn  was  it  caused  that  India 
does  not  shudder3  at  the  Latian  fasces,  and  that  she  does 
not  lead  the  Dahte 4  into  walled  cities  forbidden  to  wander, 
and  that  no  tightly-girt  Consul  presses  on5  a  Sarmatian 
plough.  This  is  the  cause  that  Parthia  is  ever  owing  to 
thee  a  cruel  retribution ;  that  flying  from  civil  strife,  and 
never  to  return,  Liberty  has  withdrawn  beyond  the  Tigris 
and  the  Rhine,  and,  so  oft  sought  by  us  at  hazard  of  our 
throats6,  still  wanders  abroad,  a  blessing  to  Germany  and 
Scythia,  and  no  further  looks  back  upon  Ausonia.  Would 
that  she  had  been  unknown  to  our  people,  and  that  thou, 
Rome,  from  the  time  when  first  Romulus  filled  the  walls 
founded  at  the  left-hand  flight  of  the  vultures  from  the 
guilty  grove,  even  unto  the  Thessalian  downfall,  hadst  re- 
mained enslaved. 

Fortune,  of  the  Bruti  do  I  complain7.  Why  have  we 
framed  the  periods  of  our  laws,  or  why  made  the  years  to 

1  Advancing  towards  the  two  poles)  ver.  422.  In  her  victories  approached 
to  both  the  northern  and  southern  poles. 

3  Equal  to  all  these  years)  ver.  426.  "  Par  omnibus  annis."  "  Able  in 
its  results  to  overthrow  the  work  of  so  many  ages." 

3  Caused  that  India  does  not  shudder)  ver.  428.    This  disaster  has  cut  short 
the  victorious  progress  of  Rome,  and  India  needs  not  fear  being  subjugated. 

4  She  does  not  lead  tf<*  Dakce)  ver.  429.     See  the  Second  Book,  1.  296, 
and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

*  No  tightly-girt  Consul  presses  on)  ver.  430.  He  probably  refers  to  the 
custom  of  the  Roman  Consul,  in  the  Gabinian  habit,  marking  out  with  a 
plough  drawn  by  a  cow  and  a  bull  the  trenches  for  the  foundations  of  the 
walls  of  a  new  city  in  the  subjugated  country.  Burmann  thinks  that  the 
passage  bears  reference  to  the  custom  of  ploughing  over  the  surface  of  con- 
quered cities  which  had  been  razed  to  the  ground,  but  the  expression  in  the 
previous  line,  "  in  moenia  ducat,"  seems  to  forbid  such  a  construction  being 
put  upon  the  passage. 

6  At  hazard  of  our  throats)  ver.  434.     "  Jugulo."     "With  the  throat 
presented  to  the  sword;"  or,  "at  the  hazard  of  our  lives." 

7  Of  the  Bruti  do  I  complain)  ver.  440.     He  complains  of  Lucius  Junius 
Brutus,  who,  by  the  expulsion  of  the  Tarquins,  had  introduced  liberty  into 
Borne. 


B.  vii.  441-459.]  PHAKSALIA.  273 

take  their  name  from  the  Consul  ?  Happy  the  Arabians, 
and  the  Medes,  and  the  Eastern  lands,  which  the  Fates 
have  kept  under  continued  tyrants.  Of  the  nations  which 
endure  rule  our  lot  is  the  last,  who  are  ashamed  to  be 
slaves.  Assuredly  we  have  no  Divinities ;  whereas  ages 
are  hurried  along  by  blind  chance,  we  falsely  allege  that 
Jupiter  reigns.  Will  he  look  down  from  the  lofty  skies 
upon  the  Thessalian  carnage,  while  he  is  wielding  the 
lightnings1?  Will  he,  forsooth,  hurl  at  Pholoe,  hurl  at  (Eta 
with  his  flames,  the  groves,  too,  of  the  guiltless  Rhodope, 
and  the  pine-woods  of  Mimas ~,  shall  Cassius,  in3  prefer- 
ence, smite  this  head?  The  stars  against  Thyestes  did  he 
urge  on,  and  condemn  Argos  to  sudden  night4;  shall  he 
afford  the  light  of  day  to  Thessaly  that  wields  the  kindred 
swords  so  numerous  of  brothers  and  of  parents  ? 

Mortal  affairs  are  cared  for  by  no  God.  Still  for  this 
slaughter  do  we  obtain  satisfaction,  as  much  as  it  is  proper 
for  the  Deities  to  give  to  the  earth.  The  civil  wars  will 
create  Divinities5  equal  to  the  Gods  of  heaven.  The  shades 
will  Rome  adorn0  with  lightnings  and  with  rays  and  stars; 

1  While  Tie  is  wielding  the  lightnings)  ver.  447-8.     "  Is  it  credible  that 
Jupiter  will  rather  hurl  his  thunders  against  these  mountains  than  against 
the  Pharsalian  plains  or  the  guilty  head  of  Caesar?" 

2  The  pine-woods  of  Mimas)  ver.  450.     Mimas  was  a  mountain  of  Ionia, 
near  Colophon,  and  opposite  to  the  Isle  of  Chios.     It  was  sacred  to  Bac- 
chus. 

3  Shall  Cassius,  in)  ver.  451.    He  alludes  to  Caius  Cassius  Longinus,  one 
of  the  murderers  of  Caesar,  who  was  a  violent  partisan  of  the  Pompeian  fac- 
tion, and  was  forgiven  by  Coesar,  the  man  whom  he  afterwards  murdered : 
he  must  not  be  confounded  with  his  cousin  Quintus  Cassius  Longinus,  the 
tribune  of  the  people,  who  is  mentioned,  in  B.  ii.  1.  266,  as  leaving  Rome  to 
join  Caesar. 

4  Condemn  Argot  to  sudden  night)  ver.  451-2.     Did  Jupiter  hurry  on 
the  night  at  Argos  on  beholding  the  crime  committed  by  Atreus  against 
Thyestes  ]     See  B.  i.  1.  544,  and  the  Note  to  the  passage. 

*  The  civil  wars  will  create  Divinities)  ver.  457.  This  is  probably  said  in 
a  spirit  of  sarcasm  against  Nero.  He  says  that  one  result  of  the  Civil  War, 
and  indeed  a  just  punishment  of  the  Gods,  is  the  deification  of  mortals,  in 
allusion  to  the  practice  of  deifying  the  Roman  emperors,  which  began  with 
Julius  Caesar. 

8  The  shades  will  Rome  adorn)  ver.  458.  One  of  the  Scholiasts  says  that 
Ca?sar  was  represented  in  his  Temple  arrayed  in  the  habit  of  Jove,  and 
as  wearing  rays  in  resemblance  of  the  sun..  It  is,  however,  more  probable 
that  Lucan  refers  to  the  lightnings  and  the  comet  which  appeared  at  the  time 
of  the  death  of  Caesar,  and  which  were  supposed  to  signify  his  deification. 

v  T 


^74  PHAliSALIA.  [B.  vii.  459-471. 

and  in  the  temples  of  the  Gods  will  she  swear  by  the 
shades  of  men. 

When  with  a  rapid  step  they  have  now  passed  over  the 
space  that  delays  the  closing  moments  of  destiny,  separated 
by  a  small  strip  of  ground,  thence  do  they  look  upon  the 
bands  and  seek  to  recognise  their  features,  where  their  jave- 
lins are  to  fall,  or  what  fate  is  threatening  themselves,  what 
monstrous  deeds  they  are  to  perpetrate.  Parents  they  be- 
hold with  faces  fronting  them,  and  the  arms  of  brothers  in 
hostile  array,  nor  do  they  choose  to  change  their  positions  *. 
Still,  a  numbness  binds  all  their  breasts;  and  the  cold 
blood,  their  feelings  of  affection  smitten,  congeals  hi  their 
vitals ;  and  whole  cohorts  for  a  long  time  hold  the  javelins 
hi  readiness  with  outstretched  arms. 

May  the  Gods  send  thee,  Crasttnus2,  not  the  death 
which  is  prepared  as  a  punishment  for  all,  but  after  thy 
end  sensation  in  thy  death,  hurled  by  whose  hand  the 

Indeed,  the  comet,  which  appeared  for  seven  days,  was  supposed  to  be  the 
spirit  of  Caesar  received  into  the  heavens.  See  the  History  of  Suetonius, 
Caesar,  c.  88 ;  the  Eclogues  of  Virgil,  ix.  1.  47 ;  the  Epistles  of  Horace, 
B.  ii.  Ep.  1.  1. 16 ;  and  the  Metamorphoses  of  Ovid,  B.  xv.  L  841,  et  seq. 

1  Nor  do  they  choose  to  change  their  positions)  ver.  466.  So  bent  on  each 
other's  destruction  are  they  that  no  one  is  desirous  to  change  his  place, 
and  thereby  avoid  collision  with  a  parent  or  a  brother.  May  seems  to  be 
wrong  in  his  translation  of  this  passage,  as  he  renders  "  nee  libuit  mutare 
locum,"  "  yet  would  not  change  their  side." 

*  May  'the  Gods  send  thee,  Crastinus)  ver.  470-1.  This  Crastinus  was  an 
old  soldier  of  Caesar,  who  had  been  "  emeritus,"  or  discharged  from  service, 
but  was  now  serving  as  a  volunteer  in  his  army.  Caesar,  in  the  Civil 
War,  B.  iii.  c.  91,  thus  relates  the  circumstance  here  alluded  to  : — "  There 
was  in  Caesar's  army  a  volunteer  of  the  name  of  Crastinus,  who  the  year 
before  had  been  first  centurion  of  the  tenth  legion,  a  man  of  distinguished 
bravery.  He,  when  the  signal  was  given,  said,  '  Follow  me,  my  old 
comrades,  and  display  such  exertions  in  behalf  of  your  general  as  you  have 
resolved  to  display  ;  this  is  our  last  battle,  and  when  it  shall  have  been  won, 
he  will  recover  his  dignity,  and  we  our  liberty.'  At  the  same  time  he 
looked  back  towards  Caesar,  and  said,  '  General,  I  will  act  in  such  a  man- 
ner to-day,  that  you  will  feel  grateful  to  me,  living  or  dead.1  After  utter- 
ing these  words  he  was  the  first  to  charge  on  the  right  wing,  and  about  one 
hundred  and  twenty  chosen  volunteers  of  the  same  century  followed."  In 
c.  94,  Caesar  says,  "  In  this  battle,  Crastinus,  of  whom  mention  was  made 
before,  fighting  most  courageously,  lost  his  life  by  the  wound  of  a  sword  in 
the  mouth;  nor  was  that* false  which  he  declared  when  marching  to  battle; 
for  Caesar  entertained  the  highest  opinion  of  his  behaviour  in  that  battle, 
and  thought  him  most  deserving  of  his  approbation." 


e.  vn.  471-401.]  PHARSALIA.  275 

javelin  commenced  the  battle,  and  first  stained  Thessaly 
with  Roman  blood.  0  headlong  frenzy,  when  Ceesar  with- 
held the  darts,  was  there  found  any  hand  more  forward ! 
Then  was  the  resounding  air  rent  by  clarions1,  and  the 
battle  call  given  by  the  cornet ;  then  did  the  trumpets  pre- 
sume to  give  the  signal;  then  did  a  crash  reach  the  skies, 
and  burst  upon  the  arched  top  of  loftiest  Olympus,  from 
which  the  clouds  are  far  removed,  and  whither  no  light- 
nings last  to  penetrate.  With  its  re-echoing  valleys  Heemus 
received  die  noise,  and  gave  it  to  the  caves  of  Pelion  again 
to  redouble ;  Pindus  sent  forth  the  uproar,  and  the  rocks  of 
Pangoeum  resounded,  and  the  crags  of  (Eta  groaned,  and 
the  sounds  of  their  own  fury  did  they  dread  re-echoed 
throughout  all  the  land. 

Darts  innumerable  are  scattered  abroad  with  various 
intents.  Some  wish  for  wounds,  some  to  fix  the  javelins 
in  the  earth,  and  to  keep  their  hands  hi  purity.  Chance 
hurries  everything  on,  and  uncertain  Fortune  makes  those 
guilty,  whom  she  chooses.  But  how  small  a  part2  of  the 
slaughter  is  perpetrated  with  javelins  and  flying  weapons ! 
For  civil  hatred  the  sword  alone  suffices,  and  guides  right 

1  The  resounding  air  rent  by  clarions)  ver.  476-7.  In  these  two  lines  he 
makes  mention  of  the  "  lituus"  or  "clarion,"  the  "cornn,"  "cornet "  or  "  horn," 
and  the  "  tuba  "  or  "  trumpet."  "  Cornu  "  seems  to  have  been  a  general 
name  for  the  horn  or  trumpet,  but  here  it  probably  means  the  same  as  the 
"  buccina  "  mentioned  in  B.  ii.  1.  689,  which  see,  with  the  Note  to  the  pas- 
sage. The  "tuba"  was  a  straight  trumpet,  while  the  "  lituus"  assumed  a 
spiral  shape.  Lydus  says  that  the  "lituus"  was  the  sacerdotal  trumpet, 
and  that  it  was  employed  by  Komulus  when  he  proclaimed  the  title  of  his 
newly-founded  city.  Aero  says  that  it  was  peculiar  to  the  cavalry,  while 
the  "  tuba"  belonged  to  the  infantry.  The  notes  of  the  "  lituus"  are  usually 
described  as  being  harsh  and  shrill. 

3  But  how  small  a  part)  ver.  489.  Caesar  says,  in  the  Civil  War, 
B.  iii.  c.  93  : — "  Our  men,  when  the  signal  was  given,  rushed  forward  with 
their  javelins  ready  to  be  launched,  but  perceiving  that  Pompey's  men  did 
not  run  to  meet  their  charge,  having  acquired  experience  by  custom,  and 
being  practised  in  former  battles,  they  of  their  own  accord  repressed  their 
speed,  and  halted  almost  midway,  that  they  might  not  come  up  with  the 
enemy  when  their  strength  was  exhausted,  and  after  a  short  respite,  they 
again  renewed  their  course,  and  threw  their  javelins,  and  instantly  drew 
their  swords,  as  Caesar  had  ordered  them.  Nor  did  Pompey's  men  fail  at 
this  critical  moment,  for  they  received  our  javelins,  stood  our  charge,  and 
maintained  their  ranks ;  and,  having  launched  their  javelins,  had  recourse  to 
their  swords." 

T   2 


276  PHAKSALIA.  [B.  vn.  491-515. 

hands  to  Roman  vitals.  The  ranks  of  Pompey,  densely 
disposed  in  deep  bodies,  joined  their  arms,  their  shields 
closed  together  in  a  line1;  and,  hardly  able  to  find  room, 
for  moving  their  right  hands  and  their  darts,  they  stood 
close,  and,  wedged  together,  kept  their  swords  sheathed. 

With  headlong  course  the  furious  troops  of  Caesar  are 
impelled  against  the  dense  masses,  and,  through  arms, 
through  the  foe  do  they  seek  a  passage.  Where  the  twisted 
coat  of  mail-  presents  its  links,  and  the  breast,  beneath 
a  safe  covering,  lies  concealed,  even  here  do  they  reach 
the  entrails,  and  amid  so  many  arms  it  is  the  vitals 
which  each  one  pierces.  Civil  war  does  the  one  army 
suffer,  the  other  wage ;  on  the  one  hand  the  sword  stands 
chilled,  on  Caesar's  side  every  guilty  weapon  waxes  hot. 
Nor  is  Fortune  long,  overthrowing  the  weight  of  des- 
tinies so  vast,  in  sweeping  away  the  mighty  ruins,  fate 
rushing  on. 

When  first  the  cavalry  of  Pompey3  extended  his  wings 
over  the  whole  plain,  and  poured  them  forth  along  the  ex- 
tremities of  the  battle,  the  light-armed  soldiers,  scattered 
along  the  exterior  of  the  maniples,  followed,  and  sent  forth 
their  ruthless  bands  against  the  foe.  There,  each  nation 
is  mingling  in  the  combat  with  weapons  its  own  ;  Roman 
blood  is  sought  by  all.  On  the  one  side  arrows,  on  the 
other  torches  and  stones  are  flying,  and  plummets,  melting 
in  the  tract  of  air  and  liquefied  with  their  heated  masses*. 
Then  do  both  Iturseans,  and  Medians,  and  Arabians,  a 

1  Their  shields  closed  together  in  a  line)  ver.  493.  "  Nexis  umbonibus  " 
probably  does  not  mean  that  their  shields  were  fastened  together,  but  that 
they  stood  in  close  and  serried  ranks  in  one  continued  line. 

4  W/tere  the  tiristed  coat  of  mail)  ver.  498.  He  alludes  to  the  flexible 
cuirasses  or  hauberks  of  chain  mail  which  were  worn  by  the  Roman 
"  hastati  "  or  spearmen  ;  probably  such  as  are  mentioned  by  Virgil  as  made 
of  rings,  linked  or  hooked  into  one  another. 

3  Where  first  the  cavalry  of  Pompey)  ver.  506.     This  part  of  the  battle 
is  thus  described  by  Caesar,  B.  iii.  c.  93 : — "  At  the  same  time  Pompey's 
horse,  according  to  their  orders,  rushed  forth  at  once  from  his  left  wing,  and 
his  whole  host  of  archers  poured  after  them.    Our  cavalry  did  not  withstand 
their  charge,  but  pave  ground  a  little,  upon  which  Pompey's  horse  pressed 
them  more  vigorously,  and  began  to  file  off  in  troops  and  flank  our  army." 

4  Liquejied  with  their  heated  masses)  ver.  513.  It  was  a  notion  of  the  ancients 
that  the  stones  or  metal  plummets  discharged  from  their  slings  became  red- 
hot  in  their  course,  from  the  swiftness  of  their  motion,  and  they  occasionally 


B.  vii.  515-528.]  PHARSALIA.  277 

multitude  threatening  with  loosened  bow,  never  aim  their 
arrows,  but  the  ah-  alone  is  sought  which  impends  over  the 
plain ;  thence  fall  various  deaths.  But  with  no  criminality 
of  guilt1  do  they  stain  the  foreign  steel;  around  the  jave- 
lins stands  collected  all  the  guiltiness-.  With  weapons 
the  heaven  is  concealed,  and  a  night,  wrought  by  the  darts, 
hovers  over  the  fields. 

Then  did  Caesar,  fearing  lest  his  front  rank  mightbe  shaken 
by  the  onset,  keep  in  reserve  some  cohorts  in  an  oblique 
position  behind  the  standards3,  and  on  the  sides  of  his  line, 
whither  the  enemy,  scattered  about,  was  betaking  himself, 
he  suddenly  sent  forth  a  column,  his  own  wings  unmoved. 
Unmindful  of  the  fight,  and  to  be  feared  by  reason  of  no 
sense  of  shame,  they  openly  took  to  flight;  not  well  icas 
civil  warfare  ever  entrusted  to  barbarian  troops.  As  soon 

went  so  far  as  to  assert  that  they  melted  and  disappeared  entirely.  Thus, 
Ovid  says  in  the  Metamorphoses,  B.  ii.  1.  727,  et  seq. : — "  As  when  the  Ba- 
learic sling  throws  forth  the  plummet  of  lead ;  it  flies  and  becomes  red-hot  in 
its  course,  and  finds  beneath  the  clouds  the  fires  which  it  had  not  before ; " 
and  B.  xiv.  1.  826 : — "  Just  as  the  leaden  plummet,  discharged  from  the 
broad  sling,  is  wont  to  dissolve  itself  in  mid-air."  The  "  glandes,"  or 
"  plummets "  mentioned  by  Lucan,  were  called  in  Greek,  ^Ay/JS/Ssf,  and 
were  of  a  form  between  acorns  and  almonds,  cast  in  moulds.  They  have 
been  frequently  dug  up  in  various  parts  of  Greece,  and  particularly  on  the 
.plains  of  Marathon.  Some  have  the  device  of  a  thunderbolt,  while  others 
are  inscribed  with  5s|a<,  "  take  this." 

1  Hut  with  no  criminality  of  yuilt)  ver.  517.     The  weapons  used  by  the 
foreign  nations  are  exempt  from  the  criminality  of  destroying  fellow-citizens. 

2  Stands  collected  all  the  guiltiness)  ver.  519.     All  the  wickedness  of  the 
warfare  is  confined  to  the  "  pilum,"  or  the  javelin  used  especially  by  the  llo- 
jnan  soldiers.     See  the  Note  to  B.  i.  1.  7. 

3  In  an  oblique  position  behind  the  standards)  ver.  522.     It  appears  from 
the  expression  "  obliqua,"  that  Caesar  had  placed  these  reserved  cohorts  at 
right  angles  to  his  other  three  lines ;  probably  keeping  them  in  the  back- 
ground, and  not  in  extended  line,  that  they  might  take  the  cavalry  of  Pompey 
by  surprise,  wheeling  round  and  flanking  them.  The  account  given  by  Lucan 
is  not  easy  to  be  understood,  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  that  of  Caesar,  in 
the  Civil  War,  B.  iii.  c.  93 : — "  When  Caesar  perceived  this,  he  gave  the 
.signal  to  his  fourth  b'ne,  which  he  had  formed  of  the  six  cohorts.     They  in- 
stantly rushed  forward  and  charged  Pompey's  horse  with  such  fury,  that  not 
.a  man  of  them  stood  his  ground;  but  all,  wheeling  about,  not  only  quitted 
their  post,  but  galloped  forward  to  seek  a  refuge  in  the  highest  grounds.    By 
their  retreat,  the  archers  and  slingers,  being  left  destitute  and  defenceless, 
were  all  cut  to  pieces.     The  cohorts,  pursuing  their  success,  wheeled  about 
upon  Pompey's  left  wing,  whilst  his  infantry  still  continued  to  make  buttle, 
and  attacked  them  in  the  rear." 


278  PHARSALIA.  [B.  m  328-553. 

as  the  charger,  his  breast  pierced  with  the  weapon,  trod 
upon  the  limbs  of  the  rider  hurled  upon  his  head,  each 
horseman  fled  from  the  field,  and,  crowded  together,  turning 
bridle,  the  youths  rushed  on  upon  their  own  ranks.  Then 
did  the  carnage  lose  all  bounds,  and  it  was  no  battle  that 
ensued,  but  on  the  one  hand  with  their  throats 1,  on  the  other 
with  the  sword,  the  war  was  waged ;  nor  was  the  one  army 
able  to  lay  low  as  many  as  were  able  to  perish  on  the  other 
side. 

Would  that,  Pharsalia,  for  thy  plains  that  blood  which 
barbarian  breasts  pour  forth  would  suffice :  that  the  streams 
might  be  changed  by  no  other  gore;  that  this  throng  nii^lit 
for  thee  cover  whole  fields  with  bones ;  or  if  thou  dost  prefer 
to  be  glutted  with  Roman  blood,  spare  the  others,  I  en- 
treat ;  let  the  Galatians  and  Syrians  li ve,  the  Cappadocians 
and  the  Gauls,  and  the  Iberians  from  the  extremity  of  the 
world,  the  Armenians  and  the  Cilicians ;  for  after  the  civil 
wars  these  will  form  the  Roman  people.  Once  commenced, 
the  panic  reaches  all,  and  to  the  Fates  is  an  i